Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time (film)
Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time is a 2010 American action fantasy film directed by Mike Newell. The film was written by Jordan Mechner, Boaz Yakin, Doug Miro, Carlo Bernard, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, released by Walt Disney Pictures on May 28, 2010; the film stars Jake Gyllenhaal as Prince Dastan, Gemma Arterton as Princess Tamina, Ben Kingsley as Nizam, Alfred Molina as Sheik Amar. The film has the same title as the video game Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time developed and published by Ubisoft, is based on it. Elements from Warrior Within and The Two Thrones, the two other titles from the Sands of Time trilogy of the Prince of Persia video game franchise, are incorporated; the film was premiered in London on May 5, 2010 and was released on May 28, 2010 in the United States. The film received mixed reviews from critics, who shared the consensus that the film was an improvement over other video game adaptations and giving praise to the score, action scenes and the acting performances, while showing negative attention towards the screenplay and departure from the source material.
It grossed over $336 million against a production budget of $150–200 million, it was the highest-grossing video game film at the time of its release. Setting The film seems to be set in ancient Persia, as the film starts with a map portending to show the expanse of the Persian Empire 2500 years ago; the film set design seems to be based on Islamic Persia. Islamic architecture with intricate use of geometric shapes and domes are shown; the cities in the film all appear to have minarets. The Allied Kingdom of Alamut, shown in the movie wasn't established until 9th century. Storyline Dastan, a street urchin in Persia, is adopted by King Sharaman after showing courage. Fifteen years the king's brother Nizam relays evidence to the princes—Dastan, along with the king's biological sons Tus and Garsiv—that the holy city of Alamut is forging weapons for Persia's enemies. Tus directs the Persian army to capture Alamut. Dastan and his friends open a gate for the siege. During the attack, Dastan takes from him a sacred dagger.
Alamut falls to the Persians. Tus asks her to marry him to unite the two nations, she only accepts after seeing the dagger in Dastan's possession. At their celebratory banquet, Tus has Dastan give their father an embroidered robe; the robe is poisoned. Garsiv accuses Dastan of the king's murder. Tus sets a bounty on Dastan's head. While in hiding, Tamina attempts to kill Dastan and steal the dagger, in the struggle Dastan discovers the dagger enables the wielder to travel back in time. Dastan concludes that Tus invaded Alamut for the dagger, decides to confront his brother at the funeral of the king in Avrat. On the way, the two are captured by merchant-bandits led by Sheik Amar who seeks the reward money, but they manage to escape. After arriving in Avrat, Dastan tries to convince his uncle Nizam of his innocence. Seeing burns on Nizam's hands, Dastan realizes. Furthermore, Nizam has set up an ambush for Dastan along the Persian streets, but after a conflict with Garsiv, Dastan escapes. Nizam sends a group of the Hassansins, to kill Dastan and find the dagger.
During a sandstorm, Tamina tells Dastan that long ago, the gods unleashed a great sandstorm to destroy humanity but were moved by a young girl's offer to sacrifice herself in humanity's place and trapped the Sands of Time in a large sandglass. Tamina is the latest guardian of the dagger, given to the young girl by the gods, which can pierce the sandglass and destroy the world but enable the dagger's wielder to travel further back in time than the one minute's worth of sand the dagger holds. Dastan realizes that Nizam intends to travel back to his childhood, prevent himself from saving Sharaman from a lion attack, grow up to be king of Persia in Sharaman's place. Amar captures the two again. Amar is convinced to escort them to a sanctuary near Hindu Kush, where Tamina will seal the dagger within the stone it first came from. At the sanctuary, they are found by Garsiv, whom Dastan convinces of his innocence, but the Hassansins ambush them, killing Garsiv and stealing the dagger. Dastan's group travels back to Alamut to warn Tus of Nizam.
