The Providence Reds were a hockey team that played in the Canadian-American Hockey League between 1926 and 1936 and the American Hockey League from 1936 to 1977, the last season of which they played as the Rhode Island Reds. The team won the Calder Cup in 1938, 1940, 1949, 1956; the Reds played at the Rhode Island Auditorium, located on North Main Street in Providence, Rhode Island, from 1926 through 1972, when the team affiliated with the New York Rangers and moved into the newly built Providence Civic Center. The team name came from the breed of chicken known as the Rhode Island Red; when the North American Hockey League folded in 1977, the Broome Dusters acquired the Reds franchise and moved them to Binghamton, New York, where they were known as the Binghamton Dusters, Binghamton Whalers, Binghamton Rangers. In 1997 the franchise was sold to Madison Square Garden and moved to become the Hartford Wolf Pack. On November 27, 2010, they were renamed the Connecticut Whale to honor the NHL's Hartford Whalers.
It is the oldest continuously operating minor-league hockey franchise in North America, having fielded a team in one form or another since 1926 in the CAHL. It is the only AHL franchise to have never missed a season; the AHL returned to Providence in 1992 in the form of the Providence Bruins. Formed in 2001, The Rhode Island Reds Heritage Society commemorates the existence of the franchise and keeps the memory alive, their pinnacle event is an annual reunion. Billy Coutu Albert "Battleship" Leduc Frederick "Bun" Cook Johnny Mitchell Irwin Boyd Terry Reardon Pat Egan Jack Crawford Phil Watson Fern Flaman Ivan Irwin Dave Creighton Larry Wilson Larry Popein John Muckler Providence Reds 1926–1936 Providence Reds 1936–1976 Rhode Island Reds 1976–1977 Per HockeyDB: Boston Bruins California Seals Chicago Black Hawks Colorado Rockies New England Whalers New York Rangers St. Louis Blues Toronto Maple Leafs
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
In ice hockey, the goaltender or goalie or goalkeeper is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease. Goaltenders tend to stay beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles and hybrid; because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time. Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater, but the defensive disadvantage this poses means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty.
The goaltender is known as the goalie, goalkeeper, net minder, tender by those involved in the hockey community. In the early days of the sport, the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender; the art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches called the goalie coach who specialize in working with goaltenders. The variation goalie is used for items associated with the position, such as goalie stick and goalie pads. Goaltending is a specialized position in ice hockey. At minor levels and recreational games, goaltenders do switch with others players that have been taught goaltending. A typical ice hockey team may have three goaltenders on its roster. Most teams have a starting goaltender who plays the majority of the regular season games and all of the playoffs, with the backup goaltender only stepping in if the starter is pulled or injured, or in cases where the schedule is too heavy for one goaltender to play every game; the NHL requires. The list provides goaltender options for visiting teams.
These goaltenders are to be called to a game if a team does not have two goaltenders to start the game. An "emergency" goaltender may be called if both roster goaltenders are injured in the same game; some teams have used a goaltender tandem where two goaltenders split the regular season playing duties, though one of them is considered the number one goaltender who gets the start in the playoffs. An example is the 1982-83 New York Islanders with Roland Melanson. Another instance is Grant Fuhr. In an unusual case the 1996-97 Philadelphia Flyers' Ron Hextall and Garth Snow alternated in the playoffs; the goaltender has training that other players do not. He wears special goaltending equipment, different from that worn by other players and is subject to specific regulations. Goaltenders may use any part of their bodies to block shots; the goaltender may hold the puck with his hands to cause a stoppage of play. If a player from the other team hits the goaltender without making an attempt to get out of his way, the offending player may be penalized.
In some leagues, if a goaltender's stick breaks, he can continue playing with a broken stick until the play is stopped, unlike other players who must drop any broken sticks immediately. Additionally, if a goaltender acts in such a way that would cause a normal player to be given a penalty, such as slashing or tripping another player, the goaltender cannot be sent to the penalty box. Instead, one of the goaltender's teammates, on the ice at the time of the infraction is sent to the penalty box in his place. However, the goaltender does receive the penalty minutes on the scoresheet. If the goaltender receives a Game Misconduct or Match penalty, he is removed from the ice and a replacement goaltender is played; the goaltender plays in or near the goal crease the entire game, unlike the other positions where players are on ice for shifts and make line changes. However, goaltenders are pulled if they have allowed several goals in a short period of time, whether they were at fault for the surrendered goals or not, a substituted goaltender does not return for the rest of the game.
