Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space and causation are mere sensibilities. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features, he drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori, that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality. Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. Kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy the fields of epistemology, political theory, post-modern aesthetics. In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason, he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists which philosophy had led to, is held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought. Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation, he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith. Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history; these include the Universal Natural History, the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, the Critique of Judgment, which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter. Kant's father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city. Kant believed. While scholars of Kant's life long accepted the claim, there is no evidence that Kant's paternal line was Scottish and it is more that the Kants got their name from the village of Kantwaggen and were of Curonian origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children. Kant was born on 22 April 1724 into a Prussian German family of Lutheran Protestant faith in Königsberg, East Prussia. Baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew, he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science. Kant maintained Christian ideals for some time, but struggled to reconcile the faith with his belief in science.
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, he reveals a belief in immortality as the necessary condition of humanity's approach to the highest morality possible. However, as Kant was skeptical about some of the arguments used prior to him in defence of theism and maintained that human understanding is limited and can never attain knowledge about God or the soul, various commentators have labelled him a philosophical agnostic. Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, it is held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life, leading to an oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks. He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author before starting on his major philosophical works, he had a circle of friends with whom he met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg.
A common myth is. In fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Groß-Arnsdorf. Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age, he first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740. In 1740, aged 16, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, he studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist, familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind", he dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th cent
Cornel Ronald West is an American philosopher, political activist, social critic and public intellectual. The son of a Baptist minister, West focuses on the role of race and class in American society and the means by which people act and react to their "radical conditionedness". A radical democrat and democratic socialist, West draws intellectual contributions from multiple traditions, including Christianity, the black church, Marxism and transcendentalism. Among his most influential books are Race Matters and Democracy Matters. West is an outspoken voice in left-wing politics in the United States, as such has been critical of members of the Democratic Party, including former President Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, he has held professorships at Harvard University, Princeton University, Yale University, Pepperdine University, Union Theological Seminary, the University of Paris during his career. He is a frequent commentator on politics and social issues in many media outlets. From 2010 through 2013, West co-hosted a radio program with Tavis Smiley, called West.
He has been featured in several documentaries, made appearances in Hollywood films such as The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, providing commentary for both films. West has made several spoken word and hip hop albums, due to his work, has been named MTV's Artist of the Week, he has been portrayed on Saturday Night Live by Kenan Thompson. West was born on June 2, 1953, in Tulsa and grew up in Sacramento, where he graduated from John F. Kennedy High School, his mother, was a teacher and principal, his father, Clifton Louis West Jr. was a general contractor for the Defense Department. Irene B. West Elementary School in Elk Grove, California, is named for his mother; as a young man, West marched in civil rights demonstrations and organized protests demanding black studies courses at his high school, where he was class president. He wrote that, in his youth, he admired "the sincere black militancy of Malcolm X, the defiant rage of the Black Panther Party, the livid black theology of James H. Cone."In 1970, after graduating from high school, he enrolled at Harvard College and took classes from the philosophers Robert Nozick and Stanley Cavell.
In 1973, West graduated from Harvard magna cum laude in civilization. He credits Harvard with exposing him to a broader range of ideas, influenced by his professors as well as the Black Panther Party. West says his Christianity prevented him from joining the BPP, instead choosing to work in local breakfast and church programs. After completing his undergraduate work at Harvard, West enrolled at Princeton University where he received a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1980, becoming the first African American to graduate from Princeton with a PhD degree in philosophy. At Princeton, West was influenced by Richard Rorty's neopragmatism. Rorty remained a close colleague of West's for many years following West's graduation; the title of West's dissertation was Ethics and the Marxist Tradition, revised and published under the title The Ethical Dimensions of Marxist Thought. In his late-20s, he returned to Harvard as a W. E. B. Du Bois Fellow before becoming an assistant professor at Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York.
In 1984, he went to Yale Divinity School in what became a joint appointment in American studies. While at Yale, he participated in campus protests for a clerical labor union and divestment from apartheid South Africa. One of the protests resulted in his being jailed; as punishment, the university administration canceled his leave for the spring term in 1987, leading him to commute from Yale in New Haven, where he was teaching two classes, across the Atlantic Ocean to the University of Paris. He returned to Union Theological Seminary for one year before going to Princeton to become a professor of religion and director of the Program in African-American Studies from 1988 to 1994. After Princeton, he accepted an appointment as professor of African-American studies at Harvard University, with a joint appointment at the Harvard Divinity School. West taught one of the university's most popular courses, an introductory class on African-American studies. In 1998, he was appointed the first Alphonse Fletcher University Professor.