Amar's right-hand man Seso dies retrieving the dagger for Dastan, who demonstrates the dagger's powers to Tus to convince him of the truth. Afterwards, Nizam interrupts them, kills Tus, takes the dagger back. Tamina saves Dastan from being killed and the two head for the secret underground tunnels beneath the city that lead to the sandglass; when they reach Nizam, he throws them both off a cliff. Tamina sacrifices herself, releasing Dastan's hand and falling to her death to allow him to fight Nizam; when Dastan removes the dagger from the sandglass, time rewinds to the moment. Dastan exposes Nizam's treachery. Nizam is subdued and killed by Tus. Tus apologizes to Tamina for the siege and proposes to strengthen the two nations' bond by marrying her to Dastan. Dastan returns the dagger to Tamina as an engagement gift and tells her he looks forward to their future together. Jake Gyllenhaal as Prince Dastan of Persia William Foster as Young Dastan Gemma Arterton as Tamina, Princess of Alamut Ben Kingsley as Prince Nizam of
Joan Ann Olivier, Baroness Olivier, DBE known as Dame Joan Plowright, is a retired English actress whose career has spanned over six decades. She has won two Golden Globe Awards and a Tony Award and has been nominated for an Academy Award, an Emmy and two BAFTA Awards, she is one of only four actresses to have won two Golden Globes in the same year. Plowright was born in Brigg, the daughter of Daisy Margaret and William Ernest Plowright, a journalist and newspaper editor, she trained at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School in London. Plowright made her stage debut at Croydon in 1948 and her London debut in 1954. In 1956 she joined the English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre and was cast as Margery Pinchwife in The Country Wife, she appeared with George Devine in the Eugène Ionesco play, The Chairs, Shaw's Major Barbara and Saint Joan. In 1957, she co-starred with Sir Laurence Olivier in the original London production of John Osborne's The Entertainer, taking over the role of Jean Rice from Dorothy Tutin when the play transferred from the Royal Court to the Palace Theatre.
She continued to appear in films such as The Entertainer. In 1961, she received a Tony Award for her role in A Taste of Honey on Broadway. Through her marriage to Laurence Olivier, she became associated with his work at the National Theatre from 1963 onwards. In the 1990s she began to appear more in films, including Enchanted April, for which she won a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination, Dennis the Menace, a cameo in Last Action Hero and Tea With Mussolini, she was the Nanny in 101 Dalmatians. Among her television roles, she won another Golden Globe Award and earned an Emmy Award nomination for the HBO film Stalin in 1992 as the Soviet dictator's mother-in-law. In 1994, she was awarded the Women in Film Crystal Award. In 2003, Plowright performed in the stage production Absolutely! in London. She was appointed honorary president of the English Stage Company in March 2009, succeeding John Mortimer, who died in January 2009, she was vice-president of the company. Plowright was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1970 New Year Honours and was promoted to Dame Commander in the 2004 New Year Honours.
Plowright's eyesight declined during the late 2000s and early 2010s due to macular degeneration. In 2014, she announced her retirement from acting because she had become blind. Plowright was first married to Roger Gage, an actor, in September 1953, she divorced him and, in 1961, married Laurence Olivier after the ending of his 20-year marriage with the actress Vivien Leigh. The couple had three children, Hon. Richard Kerr Olivier, Hon. Tamsin Agnes Margaret Olivier and Hon. Julie-Kate Olivier. Both daughters are actresses; the couple remained married until Lord Olivier's death in 1989. Her brother, David Plowright, was an executive at Granada Television; the Plowright Theatre in Scunthorpe is named in Plowright's honour. Upon her marriage to Sir Laurence Olivier, her formal title became Lady Olivier, her husband was made so she became Baroness Olivier. Professionally, she is known as Dame Joan Plowright; as of 2004 her full and official title, as the widow of a peer and Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire, is The Right Honourable The Baroness Olivier DBE.
Joan Plowright on IMDb Joan Plowright at the Internet Broadway Database Joan Plowright at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Performances listed in Theatre Archive University of Bristol Joan Plowright at the BFI's Screenonline
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Rupert Alexander Lloyd Grint is an English actor and producer. He rose to prominence for his portrayal of Ron Weasley, one of the three main characters in the Harry Potter film series. Grint was cast as Ron at the age of 11, having acted only in school plays and at his local theatre group. From 2001 to 2011, he starred in all eight Harry Potter films. Beginning in 2002, Grint began to work outside of the Harry Potter franchise, playing a co-leading role in Thunderpants, he has had starring roles in Driving Lessons, a dramedy released in 2006, Cherrybomb, a drama film of limited release in 2010. Grint co-starred with Emily Blunt in Wild Target, a comedy, his first film project following the end of the Harry Potter series was the 2012 anti-war film, Into the White, in which he has a supporting role. In 2013, Grint's new film CBGB was released and he was cast in CBS's new show Super Clyde. Grint made his stage debut in Jez Butterworth's Mojo in October 2013 at the Harold Pinter Theatre in London. In 2014 he voiced the character of Josh in Postman Pat: The Movie, in 2017, he starred in and was executive producer of the television series Snatch, based on the film of the same name.
