Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative center of the South Moravian Region in which it forms a separate district; the city has about 400,000 inhabitants. Brno is the seat of judicial authority of the Czech Republic – it is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office; the city is a significant administrative centre. It is the seat of a number of state authorities, including the Ombudsman, the Office for the Protection of Competition. Brno is an important centre of higher education, with 33 faculties belonging to 13 institutes of higher learning and about 89,000 students. Brno Exhibition Centre ranks among the largest exhibition centres in Europe; the complex opened in 1928 and established the tradition of large exhibitions and trade fairs held in Brno. Brno hosts motorbike and other races on the Masaryk Circuit, a tradition established in 1930, in which the Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is one of the most prestigious races.
Another cultural tradition is an international fireworks competition, Ignis Brunensis, that attracts tens of thousands of daily visitors. The most visited sights of the city include the Špilberk castle and fortress and the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul on Petrov hill, two medieval buildings that dominate the cityscape and are depicted as its traditional symbols; the other large preserved castle near the city is Veveří Castle by Brno Reservoir. This castle is the site of a number of legends. Another architectural monument of Brno is the functionalist Villa Tugendhat, included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. One of the natural sights nearby is the Moravian Karst; the city is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and has been designated as a "City of Music" in 2017. The etymology of the name Brno is disputed, it might be derived from the Old Czech brnie'muddy, swampy.' Alternative derivations are from a Slavic verb brniti or a Celtic language spoken in the area before it was overrun by Germanic peoples and Slavic peoples.
Throughout its history, Brno's locals referred to the town in other languages, including Brünn in German, ברין in Yiddish and Bruna in Latin. The city was referred to as Brunn in English, but this usage is not common today; the Asteroid 2889 Brno was named after the city, as well as the Bren light machine gun, one of the most famous weapons of World War II. The Brno basin has been inhabited since prehistoric times, but the town's direct predecessor was a fortified settlement of the Great Moravia Empire known as Staré Zámky, inhabited from the Neolithic Age to the early 11th century. In the early 11th century Brno was established as a castle of a non-ruling prince from the House of Přemyslid, Brno became one of the centres of Moravia along with Olomouc and Znojmo. Brno was first mentioned in Cosmas' Chronica Boëmorum dated to year 1091, when Bohemian king Vratislav II besieged his brother Conrad at Brno castle. In the mid 11th century, Moravia was divided into three separate territories. Seats of these rulers and thus "capitals" of these territories were castles and towns of Brno and Znojmo.
In the late 12th century, Moravia began forming the Margraviate of Moravia. Since until the mid of the 17th century, it was not clear which town should be the capital of Moravia. Political power was therefore "evenly" divided between Brno and Olomouc, but Znojmo played an important role; the Moravian Diet, the Moravian Land Tables, the Moravian Land Court were all seated in both cities at once. However, Brno was the official seat of the Moravian Margraves, its geographical position closer to Vienna became important. Otherwise, until 1642 Olomouc was larger than Brno by population, it was the seat of the only Roman Catholic diocese in Moravia. In 1243 Brno was granted the large and small city privileges by the King, thus it was recognized as a royal city. In 1324 Queen Elisabeth Richeza of Poland founded the current Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady, now her final resting place. In the 14th century, Brno became one of the centres for the Moravian regional assemblies, whose meetings alternated between Brno and Olomouc.
These assemblies made political and financial decisions. Brno and Olomouc were the seats of the Land Court and the Land Tables, thus they were the two most important cities in Moravia. From the mid 14th century to the early 15th century the Špilberk Castle had served as the permanent seat of the Margraves of Moravia. In the 15th century Brno was besieged in 1428 and again in 1430 by the Hussites during the Hussite Wars. Both attempts to conquer the city failed. In 1641, in the midst of the Thirty Years' War, the Holy Roman Emperor and Margrave of Moravia Ferdinand III commanded permanent relocation of the diet and the land
Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The Major League Baseball All-Star Game known as the "Midsummer Classic", is an annual professional baseball game sanctioned by Major League Baseball contested between the All-Stars from the American League and National League selected by fans for starting fielders, by managers for pitchers, by managers and players for reserves. The game occurs on either the second or third Tuesday in July, is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the MLB season. Both of the major leagues share an All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled on the day before or two days after the All-Star Game itself; some additional events and festivities associated with the game take place each year close to and during this break in the regular season. No official MLB All-Star Game was held in 1945 including the official selection of players due to World War II travel restrictions. Two All-Star Games were held each season from 1959 to 1962; the most recent All-Star Game was held on July 17, 2018, at Nationals Park, home of the National League's Washington Nationals.
