Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Geraldo Rivera is an American tabloid talk show host, reporter and author. He was the host of the talk show Geraldo from 1987 to 1998. Rivera hosted the newsmagazine program Geraldo at Large, hosts the occasional broadcast of Geraldo Rivera Reports, appears on Fox News programs such as The Five. Rivera was born at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City, New York, the son of Lillian and Cruz "Allen" Rivera, a restaurant worker and cab driver respectively. Rivera's father was a Puerto Rican Catholic, his mother was of Russian Jewish descent, he had a Bar Mitzvah ceremony. He grew up in New York, where he attended West Babylon High School. Rivera's family was sometimes subjected to prejudice and racism, his mother took to spelling their surname as "Riviera" to avoid having bigotry directed at them; when I was born, my mother filled in my birth certificate with the name Gerald Riviera, adding an extra "i" to my father's surname. She did the same thing for my sister Irene, she would drop the pretense for my sister Sharon, only to pick it up again with the birth of my baby brother Craig.
Whenever we asked about the inconsistencies, she would joke her way out of it. "I just forgot how to spell it," she would say, leave it at that. Underneath, I came to realize, she was embarrassed over what was a clumsy attempt at an ethnic cover-up. From September 1961 to May 1963, he attended the State University of New York Maritime College, where he was a member of the rowing team. In 1965, Rivera graduated from the University of Arizona with a B. S. in business administration. Following a series of jobs ranging from clothing salesman to short-order cook, Rivera enrolled at Brooklyn Law School in 1966; as a law student, he held internships with the New York County District Attorney under legendary crime-fighter Frank Hogan and Harlem Assertion of Rights before receiving his J. D. near the top of his class in 1969. He held a Reginald Heber Smith Fellowship in poverty law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School in the summer of 1969 before being admitted to the New York State Bar that year.
After working with such organizations as the lower Manhattan-based Community Action for Legal Services and the National Lawyers Guild, Rivera became a frequent attorney for the Puerto Rican activist group, the Young Lords precipitating his entry into private practice. This work attracted the attention of WABC-TV news director Al Primo when Rivera was interviewed about the group's occupation of an East Harlem church in 1969. Primo offered Rivera a job as a reporter but was unhappy with the first name "Gerald" so they agreed to go with the pronunciation used by the Puerto Rican side of Rivera's family: Geraldo. Due to his dearth of journalistic experience, ABC arranged for Rivera to study introductory broadcast journalism under Fred Friendly in the Ford Foundation-funded Summer Program in Journalism for Members of Minority Groups at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism in 1970. Rivera was hired by WABC-TV in 1970 as a reporter for Eyewitness News. In 1972, he garnered national attention and won a Peabody Award for his report on the neglect and abuse of patients with intellectual disabilities at Staten Island's Willowbrook State School, he began to appear on ABC national programs such as 20/20 and Nightline upon their launches in 1978 and 1979 respectively.
After John Lennon watched Rivera's report on the patients at Willowbrook, he and Rivera put on a benefit concert called "One to One" on August 30, 1972, at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Around this time, Rivera began hosting ABC's Good Night America, a late night newsmagazine which aired as part of the ABC's Wide World of Entertainment program block; the show featured the famous refrain from Arlo Guthrie's hit "City of New Orleans" as the theme. Good Night America tackled controversial topics of the era, including marijuana usage and the status of Vietnam War draft dodgers. A 1975 episode of the program, featuring Dick Gregory and Robert J. Groden, showed the first national telecast of the historic Zapruder film. On May 19, 1983, Rivera broadcast the first U. S. network television mention of AIDS, interviewing on 20/20 New York City lighting designer Ken Ramsauer. Ramsauer died aged 27, four days later. In October 1987, ABC's Roone Arledge refused to air a report done by Sylvia Chase for 20/20 on the relationship between Marilyn Monroe and John and Robert Kennedy.