In 1995, Patrick Roy was famously kept in net by the head coach as "humiliation" despite allowing nine goals
Calder Memorial Trophy
The Calder Memorial Trophy is an annual award given "to the player selected as the most proficient in his first year of competition in the National Hockey League." It is named after Frank Calder, the first president of the NHL. Serving as the NHL's Rookie of the Year award, this version of the trophy has been awarded since its creation for the 1936–37 NHL season; the voting is conducted by members of the Professional Hockey Writers' Association at the conclusion of each regular season to determine the winner. The Calder Memorial Trophy is named in honour of Frank Calder, the former President of the National Hockey League from its inception in 1917 to his death in 1943. Although Rookie of the Year honors were handed out beginning in 1932–33, the Calder Trophy was first presented at the conclusion of the 1936–37 NHL season. After Calder's death in 1943 the trophy was renamed the Calder Memorial Trophy. In 1990, Sergei Makarov of the Calgary Flames became the oldest player, at age 31, to win the trophy though he had played for HC CSKA Moscow in the Soviet Union.
After that season, the rules for awarding the Calder were amended so that players could only be eligible if they were younger than 27 years old by September 15 of their rookie season. To be eligible for the award, a player cannot have played any more than 25 regular season games in any single season, nor have played in more than six regular season games in each of two separate preceding seasons in any major professional league; the latter fact was most prominent when in the 1979–80 season, first-year phenom Wayne Gretzky was not eligible to win the Calder Trophy despite scoring 137 points, because he had played a full season the previous year in the World Hockey Association. In 1991, goaltender Ed Belfour won the Calder having appeared in 32 games with the Chicago Blackhawks over the 1988–89 and 1989–90 seasons. Belfour was eligible for the award because nine of those appearances came during the 1990 Stanley Cup playoffs, the other 23 appearances were made during the 1988-89 season; the nine playoff games did not count towards the regular season eligibility requirements.
In 2010–11, Logan Couture was eligible for the Calder Trophy despite having played in 40 previous games, while Alex Pietrangelo was ineligible despite having played only 17 previous games. The trophy has been won the most times by rookies from the Toronto Maple Leafs, who have won it on ten occasions, with the most recent being Auston Matthews in 2017; the voting is conducted at the end of the regular season by members of the Professional Hockey Writers' Association, each individual voter ranks their top five candidates on a 10–7–5–3–1 points system. Three finalists are named and the trophy is awarded at the NHL Awards ceremony after the playoffs. List of National Hockey League awards List of NHL players List of NHL statistical leaders Calder Trophy history at NHL.com Calder Trophy profile at Legends of Hockey.net
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Glove (ice hockey)
There are three styles of gloves worn by ice hockey players. Skaters wear similar gloves on each hand, while goaltenders wear gloves of different types on each hand. Skaters gloves help prevent the hands getting bruised and battered and stops them from getting burned from the ice; the top padding and shell thumb is designed to help protect the player from flying Hockey pucks and opponents' Ice hockey sticks. In today's hockey game, gloves will fall into two types of categories, the first being the traditional four-roll style; these types of gloves have more room on the inside, giving it a looser feel on the hand than the natural fit gloves. Hockey players who choose the four-roll style have less resistance in their fingers and hands, so wearing the gloves feels less noticeable; the other category of gloves are the tighter natural or anatomical fit glove. These have a much tighter fit than the four-roll gloves, are designed to become an extension of the players' hand; the tapered gloves are tight on the hand, but ergonomically designed for better wrist mobility and range of motion.
Hockey gloves range in sizes, are available in three categories: Youth size hockey gloves run 8", 9"and 10". Goaltenders wear a different type of glove on each hand. While these gloves do offer the goaltender a measure of protection, their design is to aid the goaltender in performance of his duties. On the hand with which he carries his stick called the "stick hand," the goaltender wears a blocker with a large pad across the back of the forearm extending just beyond the wrist. National Hockey League rules mandate that the blocking glove may be no wider than eight inches and no longer than fifteen; the goaltender uses this blocker to deflect shots. On the other hand called the "glove hand", the goaltender wears a catching glove called a trapper, similar to a baseball glove. In addition to using it to catch shots, goaltenders can distribute caught pucks by tossing them from the catching glove. National Hockey League rules limit the perimeter of the catching glove to forty-five inches and the widest part of the glove may not exceed eighteen inches.