Grint was born in Harlow, England, to Nigel Grint, a dealer in racing memorabilia, Joanne Grint. Grint is the eldest of five siblings, the others being James, Georgina and Charlotte, he has stated. He attended Richard Hale School, in Hertford. While in school, Grint took an avid interest in theatre, he started performing in school productions and joined the Top Hat Stage and Screen School, a local theatre group that cast him as a fish in Noah's Ark and a donkey in another nativity play. He continued. However, Grint had never acted professionally before the Harry Potter series. At the age of 16, he left school to focus on his acting career. "I didn't like school that much," he commented. Starting in 2000, casting began for the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, the best-selling novel written by author J. K. Rowling. Rowling insisted that the cast be British and assisted Susie Figgis and director Chris Columbus in casting the roles. Grint chose to audition for the role of protagonist Ron Weasley, one of Harry Potter's best friends at Hogwarts, was a fan of the book series.
Having seen a Newsround report about the open casting, he sent in a video of himself rapping about how he wished to receive the role. His attempt was successful. On 8 August 2000, Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson, an 11-year-old Grint were selected to play the roles of Harry, Hermione Granger, Ron, respectively. Grint is the oldest member of the trio; the release of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 2001 was Grint's debut screen performance. Breaking records for opening-day sales and opening-weekend takings, it was the highest-grossing film of that year. With a total of US$974 million in its theatrical run, Philosopher's Stone stands as the second most commercially successful entry in the series, it was critically well-received, scoring positive reviews from critics. However, a number of critics found the adaption staying faithful to the book to be both its best and worst quality. Grint won a Satellite Award in the category of "Outstanding New Talent", a Young Artist Award for "Most Promising Young Newcomer".
A year Grint again starred as Ron in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, the second instalment of the series. The film opened to positive reviews and critics enjoyed the lead actors' performances. Both Los Angeles Times and New York Magazine observed that Grint and his peers had matured between films, with the latter pointing out that Grint had become "more proficient" and said they missed "the amateurish ardour" the actor and Watson carried in Philosopher's Stone. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was released on 31 May in the UK; the film sees all three of its lead characters hover on the brink of adolescence, "and while they look braver and more capable than before, the dangers they face seem far more grave and their own vulnerability more intense." Academy Award-nominee Alfonso Cuarón took over direction for Prisoner of Azkaban which remains the lowest-grossing Harry Potter film with US$795 million in revenue. Nonetheless it was the second highest-grossing movie of 2004 behind Shrek 2.
In 2005, Grint reprised his role for the fourth film in the series – Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. The adaptation, unlike previous films, included more humour. In a 2005 interview with IGN, all three lead actors singled out the humour as being a reason for the film's success; this project was directed by Mike Newell. According to the actor, the director was "really loud and not afraid to swear at you, but he was cool." Goblet of Fire stands as one of the best reviewed instalments within the series, is noted for the maturity and sophistication of its characters and more complex plotline and performances of the lead actors. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the fifth film in the Harry Potter franchise, was released to cinemas in 2007. A huge financial success, Order of the Phoenix set a record worldwide opening-weekend gross of US$394 million, superseding Spider-Man 3 as the title holder; this entry was directed by a new filmmaker, David Yates, who would continue to direct all of the following movies.
Grint helped keep the material fresh. As the fame of the actor and the series continued, Gri
Ralph Nathaniel Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes is an English actor, film producer, director. A Shakespeare interpreter, he first achieved success onstage at the Royal National Theatre. Fiennes's portrayal of Nazi war criminal Amon Göth in Schindler's List earned him nominations for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role, his performance as Count Almásy in The English Patient garnered him a second Academy Award nomination, for Best Actor, as well as BAFTA and Golden Globe nominations. Since Fiennes has been in a number of notable films, including Quiz Show, Strange Days, The End of the Affair, Red Dragon, Maid in Manhattan, The Constant Gardener, In Bruges, The Reader, Clash of the Titans, Great Expectations and The Grand Budapest Hotel, he voiced Rameses in The Prince of Alfred Pennyworth in The Lego Batman Movie. Fiennes is known for his roles in major film franchises such as the Harry Potter film series, in which he played Lord Voldemort, the James Bond series, in which he has played Gareth Mallory / M, starting with the 2012 film Skyfall.
In 2011, Fiennes made his directorial debut with his film adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Coriolanus, in which he played the title character. Fiennes won a Tony Award for playing Prince Hamlet on Broadway. Since 1999, Fiennes has served as an ambassador for UNICEF UK. One of the highest profile actors in contemporary British popular culture, Fiennes appeared on Debrett's 2017 list of the most influential people in the UK. Fiennes is an Honorary Associate of London Film School. Fiennes was born in Ipswich, on 22 December 1962, he is the eldest child of Mark Fiennes, a farmer and photographer, Jennifer Lash, a writer. He has English and Scottish ancestry, his surname is of Norman origin. His grandfathers were Brigadier Henry Alleyne Lash, his great-great-uncle was Edward Pomeroy Colley, a civil engineer and first-class passenger who died in the sinking of RMS Titanic. Fiennes is an eighth cousin of Charles, Prince of Wales, a third cousin of adventurer Ranulph Fiennes and author William Fiennes.