The 2019 and 2020 All-Star Games are scheduled to be held in Cleveland and Los Angeles, respectively. A Major League Baseball All-Star is a professional baseball player, named to either the American League or National League All-Star Team. Major league All-Star namings began in July 1933. Fans have participated in the selection of the players who fill the AL and NL All-Star rosters. Between 1935 and 1946, each All-Star team's manager selected their entire teams. From 1959 through 1962, All-Stars played in two All-Star Games each season. On January 29, 1936, Babe Ruth became the first of the original thirty-six All-Stars to be inducted in the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Hank Aaron holds the record for the most All-Star Game appearances. In 2017, each All-Star team had 32 players, with fans voting for the starting players, the players selecting the reserve players for each position and five starting pitchers and three relief pitchers; the final All-Star player vote still exists, but the MLB commissioner's office will now fill out the remaining roster spots instead of the managers.
The 90th Installment will be played in Progressive Field, home of the AL central's Cleveland Indians. The first All-Star Game was held on July 6, 1933, as part of the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago, at Comiskey Park and was initiated by Arch Ward sports editor for the Chicago Tribune. Intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one; the venue for the All-Star Game is chosen by Major League Baseball. The criteria for the venue are subjective. Over time, this has resulted in certain cities being selected more at the expense of others due to timely circumstances: Cleveland Stadium and the original Yankee Stadium are tied for the most times a venue has hosted the All-Star game, both hosting four games. New York City has hosted more than any other city, having done so nine times in five different stadiums. At the same time, the New York Mets failed to host for 48 seasons, while the Los Angeles Dodgers have not hosted since 1980 and will do so in 2020. Among current major league teams, the Tampa Bay Rays have yet to host the All-Star game.
In the first two decades of the game there were two pairs of teams that shared ballparks, located in Philadelphia and St. Louis; this led to some shorter-than-usual gaps between the use of those venues: The Cardinals hosted the game in 1940, the Browns in 1948. The Athletics hosted the game in 1943, the Phillies in 1952; the venues traditionally alternate between the American National League every year. This tradition has been broken several times: The first time was in 1951, when the AL Detroit Tigers were chosen to host the annual game as part of the city's 250th birthday; the second was when the two-game format during the 1959–1962 seasons resulted in the AL being one game ahead in turn. This was corrected in 2007, when the NL San Francisco Giants were the host for the 2007 All-Star Game, which set up the 2008 game to be held at the AL's original Yankee Stadium in its final season, it was broken when again the NL hosted the four straight games from 2015-2018. The AL will host its next game in 2019 in Cleveland.
The "home team" has traditionally been the league in which the host franchise plays its games, but the American League was designated the home team for the 2016 All Star Game, despite its being played in Petco Park, home of the National League's San Diego Padres. This decision was made following the announcement of Miami as host for the 2017 All Star Game, the third straight year in which the game is hosted in a National League ballpark. Since 1934, the managers of the game are the managers of the previous year's league pennant winners and World Series clubs; the coaching staff for each team is selected by its manager. This honor is given to the manager, not the team, so it is possible that the All-Star manager could no longer be
The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which aspired to major league status, it is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of every season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2018, American League teams have won 66 of the 114 World Series played since 1903, with 27 of those coming from the New York Yankees alone; the New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and the Boston Red Sox. A minor league known as the Western League which existed 1885 to 1899, with teams in Great Lakes states, the newly organized Western League developed into a rival major league after the previous American Association disbanded after ten seasons as a competitor to the older National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, founded in 1876.