Rivera publicly criticized Arledge's journalistic integrity, claiming that his friendship with the Kennedy family had caused him to spike the story. During a Fox News interview with Megyn Kelly aired May 15, 2015, Rivera stated the official reason given for the firing was that he violated ABC policy when he donated $200 to a non-partisan mayoral race candidate. On April 21, 1986, Rivera hosted The Mystery of Al Capone's Vaults; the special broadcast was billed as the unearthing of Capone's secret vaults located under the old Lexington Hotel in Chicago. Millions of people watched the 2-hour show, but all that they uncovered was di
Howard Alan Kurtz is an American journalist and author best known for his coverage of the media. Kurtz is the successor to Fox News Watch, he is the former media writer for The Washington Post and the former Washington bureau chief for The Daily Beast. He has written five books about the media. Kurtz left CNN and joined Fox News in 2013. Kurtz was born to a Jewish family in the Sheepshead Bay neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, the son of Marcia, a homemaker, Leonard Kurtz, a clothing executive, he is a graduate of the University at Buffalo. In college he worked on the Spectrum, becoming the editor his senior year, he attended the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. After college, Kurtz went to work for the Record in New Jersey, he moved to Washington D. C. to work as a reporter for syndicated columnist Jack Anderson. Kurtz left Anderson to join an afternoon paper; when the newspaper closed in 1981, Kurtz was hired at The Washington Post by Bob Woodward the Metro editor. Kurtz has written for The New Republic, The Washington Monthly, New York magazine.
Kurtz joined the staff of The Washington Post in 1981 and left in 2010. He served there as a national affairs correspondent, New York bureau chief and deputy national editor. Kurtz covered the news media between 1990-2010 for The Washington Post. From 1998 until 2013, Kurtz served as host of the weekly CNN program Reliable Sources, a cable television program that explores the standards and biases of the media. Kurtz led the scrutinizing of the media's fairness and objectivity by questioning journalists of top news organizations, including those at CNN; the show premiered in 1992 when it originated as a one-hour special to discuss the media's coverage of the Persian Gulf War. In October 2010, Kurtz announced, he served as the Washington bureau chief for the website, writing on media and politics until 2013. His salary at The Daily Beast was reported to be $600,000 a year. On May 2, 2013, the site's editor-in-chief Tina Brown announced that Kurtz and The Daily Beast had "parted company", it occurred in the aftermath of a controversy in which Kurtz incorrectly accused NBA player Jason Collins of failing to acknowledge a former heterosexual engagement when he came out as a homosexual, but Kurtz stated the parting was mutual and "in the works for some time".
Sources inside the Daily Beast newsroom have stated that Kurtz's departure became inevitable once he began writing for and promoting a lesser-known media website called Daily Download. Brown said on Twitter she fired Kurtz for "serial inaccuracy". On June 20, 2013, Kurtz left CNN to join Fox News Channel to host a weekend media program and write a column for FoxNews.com. Kurtz's Media Buzz replaced. Media Circus: The Trouble with America's Newspapers ) identifies problems afflicting U. S. offers suggestions. Among issues identified are timid leadership, a spreading tabloid approach to news with a growing focus on celebrities and personal scandal, poor coverage of racial issues and the Persian Gulf war, increasing bureaucracy and a pasteurization of the news. Hot Air: All Talk, All the Time describes failings of the talk-show and political talk-show format as it had been proliferating on television and radio; some problems he identifies include superficiality, hysteria, lack of preparation and conflicts of interest.
Spin Cycle: Inside the Clinton Propaganda Machine describes various techniques used by the Clinton White House to put spin the controversies and scandals surrounding the Clintons and to refocus the attention of the media on topics other than non-issues focused on by the media. The Fortune Tellers: Inside Wall Street's Game of Money and Manipulation addresses the growing public fascination with stock market trading as fueled by cable television shows and internet sites providing platforms to pundits, stock touts, brokerage firm stock analysts; the potential for manipulation of the media and the public by stock market insiders is discussed. Reality Show: Inside the Last Great Television News War, chronicles the struggles at TV networks ABC, NBC and CBS to enhance the stature and audience draw of their anchors of the evening network news programs; the book's focus is on CBS's Katie Couric and NBC's Brian Williams. Media Madness: Donald Trump, The Press, And The War Over The Truth, released in January 2018, discusses Donald Trump's ongoing fights with the news media during the first year of his presidency.
The book argues. According to a review by Jonathan Chait in New York Magazine, "To Kurtz... the “massive imbalance” between Trump’s coverage and coverage of other presidents can only be explained by media bias. He treats this premise as definitionally true — not defending it outright, but building his case as though no other explanation could theoretically exist, and so the strange mission of his book is to analyze the hostile relationship between Trump and the mainstream news media without in any way acknowledging that Trump lies on a historic scale, or has in any other way departed from the historic norms of presidential behavior." Kurtz has publicly declined to state his political affiliation. As a high-profile media critic and analyst, Kurtz's political leanings and multiple employers and possible biases have been discussed by fellow media critics and pundits. Both liberal and conservative viewpoints have b
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
The Joe Rogan Experience
The Joe Rogan Experience is a free audio and video podcast hosted by American comedian, sports commentator, television host Joe Rogan. It was launched on December 24, 2009 by Rogan and comedian Brian Redban who produced and co-hosted, it is the #2 on the list of Apple's most-downloaded podcasts of 2018 and has grown to become one of the world's most popular podcasts. Around 2003, Rogan hired Brian Redban, a self-taught video editor and an employee at a Gateway computer store in Ohio, to work for him full time to film and edit videos for his website, he started to produce videos for Doug Stanhope, which led to Rogan offering him trips to film at his own stand-up gigs. Redban accepted Rogan's offer to work with him, relocated to California in the process, following Rogan with a camera "and recording everything". After several years, Redban said that Rogan's fans were wanting more content and for it to be delivered faster. To meet these demands, the crew began to seek out new ways of making the lengthy editing process quicker and the program itself more interactive for the audience.
