Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Mr. Olympia is the title awarded to the winner of the professional men's bodybuilding contest at Joe Weider's Olympia Fitness & Performance Weekend—an international bodybuilding competition, held annually by the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness. Joe Weider created the contest to enable the Mr. Universe winners to continue competing and to earn money; the first Mr. Olympia was held on September 18, 1965, at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York City, with Larry Scott winning his first of two straight titles; the record number of wins is eight each by Ronnie Coleman. Shawn Rhoden holds the title; the film Pumping Iron featured the buildup to the 1975 Mr. Olympia in Pretoria South Africa and helped launch the acting careers of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Lou Ferrigno. There is a female bodybuilder crowned, Ms. Olympia, as well as winners of Fitness Olympia and Figure Olympia for fitness and figure competitors. All four contests occur during the same weekend. From 1994 to 2003, again in 2012, a Masters Olympia was crowned.
The 1965 and 1966 Mr. Olympia were won by a famous bodybuilder of the time. Scott subsequently retired after his 1966 victory. Harold Poole holds two Mr. Olympia distinctions: one is that he is the youngest competitor to have participated in the Olympia—in 1965 he competed in the first Mr. Olympia at the age of 21, he was runner-up in the 1966 shows. The 1967 Mr. Olympia, won by Sergio Oliva, heralded a new era in bodybuilding competition. At 5 ft 10 ins and 240 lbs Oliva, nicknamed "The Myth", displayed an unforeseen level of muscle mass and definition, including a "V" shape of a large and a well-formed upper-body that tapered down to a narrow waist. Oliva would go on to win the Mr. Olympia competition in 1967, 1968, 1969—where he would defeat Arnold Schwarzenegger four to three, marking Schwarzenegger's only loss in a Mr. Olympia competition. Schwarzenegger defeated Oliva at the 1970 Mr. Olympia after finishing second the year before, won in 1971, he defeated Oliva again in 1972, went on to win the next three Mr. Olympia competitions, including the 1975 edition, highlighted in the 1977 docudrama Pumping Iron and featured other notable bodybuilders such as Lou Ferrigno, Serge Nubret, Franco Columbu, who would go on to win the 1976 and 1981 competitions.
From 1974 until 1979, a dual weight division system was used, splitting competitors into two categories: "Heavyweights" and "Lightweights". The winners of each division would compete against each other to decide an overall champion. After winning the 1975 competition, Schwarzenegger announced his retirement from competitive bodybuilding. Frank Zane won the 1977, 1978, 1979 competitions. While not as physically massive as previous competitors such as Schwarzenegger, Oliva, or Ferrigno, Zane developed his physique to highlight symmetry aesthetics and definition; as such, Zane was able to defeat opponents who exceeded his own muscle-mass but lacked his level of muscular definition. 1977 was the first year. In 1980, Schwarzenegger came out of retirement to win the Olympia yet again, after a five years hiatus. Schwarzenegger had been a late entry into the competition, his competitors did not know of his intentions to compete; this seventh victory was controversial, as most fellow competitors and observers felt that he lacked both muscle mass and conditioning, shouldn't have won over Chris Dickerson or Mike Mentzer.
Several athletes vowed to boycott the contest the following year, Mentzer retired for good. The following year, Franco Columbu was victorious for the second time. Chris Dickerson won his only title in 1982, Samir Bannout won his only title in 1983. In 1984 Lee Haney won the first of 8 straight Mr. Olympia titles. Haney retired from competitive bodybuilding after his last Mr. Olympia victory in 1991. Having placed second to Haney the previous year, Dorian Yates won the competition six straight times from 1992 until 1997. Dorian is given credit for revolutionizing the sport during his reign as Mr. Olympia by combining larger mass than seen before with what was dubbed "granite hardness"; the 1990s were given the nickname "The Growth Hormone era". Dorian was the first Mr. Olympian to experiment with the hormone, which had succeeding bodybuilders packed with size. Subsequently, judging in professional bodybuilding competitions started placing greater emphasis on muscle mass, with many bodybuilding traditionalists commenting that muscle mass had now become the most important factor to winning greater than that of symmetry and proportion.
