AFL Grand Final
The AFL Grand Final is an annual Australian rules football match, traditionally held on the final Saturday in September at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Melbourne, Australia, to determine the Australian Football League premiers for that year. The game has become significant to Australian culture, spawning a number of traditions and surrounding activities which have grown in popularity since the interstate expansion of the Victorian Football League in the 1980s and the subsequent creation of the national AFL competition in the 1990s; the 2006 Sweeney Sports Report concluded that the AFL Grand Final has become Australia's most important sporting event, with the largest attendance, metropolitan television audience and overall interest of any annual Australian sporting event. The winning club of the grand final receives the premiership flag. All players in the winning team receive a gold premiership medallion; every club has played in the grand final, with the exception of the two recent expansion clubs, Gold Coast and Greater Western Sydney, two former clubs, the short-lived University and Brisbane Bears.
The concept of a "grand" final evolved from experimentation by the Victorian Football League in the initial years of competition following its inception in 1897. During the 19th century, Australian football competition adopted the approach that the team on top of the ladder at the end of the home-and-away series was declared the premiers. However, the fledgling VFL decided that a finals series played between the top four teams at the end of the season would generate more interest and gate money. For 1897, the VFL scheduled a round robin tournament whereby the top four played each other once and the team that won the most matches was declared the winner. However, this method had flaws, so the VFL continued to experiment, playing "section" matches after the regular season and a finals series where first on the ladder played the third team and second met fourth; the winners of these "semi" finals met in a final to decide the premiership. The first such final was contested in 1898 between the Essendon Football Club and Fitzroy Football Club at the St Kilda Cricket Ground, which Fitzroy won scoring 5.8 to Essendon's 3.5.
The second finals format was discarded by the VFL after the unsatisfactory conclusion to the 1900 VFL season, where Melbourne won the premiership after having finished sixth out of the eight teams after the home-and-away season with a record of 6-8. The new finals system caused problems in 1901 when Geelong finished on top of the ladder but was eliminated when defeated in the semi final. A "right of challenge" was introduced, giving the team that finished on top at the end of the regular season the right to challenge if they lost the semi final or the final; this challenge match came to be called the "grand final". The first four grand finals were scattered around various Melbourne venues: one at Albert Park, two at St Kilda's Junction Oval and one at the East Melbourne Cricket Ground; the selection of the venue could depend on the portion of the gate demanded by the ground's landlords. The public remained ambivalent to the concept of finals football until the VFL pulled off a coup in 1902; the MCG was unavailable to football in the early spring months as it was being prepared for the coming cricket season.
The VFL convinced the Melbourne Cricket Club to rent the ground for the finals series and the first grand final at what is today considered the home of the game attracted more than 35,000 people to watch Collingwood down Essendon. The success of the finals at the MCG was proven with big attendances every year, soon all the major competitions around Australia were employing what was known as the "amended Argus system" of finals; the "original Argus system" had been instituted by the VFL in 1901, the amended system was instituted by the VFL in 1902. By 1908, a new record attendance of 50,261 was set, on a day when the crowd was so huge that it broke through the fence and filed onto the ground, sitting around the boundary line to watch the action; this figure was beaten in the 1912 Grand Final. The big finals crowds prompted the MCC to cut down the eleven fifty-year-old elm trees inside the ground and turn the stadium into a concrete bowl, complete with extra stands and standing room; the record fell again in the last grand final before World War I, when the excitement of St Kilda's first premiership attempt drew 59,479 spectators.
The war had a considerable effect on the impact of the grand final and attendances plummeted. One critic called for the Carlton team to receive the Iron Cross after they defeated Collingwood in the thrilling 1915 Grand Final dubbed a "glorious contest" by famous coach Jack Worrall, but many diggers supported the continuance of the game, both the 1918 and 1919 grand finals were notable for the large number of Australian servicemen in attendance, many of whom wore uniform. During the 1920s, the VFL grappled with the problems associated with the "amended Argus system" that a true grand final was not played if the minor premier won both the semi final and the final. Although new attendance records were set in 1920 and 1922, these were for the semi finals, which drew bigger crowds than the grand final. There was no grand final in 1924; the league reverted to the "amended Argus system" for 1925, when t
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
Filippina Lydia Arena known as Tina Arena, is an Australian singer-songwriter, musical theatre actress and record producer. She is one of Australia's highest selling female artists and has sold over 10 million records worldwide. Arena is an artist with the vocal range of a soprano and is multilingual: she sings live and records in English, Italian and Spanish. In April 2013, she was voted Australia's all-time greatest female singer, third-greatest singer overall, in an industry poll conducted by music journalist, Cameron Adams, for the Herald Sun. Time Out magazine gave a succinct description of Arena's voice as, "Tina Arena boasts two incredible assets - her voice and her versatility..." The Australian Broadcasting Corporation's monthly classical music and arts magazine, commented that, "Tina Arena is a performer with a supreme voice, boundless range and energy, charm to spare."Arena has earned several international and national awards, including seven ARIA Awards, two World Music Awards for'Best-selling Australian Artist', which she received in 1996 and in 2000.