Coupled with his interest in popular live video streaming services of the time, Redban wanted "to do the same thing I was filming, but live", set up live streams on Justin.tv from the green room at Rogan's comedy gigs. Following several broadcasts, Rogan suggested to host a live stream with Redban from his home and talk to fans in a chat room, using the audio of the video stream as a podcast. Redban had no prior experience with audio engineering, so he taught himself how to operate the mixing board and microphone setups. Rogan and Redban recorded the first episode on December 24, 2009, which took the form of a live weekly broadcast on Ustream with the two "sitting in front of laptops bullshitting". Early episodes featured a snowflake effect, incorporated into the video stream that they revisited in 2015 in episode #674 and in 2017 to commemorate episode #1000; the first guest on the podcast was comedian Ari Shaffir who appeared on the third episode broadcast on January 6, 2010. The podcast had its first sponsor in the sex toy production company Fleshlight, a partnership that began in May 2010 and lasted until mid-2012 when the company claimed it had saturated their market.
By August 2010, the podcast was named The Joe Rogan Experience and was recorded several times a week. In May 2011, Rogan secured a deal with SiriusXM, a subscription-based satellite radio service, to have the podcast air on its talk channel The Virus. In 2013, Redban started to reduce his time as the podcast's sole producer, he explained in the following year that Rogan had started to record multiple podcasts in a day, "and it got to the point where wanted to keep on going, seven hours" which became too much work for him to handle by himself. As a result, Jamie Vernon was hired as a second producer as Redban's assistant, to fill in, leaving Redban to produce "about half of the episodes". Vernon soon became the sole producer, with Redban subsequently appearing on the podcast as a guest; the podcast was recorded at Rogan's home in California. From November 24, 2011, some episodes were recorded at the Ice House Comedy Club in Pasadena, California known as the Deathsquad Studios. Since November 27, 2012, the majority of episodes have been recorded in a private studio that Rogan acquired in the Woodland Hills area of Los Angeles.
The 1,000th episode aired on August 18, 2017 and featured comedians Joey Diaz and Tom Segura as guests. The podcast has become one of the most popular in the world. In August 2010, nine months after its launch, it entered the list of Top 100 podcasts on iTunes; the podcast was voted Best Comedy Podcast of 2012 by users of iTunes. In February 2014, the podcast won a Stitcher Award for Best Overall Show of 2013. In January 2015, the podcast was listened to by over 11 million people. By October 2015, it had grown to acquire 16 million downloads a month. In January 2019, the podcast won Best Comedy Podcast at the iHeartRadio Podcast Awards. Official website The Joe Rogan Experience on IMDb
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Show business, sometimes shortened to show biz or showbiz, is a vernacular term for all aspects of the entertainment industry. From the business side, the term applies to the creative element and was in common usage throughout the 20th century, although the first known use in print dates from 1850. At that time and for several decades, it included an initial the. By the latter part of the century, it had acquired a arcane quality associated with the era of variety, but the term is still in active use. In modern entertainment industry, it is associated with the fashion industry and acquiring intellectual property rights from the invested research in the entertainment business; the global media and entertainment market, including motion pictures, television programs and commercials, streaming content and audio recordings, radio, book publishing, video games, ancillary services and products) was worth $1.72 trillion in 2015, $1.9 trillion in 2016, with extrapolations ranging to $2.14 trillion by 2020.
About one third of the total is made up by the U. S. entertainment industry, the largest M&E in the world. The entertainment sector can be split up into the following subsectors: Amusement parks Animation Circus Event management Film Gambling Game manufacturers Home video and home video distributors Music Sex business Talent agency Theatre production The industry segment is covered by class "R" of the International Standard Industrial Classification: "Arts and recreation" Creative industries Cultural industry Cultural technology Light entertainment List of show business families Outline of entertainment This Is Show Business, television series running from 1949 to 1956 Show Business magazine, since 1941 "There's No Business Like Show Business"