Yates retired from competitive bodybuilding after his 1997 victory, having accumulated several injuries. Kenneth “Flex” Wheeler seemed to be the heir apparent, but Ronnie Coleman, who placed 9th in 1997, surprised everyone with a much improved physique in 1998, winning the first of 8 consecutive titles. In 1994 Joe Weider decided to add a separate Masters Olympia competition for professional bodybuilders to continue to compete at the highest levels in their years. Ronnie Coleman won the Mr. Olympia competition eight consecutive times, tying the record set by Lee Haney. Coleman returned in 2006 to defend his title but instead placed second to Jay Cutler, who won his first title after four consecutive years of finishing second to Coleman. Cutler defended his title in 2007. Coleman announced his retirement from competition. In 2008, Dexter Jackson defeated Jay Cutler and becam
Strongman (strength athlete)
A strongman is a man who competes in strength athletics. In the 19th century, the term strongman referred to an exhibitor of strength or similar circus performers who displayed feats of strength; when strength sports were codified into their own categories such as weightlifting, etc, Strongman became its own specified category in strength sports. In the past, strongmen would perform various feats of strength such as the bent press, supporting large amounts of weight held overhead at arm's length, steel bending, chain breaking, etc. Large amounts of wrist and tendon strength were required for these feats, as well as prodigious oblique strength. In the late 20th century the term strongman evolved to describe one who competes in strength athletics – a more modern eclectic strength competition in which competitors display their raw functional strength through exercises such as lifting rocks, toting refrigerators, pulling trains, towing an eighteen wheel truck behind them, etc; the most famous competitions of this type are the World's Strongest Man, the Arnold Strongman Classic, the Strongman Champions League and the Giants Live tour, however many countries hold national-level competitions.
In recent years, interest in the sport at the grassroots level has skyrocketed, leading to the spontaneous formation of local clubs, loosely affiliated with provincial/state and national associations. Many sports-specific training facilities have begun to incorporate movements associated with strongman competitions into their general training schemes, albeit with lighter weights used, e.g. tyre flips, sled drags, object loading or carrying, log pressing, farmer's walks and so on. Training for strongman involves building overall strength in the gym and training with competition implements to gain familiarity. In the gym, it is necessary to train the entire body for strength with variants of the squat and overhead press. Important is explosive power, developed by weightlifting-style lifts, cardiovascular conditioning. Grip strength must be developed. Although you can do general strength training, at a typical gym, training with a strongman regimen requires equipment not found in a gym; some equipment used in a strongman competition would have to be found custom-made or at a strongman gym.
These equipment include Atlas Stone, Farmers Walk Bars, Keg, a vehicle. Another part of a strongman's training is its intense diet regime. A top athlete in strongman would need to ingest upwards of 10,000 calories a day. Though competitive strongman events are changing, there are a number of staples that appear on the international stage, including: Strongman is incorrectly used to describe a person who does weightlifting or bodybuilding. Due to the circus and entertainment background, nineteenth-century bodybuilders were expected to mingle with the crowd during intermission and perform strength feats like card tearing, nail bending, etc. to demonstrate strength as well as symmetry and size. Many strongmen sold photos of themselves nude or near-nude and posing. Although, what they considered the epitome of male beauty was different from modern ideals – the low emphasis on chest size, great emphasis on oblique size, symmetry as evidenced by photos of Eugen Sandow; the following competing strongmen have finished in the top three of World's Strongest Man, from 1977 to 2018: List of strongman competitions Grip strength Lifting stone Power training Strength training Strongwoman World Strongman Federation World Strongman Cup Federation Highland games United States All Round Weightlifting Association Oldtime Strongman Old-School Strongmen – slideshow by Life magazine Oldtime Strongmen List World Strongman Federation
Aurora is a Home Rule Municipality in the U. S. state of Colorado, spanning Arapahoe and Adams counties, with the extreme southeastern portion of the city extending into Douglas County. Aurora is one of the principal cities of the Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city's population was 325,078 in the 2010 census, which made it the third most populous city in the state of Colorado and the 54th most populous city in the United States. The Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 2,645,209 on July 1, 2012; however and Aurora combined make up less than half of the Denver Metro Area's population and Aurora has half the population of Denver. The estimated population of the Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area was 3,214,218 on July 1, 2012. Aurora originated in the 1880s as the town of Fletcher, taking its name from Denver businessman Donald Fletcher who saw it as a real estate opportunity, he and his partners staked out four square miles east of Denver, but the town - and Colorado - struggled mightily after the Silver Crash of 1893.