West utilized this new position to teach in not only African-American studies, but in divinity and philosophy. West left Harvard after a publicized dispute with then-President Lawrence Summers in 2002; that year, West returned to Princeton, where he helped create "one of the world’s leading centers for African-American studies" according to Shirley Tilghman, Princeton's president in 2011. In 2012, West left Princeton and returned to the institution where he began his teaching career, Union Theological Seminary, his departure from Princeton, unlike his departure from Harvard, was quite amicable. As of 2017, he continues to teach occasional courses at Princeton in an emeritus capacity as the Class of 1943 University Professor in the Center for African American Studies; the recipient of more than 20 honorary degrees and an American Book Award, he has written or contributed to over twenty published books. West is a long-time member of the Democratic Socialists of America, for which he now serves as an honorary chair.
He is a co-founder of the Network of Spiritual Progressives. West is on the advisory board of the International Bridges to Justice. In 2008, he received a special recognition from the World Cultural Council. West is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity and its World Policy Council, a think tank whose purpose is to expa
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more contrasted with natural, sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training; the humanities use methods that are critical, or speculative, have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, philosophy, human geography, politics and art. Scholars in the humanities are humanists; the term "humanist" describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were called humanists; some secondary schools offer humanities classes consisting of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history and cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead use the comparative method and comparative research. Anthropology is a science of the totality of human existence; the discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have been institutionally divided into three broad domains; the natural sciences seek to derive general laws through verifiable experiments. The humanities study local traditions, through their history, literature and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras; the social sciences have attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology does not fit into one of these categories, different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, cultural anthropology, it is an area, offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos is from the Greek for "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanistic of the sciences"; the goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of human nature. This means that, though anthropologists specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies, or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist", to discuss humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard, it is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology is the study of human activity through the analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities, it has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history. Classics, in the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquity, namely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, societies and any to
Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio. Founded as the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in 1833 by John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart, it is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating coeducational institute of higher learning in the world; the Oberlin Conservatory of Music is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States. In 1835 Oberlin became one of the first colleges in the United States to admit African Americans, in 1837 the first to admit women; the College of Arts & Sciences offers more than 50 majors and concentrations. Oberlin is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the Five Colleges of Ohio consortium. Since its founding, Oberlin has graduated 16 Rhodes Scholars, 20 Truman Scholars, 3 Nobel laureates, 7 MacArthur fellows. Both the college and the town of Oberlin were founded in northern Ohio in 1833 by a pair of Presbyterian ministers, John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart.
The College was built on 500 acres of land donated by the previous owners, Titus Street, founder of Streetsboro and Samuel Hughes, who lived in Connecticut. Shipherd and Stewert named their project after Jean-Frédéric Oberlin, an Alsatian minister whom they both admired; the ministers' vision was for both school. Oberlin's founders bragged that "Oberlin is peculiar in that, good," and the college has long been associated with progressive causes. Asa Mahan accepted the position as first President of the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in 1835 serving as the chair of intellectual and moral philosophy and a professor of theology. Mahan's liberal views towards abolitionism and anti-slavery influenced the philosophy of the newly founded college; the college had some difficult beginnings, Rev. John Keep and William Dawes were sent to England to raise funds for the college in 1839–40. A nondenominational seminary, Oberlin's Graduate School of Theology, was established alongside the college in 1833. In 1965, the board of trustees voted to discontinue graduate instruction in theology at Oberlin, in September 1966, six faculty members and 22 students merged with the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University.
Oberlin's role as an educator of African-American students prior to the Civil War and thereafter is significant. In 1844, Oberlin College graduated its first black student, George Boyer Vashon, who became one of the founding professors at Howard University and the first black lawyer admitted to the Bar in New York State; the African Americans of Oberlin and those attending Oberlin College "have experienced intense challenges and immense accomplishments since their joint founding in 1833. Its African American and other students of color have used education and activism to influence the college, the town, beyond, their efforts have helped Oberlin remain committed to its values of freedom, social justice, service." The College's approach to African Americans was by no means perfect. Although intensely anti-slavery, including admitting black students from its founding, the school began segregating its black students by the 1880s with the fading of evangelical idealism. Nonetheless, Oberlin graduates accounted for a significant percentage of African-American college graduates by the end of the 19th century.
The college was listed as a National Historic Landmark on December 21, 1965, for its significance in admitting African Americans and women. Oberlin is the oldest coeducational institution in the United States, having admitted four women in 1837; these four women, who were the first to enter as full students, were Mary Kellogg, Mary Caroline Rudd, Mary Hosford, Elizabeth Prall. All but Kellogg graduated. Mary Jane Patterson graduated in 1862 as the first black woman to earn a B. A. degree. Soon women were integrated into the college, comprised from a third to half of the student body; the religious founders evangelical theologian Charles Grandison Finney, saw women as inherently morally superior to men. Oberlin stopped operating for seven months 1839 and 1840 due to lack of funds, making it the second oldest continuously operating coeducational liberal arts. Mahan, in conflict with faculty, resigned his position as president in 1850. In his place, famed abolitionist and preacher Charles Grandison Finney was made president, serving until 1866.