In 2001, Arena was awarded a BMI Foundation Songwriting Award by the American performance rights organisation for co-writing "Burn" with Pam Reswick and Steve Werfel. In 2011, Arena became the first Australian to be awarded a Knighthood of the French National Order of National Merit, presented by the President of the French Republic, Nicolas Sarkozy, for her contributions to French culture, ceremonially awarded by Frédéric Mitterrand, the Minister of Culture and Communication of France. In 2012, Arena appeared as a judge and mentor on the revival of the Australian television variety programme Young Talent Time: the original Young Talent Time series had made her a household name in the 1970s and 1980s, as "Tiny Tina", which screened on Network Ten from 1971 to 1988. In October 2013, Arena released her first English album of original material in eleven years, titled Reset. In the same month, Arena published her first autobiography, titled Now I Can Dance, reprinted four times. In 2013, Arena participated in the 13th Australian series of Dancing with the Stars, reaching third place behind Cosentino and Rhiannon Fish.
In 2015, Arena was inducted into the Australian Recording Industry Association ARIA Hall of Fame at the 2015 ARIA Awards ceremony. On Australia Day, 26 January 2016, Arena was recognised in the Australia Day Honours and appointed a Member in the General Division of the Order of Australia "for significant service to the music industry as a singer and recording artist, as a supporter of charitable groups. On 27 April 2016, the Governor-General of Australia, Sir Peter Cosgrove, presented Tina Arena with her insignia as a Member of the Order of Australia at a private ceremony in Paris. To celebrate her 40 years in the music industry, Arena released a 31-track double compilation album called Greatest Hits & Interpretations on 7 April 2017, containing all her hits and covers of her songs by various international artists; this album is now her 8th Top 10 album in Australia. In April 2017, Arena announced her Innocence to Understanding Tour in conjunction with the release of her Greatest Hits & Interpretations, starting in concerts Brisbane on 6 September 2017, concluded in early October.
The title of the tour is a telling nod to her career journey, one of only a few artists, able to live four decades in music. On 21 August 2017, Opera Australia announced that Arena would be taking on the lead role of Eva Perón in the 2018 Australian touring production of Evita, with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics and book by Tim Rice, directed by Harold Prince, who has won an unprecedented 21 Tony Awards for directing on Broadway. Arena is cast opposite Paulo Szot, Brazilian operatic baritone, winner of a Tony Award for best actor on Broadway 2008, in the role of Juan Perón; the Evita Australian tour official opening night took place on 13 September 2018, at the Sydney Opera House in the Joan Sutherland Theatre, with the season running to 3 November 2018. The next venue on the Evita national tour leg will be at the Arts Centre Melbourne, from 5 December to 30 December 2018. Arena was born in the Melbourne suburb of Keilor East, to Giuseppe "Joe" Arena and Francesca "Franca" Catalfamo, Sicilian immigrants, in Melbourne on 1 November 1967.
Giuseppe was a rural worker in Sicily and a cane cutter in Cairns in 1955. By the following year he was a labourer in Melbourne and worked for Victorian Railways. Arena grew up in Keilor East, Victoria with two sisters and Silvana. At the age of eight, she was the flower girl at her cousin Gaetano's wedding, at the reception she urged her father to approach the host so that she could sing – Daryl Braithwaite's version of "You're My World" – it was her first public performance. Arena's family call her Pina, her shortened first name, she changed her first name from Filippina, to Tina, as her stage name becoming Tina Arena, when she appeared as a child performer on the national television talent show Young Talent Time in 1974, at age eight. For secondary schooling, she attended a Catholic girls college, St. Columba's College, Essendon, in Melbourne. Recalling her upbringing, Arena says, "It was a Italian household, it was a traditional household. There was a lot of love but there was a lot of discipline.