In its early history of the late 1880s, the minor Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league. Johnson led the Western League into elevation as claiming major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League of Professional Baseball Clubs in 1901; the American League was founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin at the former Republican Hotel by five Irishmen. George Herman Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees; the American League has one notable difference versus the rival National League, in that in modern times since 1973 it has had the designated hitter rule. Under the rule, a team may use a batter in its lineup, not in the field defensively, replacing the pitcher in the batting order, compared to the old rule that made it mandatory for the pitcher to bat. In the last two decades, the season schedule has allowed occasional interleague play.
Until the late 1970s, league umpires working behind home plate wore large, balloon-style chest protectors worn outside the shirt or coat, while their brethren in the National League wore chest protectors inside the shirt or coat. In 1977, new umpires had to wear the inside chest protector, although those on staff wearing the outside protector could continue to do so. Most umpires made the switch to the inside protector, led by Don Denkinger in 1975 and Jim Evans the next year, although several did not, including Bill Haller, Lou DiMuro, George Maloney, Jerry Neudecker, who became the last MLB umpire to use the outside protector in 1985. In 1994, the league, along with the National League, reorganized again, into three divisions and added a third round to the playoffs in the form of the American League Division Series, with the best second-place team advancing to the playoffs as a wild-card team, in addition to the three divisional champions. In 1998, the newly franchised Tampa Bay Devil Rays joined the league, the Arizona Diamondbacks joined the National League: i.e. each league each added a fifteenth team.
An odd number of teams per league meant that at least one team in each league would have to be idle on any given day, or alternatively that odd team out would have had to play an interleague game against its counterpart in the other league. The initial plan was to have three five-team divisions per league with inter league play year-round—possibly as many as 30 interleague games per team each year. For various reasons, it soon seemed more practical to have an number of teams in both leagues; the Milwaukee Brewers agreed moving from the AL Central to the NL Central. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers were moved from the AL East to the AL Central, making room for the Devil Rays in the East. Following the move of the Houston Astros, in the NL for 51 years since beginning as an expansion team in 1962, to the American League in 2013, both leagues now consist of 15 teams, a far cry from their original 8 for the first half-century of the 20th century. For the first 96 years, American League teams faced their National League counterparts only in exhibition games or in the World Series.
Beginning in 1997, interleague games have been played during the regular season and count in the standings. As part of the agreement instituting interleague play, the designated-hitter rule is used only in games where the American League team is the home team. There were eight charter teams in 1901, the league's first year as a major league, the next year the original Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis to become the St. Louis Browns; these franchises constituted the league for 52 seasons, until the Browns moved to Baltimore and took up the name Baltimore Orioles. All eight original franchises remain in the American League, although only four remain in the original cities; the eight original teams and their counterparts in the "Classic Eight" were: original Baltimore Orioles (went b
New York Mets
The New York Mets are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of Queens. The Mets compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League East division; the Mets are one of two Major League clubs based in New York City. One of baseball's first expansion teams, the Mets were founded in 1962 to replace New York's departed NL teams, the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Giants; the Mets' colors are composed of the Dodgers' blue and the Giants' orange, which form the outer two bands of the New York City flag. During the 1962 and 1963 seasons, the Mets played their home games at the Polo Grounds. From 1964 to 2008, the Mets' home ballpark was Shea Stadium. In 2009, they moved into Citi Field. In their 1962 inaugural season, the Mets posted a record of 40–120, the worst regular season record since MLB went to a 162-game schedule; the team never finished better than second to last until the 1969 "Miracle Mets" beat the Baltimore Orioles in the 1969 World Series in what is considered one of the biggest upsets in World Series history.
Since they have played in four additional World Series, including a dramatic run in 1973 that ended in a seven-game loss to the Oakland Athletics, a second championship in 1986 over the Boston Red Sox, a Subway Series loss against their cross-town rivals the New York Yankees in 2000, a five-game loss to the Kansas City Royals in 2015. The Mets qualified to play in the Major League Baseball postseason in 1988 and 2006, coming within one game of the World Series both years. After near-misses in 2007 and 2008, the Mets made the playoffs in 2015 for the first time in nine years, won their first NL pennant in 15 years; the team again returned to the playoffs in this time with a wild card berth. This was the team's second back-to-back playoff appearance, the first occurring during the 1999 and 2000 seasons; as of the end of the 2018 MLB season, the Mets overall win-loss record is 4362–4732, good for a.480 win percentage. After the 1957 season, the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants relocated from New York to California to become the Los Angeles Dodgers and San Francisco Giants leaving the largest city in the United States with no National League franchise and only one major league team, the New York Yankees of the American League.