Under Finney's leadership, Oberlin's faculty and students increased their activity in the abolitionist movement. They participated together with people of the town in biracial efforts to help fugitive slaves on the Underground Railroad, as well as to resist the Fugitive Slave Act. One historian called Oberlin "the town that started the Civil War" due to its reputation as a hotbed of abolitionism. In 1858, both students and faculty were involved in the controversial Oberlin-Wellington Rescue of a fugitive slave, which received national press coverage. Two participants in this raid, Lewis Sheridan Leary and John Anthony Copeland, along with another Oberlin resident, Shields Green participated in John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry; this heritage was commemorated on campus by the 1977 installation of sculptor Cameron Armstrong's "Underground Railroad Monument" and monuments to the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue and the Harper's Ferry Rai
New College of Florida
New College of Florida is a public liberal arts honors college in Sarasota, Florida. It was founded as a private institution and is now an autonomous college of the State University System of Florida, it severed its ties with the University of South Florida in 2001 to become the eleventh independent school in the Florida State University System and adopted its current name: New College of Florida. New College was conceived during the late 1950s, founded in 1960 as a private college by local civic leaders for academically talented students. Financial assistance was provided by the Board of Homeland Missions of the United Church of Christ. George F. Baughman served as the first president from 1961 to 1965; the school offers a liberal arts education in the South and incorporates the core values of freedom of inquiry and the responsibility of individual students for their own education were to be implemented through a unique academic program. Open to students of all races and religious affiliations, New College opened its doors in 1964 to a premier class of 101 students.
Faculty members included the historian and philosopher, Arnold J. Toynbee, lured out of retirement to join the charter faculty. By 1972, New College's ranks had swelled to more than 500 students and it had become known for its teaching-focused faculty, its unique courses and curricula, its fiercely independent and hard-working students; as the 1970s progressed, although New College's academic program continued to mature, inflation threatened to undermine the economic viability of the institution. By 1975, the college was $3.9 million in debt and on the brink of insolvency, the University of South Florida expressed interest in buying the land and facilities of the near-bankrupt college to establish a branch campus for the Sarasota and Bradenton area. In an unusual agreement, the New College Board of Trustees agreed to hand over the school's campus and other assets to the state, at the time valued at $8.5 million, in exchange for the state paying off its debts and agreeing to continue to operate the school as a separate unit within the USF.
The agreement stated that New College was to receive the same funding, per-student, as other programs at USF. The former New College Board of Trustees became the New College Foundation, was required to raise money to supplement the state funds to reach the total necessary to run New College, at the time about a third of New College's $2-million-a-year operating budget. Under the agreement, New College was re-christened the "New College of the University of South Florida". USF started a Sarasota branch program that shared the bayfront campus, the schools began an uneasy relationship that would last for the next twenty-five years, with New College and the University of South Florida through its Sarasota branch program sharing the campus; as part of a major reorganization of Florida's public education system in 2001, New College severed its ties with USF, became the eleventh independent school in the Florida State University System, adopted its current name, New College of Florida. As part of its establishment as an independent university, the University of South Florida was directed to relocate its facilities away from the New College campus, which it did on August 28, 2006, when it opened a new campus for USF Sarasota-Manatee.
Today, as Florida's independent honors college, New College retains its original academic program, while enjoying the benefits and accessibility that being a public university affords. It is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. New College is governed by a 12-member Board of Trustees. Of the 12 members, three must be residents of Sarasota County and two must be residents of Manatee County. New College's 144-acre bayfront campus is located in west Sarasota, Florida fifty miles to the south of Tampa. Situated between Sarasota Bay and the Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport, the college lies within a public educational and historic district that includes the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art and the Asolo Repertory Theatre; the primary campus is located on the former Charles Ringling estate. The campus includes portions of The Uplands, a residential neighborhood, bounded by the historic bayfront campus to the south, Tamiami Trail to the east, Sarasota Bay to the west, most of which used to be a portion of the estate, the Seagate property to the north.
The campus's most remarkable structures are its three Florida 1920s boom time, grand-scale residences, the former home of Edith and Charles Ringling, the former home of Hester Ringling Lancaster Sanford, the former home of Ellen and Ralph Caples. The well-appointed structures date from the early to mid-1920s, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, are similar in style to the adjacent John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art and their residence, Cà d'Zan. Today, these gracious homes are used as classrooms, meeting rooms, offices and their expansive properties provide sites for the modern developments on the bayfront campus; the campus is home to several examples of high modernist architecture designed by I. M. Pei; these buildings include a complex of student residences known as "Pei", a cafeteria, a student center. The other dormitories are Dort and Palmer B. Five new dormitory buildings have been opened in the 2007–2008 school year, with the most recent opened in October 2007.
They are referred to as V, W, X, Y, Z. For most of the buildings naming donors have not been set in stone but the largest building, "Z" has been named by the Pritzker family, they have donated several times to the col