And there was no room for pretentiousness. There just wasn't." Arena received singing lessons from Voila Ritchie who recommended her to appear on a television talent quest and variety show, Young Talent Time, an
Up There Cazaly
"Up There Cazaly" is 1979 song by Mike Brady, written to promote Channel Seven's coverage of the Victorian Football League. It was first performed by the Two-Man Band, a duo of Brady and Peter Sullivan, has since become an unofficial anthem of Australian rules football; the title refers to early 20th century ruckman Roy Cazaly. Known for his prodigious leap, Cazaly formed a famous ruck combination with South Melbourne teammates Fred "Skeeter" Fleiter and Mark "Napper" Tandy, it was ruck rover Fleiter, the first to call "Up there, Cazaly!" when the ruckman flew for the ball. The catchcry was soon adopted by South Melbourne supporters and entered the Australian lexicon as a common phrase of encouragement. Released independently on Fable Records, the Two-Man Band's recording of the song became the largest-selling Australian single released up to that time, with over 250,000 copies sold; the song has been performed at many VFL/AFL Grand Finals by Brady himself. The song's tune has an unusual key scheme: the verses are in D major, the chorus is in F major, a distant, unrelated key for a popular song.
"Up there, Cazaly!" was used as a battle cry by Australian troops during World War II. It has been noted that Cazaly's distinctive surname most contributed to the phrase's enduring popularity; as one journalist noted, "'Up there, McKinnon' might not have taken off". Australian dramatist Ray Lawler included the phrase in his 1955 play Summer of the Seventeenth Doll when he had heroine Nancy use it on several occasions, most notably in a telegram with marked dramatic effect: "Up there, Cazaly. Lots of Love. Nance." "Up There Cazaly" "The Winner's March" When the South Melbourne Football Club relocated to Sydney as the rebranded Sydney Swans in 1982, the club changed its song to a rewritten version of "Up There Cazaly" entitled "Up There for Sydney". The song was poorly received and the club soon reverted to its original song, "Cheer, Cheer the Red and the White". In 1991, Collingwood great Lou Richards released a hip hop version of "Up There Cazaly" under his nickname Louie the Lip. On his 2007 album The World's Most Popular Pianist Plays Down Under Favorites, French pianist Richard Clayderman included a medley composed of "Up There Cazaly", "Tie Me Kangaroo Down Sport" and "A Pub With No Beer".
"Up There Cazaly" is featured in the 1980 film adaptation of David Williamson's play The Club. In 1981, Ian Turner and Leonie Sandercock published a history of the VFL titled Up Where, Cazaly?: The Great Australian Game. In an episode of the 1997 documentary series Race Around the World, "Up There Cazaly" is played over footage of John Safran streaking through Jerusalem in St Kilda colours. You Am. "Up There Calisi" is a satirical song released by TISM bassist Jock Cheese on his 2002 solo album Platter. Australian Idol finalist Shannon Noll gave his own rendition of the song at the 2011 North Melbourne Grand Final Breakfast. In 2014, Andrew Hansen of the comedy group The Chaser wrote a new version of "Up There Cazaly" for Fox Footy. In 2016, Australia Post launched a television advertising campaign set to a cover version of "Up There Cazaly", sung by people from different backgrounds in their own cultural style, it was affiliated with the AFL's Multicultural Round. In 1979, VFL star Ron Barassi described the track as "one of VFL football's real success stories" of the year, opined that it was "destined to go down in football history."
Ian Warden, a columnist for The Canberra Times, reported that he found himself singing the "banal confection" to himself all day, that it had "somehow made it to the summit of my subconscious Top Twenty, triumphing over the greatest hits of Wagner and of Berlioz. It is all too sinister."When asked which Australian song he would most like to cover, Spiderbait member Kram chose "Up There Cazaly", "because it's the'Bohemian Rhapsody' of footy songs". In an essay on her love–hate relationship with Australian football, comedian Catherine Deveny considers "Up There Cazaly" to be "schmaltzy" and "formulaic", but gives it reluctant praise: "The cloying lyrics and manipulative music would invoke involuntary goosebumps, teary eyes and a subsequent feeling of embarrassment; the rousing chord progressions, choirs in full flight, strings in octaves and timpani created a confected majesty that tapped into our animal brains."The song ranked 4th in the 20 to 1 episode "Greatest Sporting Anthems". In 1982, "Up There Cazaly" was rewritten and released as "Up There Old England" by Cliff Portwood.