With the threat of a New York team joining a new third league, the National League expanded by adding the New York Mets following a proposal from William Shea. In a symbolic reference to New York's earlier National League teams, the new team took as its primary colors the blue of the Dodgers and the orange of the Giants, colors featured on the Flag of New York City; the nickname "Mets" was adopted: it was a natural shorthand to the club's corporate name, "The New York Metropolitan Baseball Club, Inc.", hearkened back to the "Metropolitans", its brevity was advantageous for newspaper headlines. For the first two years of its existence, the team played its home games at the historic Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan. In 1964, they moved into newly constructed Shea Stadium in Flushing, where the Mets played until the 2008 season. In 2009, the club moved into Citi Field, adjacent to the former Shea Stadium site. During their history, the Mets have won two World Series titles, five National League pennants and six National League East titles.
The Mets qualified for the postseason as the National League wild card team in 1999, 2000, 2016. The Mets have appeared in five World Series, more than any other expansion team in MLB history, their two championships are the most titles among expansion teams, equal to the tallies of the Toronto Blue Jays, Miami Marlins, Kansas City Royals. The Mets held the New York baseball single-season attendance record for 29 years, they broke the Yankees' 1948 record by drawing nearly 2.7 million spectators in 1970. The Mets broke their own record five times before the record was regained by the Yankees in 1999; the 1962 Mets posted a 40–120 record, a record for the most losses in a season since 1899. In 1966, the Mets famously bypassed future Hall of Famer Reggie Jackson in the amateur draft, instead selecting Steve Chilcott, who never played in the majors, but the following year, they acquired future Hall of Famer Tom Seaver in a lottery. Seaver helped the 1969 "Miracle Mets" win the new National League East division title defeat the Atlanta Braves to win the National League pennant and the favored Baltimore Orioles to win the 1969 World Series.
In 1973, the Mets rallied from 5th place to win the division, despite a record of only 82–79. They shocked the favored Cincinnati Reds "Big Red Machine" in the NLCS and pushed the defending World Series champion Oakland Athletics to a seventh game, but lost the series. Notably, 1973 was the only NL East title between 1970 and 1980 that wasn't won by either the Philadelphia Phillies or the Pittsburgh Pirates. Star pitcher Tom Seaver was traded in 1977, on a day remembered as "the Midnight Massacre", the Mets fell into last place for several years; the franchise turned around in the mid-1980s. During this time the Mets drafted slugger Darryl Strawberry and 1985 Cy Young Award winner Dwight Gooden. In addition, former National League MVP and perennial Gold Glove winner Keith Hernandez was obtained by the Mets in 1983. In 1985, they acquired Hall of Fame catcher Gary Carter from the Montreal Expos and won 98 games, but narrowly missed the playoffs. In 1986, they won the division with a record of 108–54, one of the best in National Le
Thomas J. Hanson Jr. was an American professional baseball pitcher in Major League Baseball. He played for the Atlanta Braves and Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Hanson made his MLB debut with Atlanta on June 7, 2009 and played with the Braves through 2012, he pitched his final Major League season in 2013 with the Angels. Hanson was born on August 28, 1986, in Tulsa, Oklahoma as the second child and only son in his family. After moving to California at a young age, Hanson attended Redlands East Valley High School in Redlands, where he played baseball under coach Steve Hernandez. Hanson played catcher as a freshman, first base the next year, he was placed on the mound in his junior season, committed to Sacramento State University as a senior. Hanson graduated in June 2004, instead electing to continue his post-secondary education at Riverside Community College, where he was coached by Dennis Rogers, he played for the Corvallis Knights in the West Coast League, an independent summer collegiate baseball league.