Most goaltender's glove hands are their non-dominant hand like in baseball, but exceptions do exist
The Montreal Canadiens are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League; the club's official name is le Club de hockey Canadien. The team is referred to in English and French as the Habs. French nicknames for the team include Les Canadiens, Le Bleu-Blanc-Rouge, La Sainte-Flanelle, Le Tricolore, Les Glorieux, Le CH, Le Grand Club and Les Habitants. Founded in 1909, the Canadiens are the longest continuously operating professional ice hockey team worldwide, the only existing NHL club to predate the founding of the NHL. One of the oldest North American professional sports franchises, the Canadiens' history predates that of every other Canadian franchise outside football as well as every American franchise outside baseball and the National Football League's Arizona Cardinals; the franchise is one of the "Original Six" teams, a description used for the teams that made up the NHL from 1942 until the 1967 expansion.
The team's championship season in 1992–93 was the last time a Canadian team won the Stanley Cup. The Canadiens have won the Stanley Cup more times than any other franchise, they have won 24 Stanley Cups, 23 of them since the founding of the NHL and 22 of them since 1927, when NHL teams became the only ones to compete for the Stanley Cup. On a percentage basis, as of 2014, the franchise has won 25.3% of all Stanley Cup championships contested after the Challenge Cup era, making it the second most successful professional sports team of the traditional four major sports of Canada and the United States, behind only the Boston Celtics. The Canadiens had the most championships by a team of any of the four major North American sports until the New York Yankees won their 25th World Series title in 1999. Since 1996, the Canadiens have played their home games at Bell Centre known as Molson Centre; the team played at the Montreal Forum which housed the team for seven decades and all but their first two Stanley Cup championships.
The Canadiens were founded by J. Ambrose O'Brien on December 4, 1909, as a charter member of the National Hockey Association, the forerunner to the National Hockey League, it was to be the team of the francophone community in Montreal, composed of francophone players, under francophone ownership as soon as possible. The team's first season was not a success. After the first year, ownership was transferred to George Kennedy of Montreal and the team's fortunes improved over the next seasons; the team won its first Stanley Cup championship in the 1915–16 season. In 1917, with four other NHA teams, the Canadiens formed the NHL, they won their first NHL Stanley Cup during the 1923–24 season, led by Howie Morenz; the team moved from the Mount Royal Arena to the Montreal Forum for the 1926–27 season. The club began the 1930s decade with Stanley Cup wins in 1930 and 1931; the Canadiens and its then-Montreal rival, the Montreal Maroons, declined both on the ice and economically during the Great Depression.
Losses grew to the point where the team owners considering selling the team to interests in Cleveland, though local investors were found to finance the Canadiens. The Maroons still suspended operations, several of their players moved to the Canadiens. Led by the "Punch Line" of Maurice "Rocket" Richard, Toe Blake and Elmer Lach in the 1940s, the Canadiens enjoyed success again atop the NHL. From 1953 to 1960, the franchise won six Stanley Cups, including a record five straight from 1956 to 1960, with a new set of stars coming to prominence: Jean Beliveau, Dickie Moore, Doug Harvey, Bernie "Boom Boom" Geoffrion, Jacques Plante and Richard's younger brother, Henri; the Canadiens added ten more championships in 15 seasons from 1965 to 1979, with another dynastic run of four-straight Cups from 1976 to 1979. In the 1976–77 season, the Canadiens set two still-standing team records – for most points, with 132, fewest losses, by only losing eight games in an 80-game season; the next season, 1977 -- 78, the team had the second-longest in NHL history.
The next generation of stars included Guy Lafleur, Yvan Cournoyer, Ken Dryden, Pete Mahovlich, Jacques Lemaire, Pierre Larouche, Steve Shutt, Bob Gainey, Serge Savard, Guy Lapointe and Larry Robinson. Scotty Bowman, who would set a record for most NHL victories by a coach, was the team's head coach for its last five Stanley Cup victories in the 1970s; the Canadiens won Stanley Cups in 1986, led by rookie star goaltender Patrick Roy, in 1993, continuing their streak of winning at least one championship in every decade from the 1910s to the 1990s. In 1996, the Habs moved from the Montreal Forum, their home during 70 seasons and 22 Stanley Cups, to Molson Centre. Following Roy's departure in 1995, the Canadiens fell into an extended stretch of mediocrity, missing the playoffs in four of their next ten seasons and failing to advance past the second round of the playoffs until 2010. By the late 1990s, with both an ailing team and monetary losses exacerbated by a record-low value of the Canadian dollar, Montreal fans feared their team would end up relocated to the United States.
Team owner Molson Brewery sold control of the franchise and the Molson Centre to American businessman George N. Gillett Jr. in 2001, with the right of first refusal for any future sale by Gillett and a condition that the NHL Board of Governors must unanimously approve any attempt to move to a new city. Led by president Pierre Boivin, the Canadiens returned to being a lucrative enterprise, earning additional revenues from broadcasting and arena events