At that point Fletcher skipped town. Inhabitants decided to rename the town Aurora in 1907, after one of the subdivisions composing the town, Aurora began to grow in Denver's shadow becoming the fastest-growing city in the United States during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Aurora is composed of hundreds of subdivisions thus carries the name of one of the original development plats from which it sprang. Aurora is Denver's largest suburb. Aurora's growing population in recent decades has led to efforts for co-equal recognition with its larger neighbor. Former mayor Dennis Champine once expressed the somewhat whimsical notion that the area would be called the "Aurora/Denver Metropolitan Area". Indeed, since the 2000 Census Aurora has surpassed Denver in land area, much of Aurora is undeveloped, while Denver is more built-out. However, such efforts are somewhat hampered by the lack of a large important central business district in the city. Aurora is suburban in character, as evidenced by the city's modest collection of tall buildings.
A large military presence has existed in Aurora since the early 20th century. In 1918, Army General Hospital #21 opened, with the U. S. government expanding and upgrading the hospital facilities in 1941 just in time to care for the wounded servicemen of World War II. Lowry Air Force Base was opened in 1938, straddling the border of Denver, it closed in 1994, was redeveloped into a master-planned community featuring residential, commercial and educational facilities. In 1942, the Army Air Corps built Buckley Field, which over the course of history has been renamed Naval Air Station, Buckley Air National Guard Base and Buckley Air Force Base; the base, home of the 460th Space Wing and the 140th Wing Colorado Air National Guard, is Aurora's largest employer. President Warren G. Harding visited Fitzsimons Army Hospital in 1923, President Franklin D. Roosevelt visited in 1936. In 1943 the hospital was the birthplace of 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry. President Dwight D. Eisenhower recovered from a heart attack at Fitzsimons for seven weeks during the fall of 1955.
Decommissioned in 1999, the facility is part of the Anschutz Medical Campus of the University of Colorado Denver, the Fitzsimons Life Science District. The Anschutz Medical Campus includes the University of Colorado Hospital, which moved to Aurora from Denver in 2007, the Children's Hospital; the first carbon-ion radiotherapy research and treatment facility in the U. S. has been proposed at the site. These facilities will employ a workforce of 32,000 at build-out. In 1965, mayor Norma O. Walker became the first woman to head a U. S. city with a population over 60,000. In 1979, it was announced that a science fiction theme park would be built in Aurora using the sets of a 50,000,000 dollar film based on the fantasy novel Lord of Light. However, due to legal problems the project was never completed; the script of the unmade film project, renamed Argo, was used as cover for the "Canadian Caper": the exfiltration of six U. S. diplomatic staff trapped by the Iranian hostage crisis. In 1993, Cherry Creek State Park on the southwestern edge of Aurora was the location for the papal mass of the 8th World Youth Day with Pope John Paul II, attended by an estimated 500,000 people.
In 2004, Aurora was honored as the Sports Illustrated magazine's 50th Anniversary "Sportstown" for Colorado because of its exemplary involvement in facilitating and enhancing sports. The city attracts more than 30 regional and national sports tournaments annually to Aurora's fields, which include the 220-acre Aurora Sports Park opened in 2003. Aurora's active populace is reflected in the variety of professional athletes hailing from the city. Aurora's first semi-professional sports franchise, the Aurora Cavalry in the International Basketball League, began play in 2006 but folded by season's end due to budget mishaps. Aurora lies distant from the respective county seats. A consolidated city and county government was considered in the mid-1990s but failed to win approval by city voters; the issue was reconsidered in 2006. Colorado voters created the City and County of Denver in 1902 and the City and County of Broomfield in 2001. A consolidated city and county of Aurora would include areas not within the current city limits, but the new city-county boundaries would be set, restricting future expansion.
In 2008, Aurora was designated an All-America City by
Arnold Strongman Classic
The Arnold Strongman Classic is an annual competition featuring strength athletes from all over the world. Created by Arnold Schwarzenegger and Jim Lorimer, it is an offshoot of the Arnold Sports Festival which takes place annually in Columbus, Ohio, USA; the Arnold Strongman is one of the many offshoots of the Arnold festival. The Arnold Sports Festival, founded in 1989 as the Arnold Classic and named after Arnold Schwarzenegger, was a bodybuilding contest, it featured a competition for women. The bodybuilding contests have since expanded to include a Fitness International and Figure International competition for women. However, the event had expanded to include other sports and events, one of, a strongman, introduced in late 2002; this Strongman event was created by a powerlifter named Dr. Terry Todd at the request of Arnold Schwarzenegger; the expansion of the programme led to the Classic becoming the Arnold Fitness Weekend and now the Arnold Sports Festival. According to the Arnold Sports Festival co-producer, Jim Lorimer: "The Arnold Strongman Classic has been growing in popularity every year, we are excited that many strong men are returning."