Brady flew to England to help Portwood record the song but it was never released, due to the B side having a portion of "Land of Hope and Glory" on it, creating a licensing issue just as it was getting major airtime on the radio. The song is used as the walkout tune for Tonbridge Angels soccer club in the United Kingdom, it is used as a fan chant for Derby County F. C. supporters with the name of Steve Bloomer's Watchin. Australian rules football in Australian popular culture
Port Melbourne, Victoria
Port Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km south-west from Melbourne's central business district. It is split between the local government areas of Port Phillip; the area to the north of the West Gate Freeway is in the City of Melbourne. The area to the south is in the City of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, Port Melbourne had a population of 16,175; the suburb is bordered by the lower reaches of the Yarra River. Port Melbourne covers a large area, which includes the distinct localities of Fishermans Bend, Garden City and Beacon Cove, it was known as Sandridge and developed as the City's second port, linked to the nearby Melbourne CBD. The industrial Port Melbourne has been subject to intense urban renewal over the past two decades; as a result, Port Melbourne is a diverse and historic area, featuring industrial and port areas along the Yarra, to open parklands, bayside beaches, exclusive apartments and Bay Street's restaurants and cafes. The suburb forms a major transport link from east to west, home to one end of the West Gate Bridge.
The most prominent early resident of the area, now known as Port Melbourne, was Captain Wilbraham Frederick Evelyn Liardet, who arrived in 1839, established a hotel and mail service. Liardet stated that before his arrival the surveyor William Wedge Darke and his family had camped on the beach in their two roomed, carpeted wooden caravan known as'Darke's Ark'. Liardet credited Wedge with cutting the first track to the beach through the tea tree scrub and hoisting a barrel on a pole, on a high section of ground, to point the way back to the Melbourne settlement. From this signpost its first official name,'Sandridge', was said to have originated; the area became known as'Liardet's Beach' but Liardet himself was said to have preferred'Brighton'. It became Port Melbourne in 1884; the area came into prominence during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s. With an increasing number of ships looking to berth, Sandridge became a thriving transport hub. To alleviate the high costs of shipping goods via small vessels up the Yarra River to Melbourne the Port Melbourne railway line was built in 1854 to connect Sandridge to Melbourne.
The disused Sandridge Bridge takes its name from this historic railway line. In 1860, Port Melbourne was an early area of Victoria to gain Municipal status, with the Sandridge Borough, which became the City of Port Melbourne. In the early years of Port Melbourne, the suburb was separated from neighboring Albert Park by a large shallow lagoon; this was filled in over the years, with the last of it completed in 1929. Today, the area is covered by the eponymous Lagoon Reserve, a public park to the east of the Esplanade, between Liardet Street and Graham Street, although the original extent of the lagoon was much greater; as a transport hub, Port Melbourne had numerous hotels. Early industries included a sugar refining, soap production, candle works, chemical works and flour mills, gasworks, a distillery and a boot factory. Station and Princes Piers were major places of arrival to Australia for immigrants prior to the availability of affordable air travel. For many years Port Melbourne was a focus of Melbourne's criminal underworld, which operated smuggling syndicates on the docks.
The old Ships Painters and Dockers Union was notorious for being controlled by gangsters. The Waterside Workers Federation, on the other hand, was a stronghold of the Communist Party of Australia. With the amalgamation of the local Council into the City of Port Phillip in 1994, many of Port Melbourne's civic institutions were adaptively reused; as a result, the Port Melbourne Town Hall is now a public library. As the importance of the Port has declined, as manufacturing industries have moved out of the inner city area, Port Melbourne has become a residential suburb; the area where Port Melbourne developed, around Station Pier and Princes Pier, has been redeveloped with a mixture of apartment complexes and medium-density housing, the best known of, the Beacon Cove development. In Port Melbourne 64.7% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 5.4%, New Zealand 2.8%, Greece 2.6%, United States of America 1.0% and China 0.9%. 73.4% of people only spoke English at home.
Other languages spoken at home included Greek 6.1%, Italian 1.6%, Mandarin 1.0%, Cantonese 0.8% and Russian 0.8%. Two major freeways run through Port Melbourne. Other main roads include Bay Street, Williamstown Road, Lorimer Street, Graham Street, Salmon Street, Inglis Street and Beach Street. Port Melbourne's roads are a mix of planning styles. Port Melbourne is serviced by an extensive bus network operated by CDC Melbourne which connects it to Melbourne CBD and surrounding suburbs. Port Melbourne is serviced by Melbourne tram route 109, run as a high patronage high frequency light rail service since the heavy rail line was converted to light rail in 1987. While there are several disused freight rail links, the light rail is the only used rail connection to Port Melbourne. There have been a number of proposals for tram and light rail extension in Port Melbourne: St Kilda-Port Melbourne link A 5 kilometre tram link between St Kilda and Port Melbourne along Beaconsfield Parade was first raised by the City of Port Phillip in 2005.