In 2005, he was selected in the 22nd round by the Atlanta Braves as a draft-and-follow pick. The following year, in 2006, Hanson began playing for the Danville Braves of the Appalachian League. In Danville, he began the season as the league's fourth-best prospect according to Baseball America; that season, Hanson ended up starting Game 2 of the Appalachian League Championship Series, finishing the season 4–1 with 56 strikeouts against nine walks. He had a 2.09 earned run average with a 0.99 walks plus hits per inning pitched ratio. Before the 2007 season began, Hanson was named the best pitching prospect in the South Atlantic League and the ninth-best prospect in the Braves system. Hanson began the 2007 season in Class A; when in Rome, Hanson amassed a 2–6 record with a 2.59 ERA in 14 starts. Midway through the season, Hanson was called up to the Myrtle Beach Pelicans a Class A team for the Atlanta Braves, he ended up finishing the season at 3–3 with a 4.20 ERA in 11 starts. Hanson began the year in Myrtle Beach.
In his first start, Hanson pitched five no-hit innings and recorded a career-best 13 strikeouts. Over his seven starts with the Pelicans, he allowed 15 hits in 40 innings; that stat, along with his 3–1 record and 0.90 ERA, earned him a promotion to the Braves' Double-A affiliate, the Mississippi Braves. At Mississippi, Hanson threw a no-hitter in his ninth start while setting a new career high for strikeouts with 14. Hanson finished the 2008 season with Mississippi, he finished 8–4 with a 3.03 ERA in 18 starts. Following the Minor League season, Hanson won the MiLBY for Class A Advanced Single Game Performance, he won this award for his performance with the Myrtle Beach Pelicans. Hanson was named the Atlanta Braves Pitcher of the Year and placed on Baseball America's Minor League Team of the Year. Hanson was invited to the Arizona Fall League to showcase his pitching, he compiled a 5–0 record with a 0.63 ERA while racking up 49 strikeouts in 28.2 innings. Hanson was named the first pitcher to receive this award.
He was ranked #24 on MLB.com's Postseason Top 50 Prospects list prior to the 2009 season. In the 2008 offseason, the Atlanta Braves were one of multiple teams that were interested in trading for San Diego Padres pitcher Jake Peavy. Hanson's name was mentioned throughout the proceedings, he was considered by Baseball America to be the top prospect in the Braves' farm system heading into the 2009 season. Hanson began the 2009 season with the Gwinnett Braves. Hanson was called up by the Atlanta Braves on June 2009 after the team cut Tom Glavine, he made his debut on June 7 against the Milwaukee Brewers, pitching 6 innings, striking out 5, giving up 6 earned runs, 3 home runs, receiving a no decision. He gave up two home runs to Ryan Braun, the first being the first hit allowed in Hanson's major league career. On June 12, Hanson earned his first win against the Baltimore Orioles. On June 28, he threw six scoreless innings against the Boston Red Sox, allowing just 2 hits and 2 walks to improve his career major league record to 4–0 and lowered his ERA to 2.48.
In his first 4 major league victories, his combined ERA was 0.78. At one point in the season he had thrown 20 consecutive shutout innings and became the first National League rookie pitcher to win consecutive starts against the Yankees and the Red Sox. For his efforts, Hanson was named June's NL Rookie of the Month, he was sent down to Single A Myrtle Beach on July 10, recalled to start an 11–3 win against the San Francisco Giants on July 21. Hanson's first loss came against the team against which he debuted, the Milwaukee Brewers, on July 25, he began another scoreless innings streak of nineteen on September 10, with eight against the Houston Astros, followed by seven against the New York Mets, before losing 4–2 to the Philadelphia Phillies on September 20. Hanson finished third in voting for the National League Rookie of the Year award. Hanson finished the 2010 campaign with a 10–11 record, 3.33 ERA, 1.17 WHIP. He set a career-high in innings-pitched with 202.2, surrendering 182 hits while striking out 173 batters and walking 56.
On June 12, Hanson set a new career high of 14 strikeouts in a game against the Houston Astros, which matched the most strikeouts recorded by a pitcher at Minute Maid Park. The pitcher who set the record of 14 strikeouts at Minute Maid Park was Bud Norris. At the All-Star break, Hanson led the league in opponents' batting average, was fourth in ERA, third in K/9, second in WHIP (1.0
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Earned run average
In baseball statistics, earned run average is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. Today, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The all-time single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourne's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining low ERAs, compared to National League pitchers who can get an easy