January 29, 2008 In 2002, the American professional wrestler and former weight lifter Mark Henry won the competition. In addition to competing in what were the four official events — the Apollon's Wheel, the deadlift, the Hummer push and the 800+lbs Farmer's Walk — the competitors were given the opportunity to attempt to lift the Thomas Inch "unliftable" dumbbell or Inch Bell. A prize of $1000 was awarded to the man. Five men chose to try the Bell with Mark Henry winning the $1000 by pulling it to the level of his chest. Pfister raised the Inch Bell over his head with his right hand, to a standing ovation, but his lift was disqualified because he stabilized the dumbbell with his left hand when it was on his knee and because he used a "continental clean" when raising the dumbbell to his chest. Pfister was however awarded $1000. From 2003 to 2008 the Arnold Strongman was won every year by Žydrūnas Savickas of Lithuania. In 2008 he received a $40,000 check from Gerard Dente of MHP, an Audemars Piguet watch by Robert Ronan and the Louis Cyr trophy and congratulations from Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.
In the competition, 12 world records were set with Savickas setting three of them. In the Tire Deadlift he lifted 1,027 lbs. In the Circus Dumbbell he tied with Derek Poundstone for the world record with nine lifts each, in the Manhood Stones he lifted 525 lbs, three times. American Derek Poundstone won in 2009 & 2010. Derek took the vacant throne from Zydrunas; when Savickas returned in 2010, Derek retained his title by defeating Zydrunas. Just days before the 2011 contest, 2-time defending champion Derek Poundstone was forced to withdraw from the contest due to injury. Brian Shaw came in and won the contest, Mike Jenkins, the winner of the 2010 Arnold Strongman amateur event, competing in his first professional strongman competition, shocked many and finished in second place ahead of 6 time champion Zydrunas Savickas who came in third. Total Wins Defending champion and eight time winner, Žydrūnas Savickas, did not compete in either the 2009 or 2017 event. Two time defending champion Derek Poundstone withdrew prior to the contest due to injury in 2011.
Defending champion Mike Jenkins did not compete due to having knee surgery, Žydrūnas Savickas did not compete in 2013. 2012 Champion Mike Jenkins died on 2013 of a massive heart episode. Timber Carry - In this event known as the Frame Carry, contestants lift 865 lb barn timbers bolted together and have to travel up a ramp, as a far as possible in 30 seconds. Atlas Stones - Contestants have to lift round stones weighing sometimes over 500 lb over a bar 48 inches high. Apollon's Axle - This is a unique barbell made famous by turn-of-the-century strongman Louis "Apollon" Uni. Reproduced by Ivanko Barbell Company, the Axle is replica of the original, weighing 366 lbs, with the same bar thickness as the original; the bar is mechanically fastened to reproduction train wheels. Contestants must lift the wheels from the floor to overhead as many times as possible in two minutes. Tire Deadlift - Contestants are required to lift a specially designed long bar weighted with tires; the Tire Deadlift bar was designed and manufactured by Ivanko Barbell Company and comprises a 13 ft. stainless steel bar and up to eight Hummer tires & rims.
Additional calibrated barbell plates may be added. The beginning weight was approx. 750 lb at the 2008 event. The Super Yoke - In 2008 contestants had to carry across their shoulders a bar/yoke weighing 1,116 pounds for 36 feet in a timed event; the Circus Dumbbell - This is the classic "Circus" dumbbell, used by professional Strongmen from the early 20th century. Richard Sorin reproduced the dumbbell for this event, it weighs 202 lb and has a big handle over 3 inches in diameter. The requirement in 2008 was to use one hand at a time and lift the dumbbell overhead as many times as possible in 90 s. Dates: 22, 23 February 2002Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 28 February, 1 March 2003 Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 5, 6 March 2004 Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 4, 5 March 2005 Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 3, 4 March 2006 Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 2–4 March 2007 Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 29 February, 1 March 2008 Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 6, 7 March 2009 Columbus, Ohio: Dates: 5, 6 March 2010 Columbus, Ohio (Gr
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Strongman Champions League
The Strongman Champions League is a strongman competition circuit, with several grand prix events throughout the year and the Strongman Champions League overall champion title going to the overall winner at the end of the season. The competitors include some of the top athletes in the sport, including Žydrūnas Savickas, Krzysztof Radzikowski, Travis Ortmayer, Nick Best, Mikhail Koklyaev, Ervin Katona, Andrus Murumets, Laurence Shahlaei, Vytautas Lalas and Terry Hollands. In close partnership with IFSA, it asserted its independence and has acted as a unifying force in the world of strength athletics, bringing together athletes from IFSA with those affiliated to the World's Strongest Man circuit, having close cooperation with other major events such as Fortissimus. In 2012, SCL began co-promoting the new Arnold Strongman Classic-Europe contest which will become part of the annual SCL season of events; the Strongman Champions League was developed by Ilkka Kinnunen and Marcel Mostert, longtime strongman promoters, with major contests to their credit worldwide, was launched in 2008.