The City of Port Phillip's 2007 feasibility study into the route found that the high density population could sustain around 200,000 annual commuter tri
The Seven Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network. It is owned by Seven West Media Limited, is one of five main free-to-air television networks in Australia. Channel Seven head. Since 2007, the Seven Network has been the highest rated television network and primary channel in Australia; the Seven Network is the broadcaster of popular franchises and programs, including the AFL, the Cricket, the Olympics, Sunrise, My Kitchen Rules, The Chase Australia, Australia's Got Talent, House Rules and Away, Better Homes & Gardens and Seven News. In 2011 the Seven Network won all 40 out of 40 weeks of the ratings season for total viewers. Seven is the first to achieve this since the introduction of the OzTAM ratings system in 2001; as of 2014, it is the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach. Seven's administration headquarters are in Eveleigh, completed in 2003. National news and current affairs programming are based between flagship station ATN-7 in Sydney and HSV-7 in Melbourne.
In 2009, Seven moved its Sydney-based production operations from Epping to a purpose-built high-definition television production facility at the Australian Technology Park in Eveleigh. The present Seven Network began as a group of independent stations in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. HSV-7 Melbourne, licensed to The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, was launched on 4 November 1956, the first station in the country to use the VHF7 frequency. ATN-7 Sydney, licensed to Amalgamated Television Services, a subsidiary of Fairfax, was launched on 2 December 1956; the two stations did not share resources, instead formed content-sharing partnerships with their VHF9 counterparts by 1957: ATN-7 partnered with Melbourne's GTV-9, while HSV-7 paired up with Sydney's TCN-9. TVW-7 Perth, licensed to TVW Limited, a subsidiary of West Australian Newspapers, publisher of The West Australian, began broadcasting two years on 16 October 1959, as the city's first commercial station. BTQ-7 Brisbane followed on 1 November, signing on as Brisbane's second commercial television station.
ADS-7 Adelaide was launched on 24 October 1959 as the final capital city VHF7 station. The station swapped frequencies with SAS-10, with the latter becoming SAS-7HSV-7 began its relationship with the Victorian Football League in April 1957, when the station broadcast the first live Australian rules football match. Throughout this time, the stations operated independently of each other, with schedules made up of various simple, inexpensive, such as Pick a Box and spinoffs of popular radio shows. In the early 1960s, coaxial cable links, formed between Sydney and Melbourne, allowed the sharing of programmes and simultaneous broadcasts of live shows. In 1960, Frank Packer, the owner of Sydney's TCN-9, bought a controlling share of Melbourne's GTV-9, in the process creating the country's first television network and dissolving the ATN-7/GTV-9 and HSV-7/TCN-9 partnerships. Left without their original partners, ATN-7 and HSV-7 joined to form the Australian Television Network in 1963; the new grouping was soon joined by other capital-city channel 7 stations, ADS-7 Adelaide and BTQ-7 Brisbane.
The new network began to produce and screen higher-budget programs to attract viewers, most notably Homicide, a series which would continue for another 12 years to become the nation's longest running drama series. However, it was not until 1970 that a national network logo was adopted, albeit still with independently owned and operated stations with local advertising campaigns. Colour television was introduced across the network in 1975. Rupert Murdoch made an unsuccessful bid for the Herald and Weekly Times, owners of HSV-7, in 1979 going on to gain control of rival ATV-10. Fairfax, however bought a 14.9% share of the company in the same year. The 1980s saw the introduction of stereo sound, as well as a number of successful shows, most notably A Country Practice in 1981, Sons and Daughters, which began in 1982. Wheel of Fortune began its 25-year run in July 1981, produced from ADS-7's studios in Adelaide; the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow were shown live on the network the year before. Neighbours began on Seven in 1985, but low ratings in Sydney led to the cancellation of the new series at the end of the year, which moved to Network Ten and went on to achieve international success.
Perth based businessman Robert Holmes à Court, through his business the Bell Group, bought TVW-7 from its original owners, West Australian Newspapers in 1982. The Herald and Weekly Times, owner of HSV-7 and ADS-7, was sold to Rupert Murdoch in December 1986 for an estimated A$1.8 billion. Murdoch's company, News Limited, sold off HSV-7 to Fairfax soon afterwards, for $320 million. Fairfax went on to axe a number of locally produced shows in favour of networked content from its Sydney counterpart, ATN-7. Cross-media ownership laws introduced in 1987 forced Fairfax to choose between its print and television operations – it chose the former, sold off its stations to Qintex Ltd. owned by businessman Christopher Skase. Qintex had bought, subsequently sold off, stations in Brisbane and regional Queensland before taking control of the network; the next year, another new logo was introduced along with evening soap Home and Away and a relaunched Seven Nightly News, now known as Seven News. The network became national in 1988 when Skase bought TVW-7 for $130 million.
In 1989, the network cha