Kinnunen & Mostert described SCL as "a new episode in strongman"."A complete series of 10–12 competitions, that will take place all over the world, but most of the competitions will be held in Europe. The best champions and their organizers will be the guarantee of a great new, fresh excitement in Strongman sport; the competition venues are the best which each country can offer and it will include the country's own traditional elements." As well as citing that all points will be accumulated for a Champions League Winner at the end of the year, the organisers explicitly stated that "Rules will be done as and that "The top 3 will be directly placed in the World Championships". Mostert said "All together we think that this is a perfect platform of competitions that will lead to another great World Championship.". Thus, IFSA were inextricably linked at the inception of the league. IFSA, were in dire financial straits towards the end of that year. By December, Mostert distanced the league from the ailing governing body and explicitly said that the Strongman Champions League had nothing to do with IFSA.
He told IronMind "We have our own logo, we have our own brand, we do our own competitions." Its own website was launched shortly afterwards. The league organisers had reported that Champions League competitions "will be televised and spread all over the world and they released a list of venues, organised in advance. In the harsh economic climate of 2008, the league was not immune to the effects, the league did have to cancel some venues, but unlike with the IFSA, the vast majority of the competitions still took place. In 2008, the SCL had 45 top strength athletes competing. In 2008 Paul Ohl stated that the Strongman Champions League was one of three organisations that had made an agreement with Fortissimus in order to unite the world strength community, the others being the American Strongman Corporation, the Aussiepower organization. Within the agreement, the competition that confers the title of "Strongest Man on the Planet", guaranteed that the winner of the America's Strongest Man title would be granted a slot in Fortissimus from 2009, as would the winner of the Australia's Strongest Man title.
The agreement with the Strongman Champions League went further, stating that the top three athletes would have guaranteed places and in return the top Canadian athletes would have guaranteed selected participation in the Champions League. This went further, guaranteeing the SCL its top five athletes would have places; the agreement was reemphasised in a joint statement from Marcel Mostert and Paul Ohl in early 2009. The 2009 programme was planned with ten major contests on schedule. In addition, feeder contests were introduced, one happening in Spain in December 2008 and a further event in Germany called the FIBO Strongman Classic in April 2009; the best two athletes from this FIBO classic 2009 edition were guaranteed into the Champions League, it was postulated that this German event would be promoted to full SCL status in 2010. The Strongman Champions League made further progress in acting as a fundamental part of a unifying movement for world strength athletics by making plans to help get its athletes to the 2009 World's Strongest Man contest.
Mostert stated that "The top 5 SCL athletes will have places in the Giants Live tour for qualifying at World's Strongest Man 2009". In addition, he stated that wild cards for the WSM will include SCL athletes, he went on to say that "Finally we made it all possible again that all the athletes have chances to qualify for the WSM, which means in my opinion the WSM will have the strongest field in her history!". He went on to thank TWI/IMG and Giants Live for their part in making these possibilities; this was groundbreaking because for a number of years prior to this, the athletes under the IFSA had been banned by the federation from entering WSM. The athletes invited to participate in WSM were not invited to participate in IFSA events; some competitions bridged the divide, such as the Arnold Strongman Classic and more Fortissimus, but neither had the history or gravitas, or indeed popular appeal of the iconic World's Strongest Man. The IFSA athletes, with the demise of the IFSA finances all competed in SCL from 2008.
This deal, along with the Fortissimus deal before it, united strongman in a way it had not been since 2004. The 2009 season began properly on 9 May, with the Strongman Champions League Serbia. Finland followed on 16 May, with Slovakia and the Netherlands in June; the Strongman Champions League introduced