He is the eldest of six children. His siblings are actor Joseph Fiennes, his foster brother, Michael Emery, is an archaeologist. His nephew Hero Fiennes-Tiffin played Tom Riddle, young Lord Voldemort, in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince; the Fiennes family moved to Ireland in 1973, living in County Kilkenny for some years. Fiennes was educated at St Kieran's College for one year, followed by Newtown School, a Quaker independent school in County Waterford, they moved to Salisbury in England, where Fiennes finished his schooling at Bishop Wordsworth's School. He went on to pursue painting at Chelsea College of Art before deciding that acting was his true passion. Fiennes trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art between 1983 and 1985, he began his career at the Open Air Theatre, Regent's Park and at the National Theatre before achieving prominence at the Royal Shakespeare Company. Fiennes first worked on screen in 1990 and made his film debut in 1992 as Heathcliff in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights opposite Juliette Binoche.
1993 was his "breakout year". He had a major role in Peter Greenaway's film The Baby of Mâcon with Julia Ormond, which provoked controversy and was poorly received; that year he became known internationally for portraying the amoral Nazi concentration camp commandant Amon Göth in Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List. For this he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, he did win the Best Supporting Actor BAFTA Award for the role. His portrayal of Göth earned him a spot on the American Film Institute's list of Top 50 Film Villains. Fiennes shed it afterwards. Fiennes stated that playing the role had a profoundly disturbing effect on him. In a subsequent interview, Fiennes recalled, Evil is cumulative, it happens. People believe that they've got to do a job, they've got to take on an ideology, that they've got a life to lead. I mean, I could make a judgment myself this is a terrible, horrific man, but the job was to portray the human being. There's a sort of banality, that I think was important.
And it was in the screenplay. In fact, one of the first scenes with Oskar Schindler, with Liam Neeson, was a scene where I'm saying, "You don't understand how hard it is, I have to order so many-so many meters of barbed wire and so many fencing posts and I have to get so many people from A to B." And, you know, he's sort of letting off steam about the difficulties of the job. In 1994, he portrayed American academic Charles Van Doren in Quiz Show. In 1996 he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for the epic World War II romance The English Patient, in which he starred with Kristin Scott-Thomas. Fiennes' film work has encompassed a variety of genres, including thrillers, an animated Biblical epic, camp nostalgia, romantic comedy, historical drama. In 1999, Fiennes had the title role in Onegin, a film which he helped produce, his sist
Alfredo James Pacino is an American actor and filmmaker who has had a career spanning more than five decades. He has received numerous accolades and honors both competitive and honorary, among them an Academy Award, two Tony Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, a British Academy Film Award, four Golden Globe Awards, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award and the National Medal of Arts, he is one of few performers to have won a competitive Oscar, an Emmy and a Tony Award for acting, dubbed the "Triple Crown of Acting". A method actor and former student of the HB Studio and the Actors Studio in New York City, where he was taught by Charlie Laughton and Lee Strasberg, Pacino made his feature film debut with a minor role in Me, Natalie and gained favorable notice for his lead role as a heroin addict in The Panic in Needle Park, he achieved international acclaim and recognition for his breakthrough role as Michael Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather receiving his first Oscar nomination and would reprise the role in the successful sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III.
Pacino's performance as Michael Corleone in these films is regarded as one of the greatest screen performances in film history. Pacino received his first Best Actor Oscar nomination for Serpico, and Justice for All and won the award in 1993 for his performance as blind Lieutenant Colonel Slade in Scent of a Woman. For his performances in The Godfather, Dick Tracy and Glengarry Glen Ross, Pacino was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Other notable roles include Tony Montana in Scarface, Carlito Brigante in Carlito's Way, Lieutenant Vincent Hanna in Heat, Benjamin Ruggiero in Donnie Brasco, Lowell Bergman in The Insider and Detective Will Dormer in Insomnia. In television, Pacino has acted in several productions for HBO, including the miniseries Angels in America and the Jack Kevorkian biopic You Don't Know Jack. In addition to his work in film, Pacino has had an extensive career on stage, he is a two-time Tony Award winner, in 1969 and 1977, for his performances in Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? and The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, respectively.
A lifelong fan of Shakespeare, Pacino directed and starred in Looking for Richard, a documentary film about the play Richard III, a role which Pacino had earlier portrayed on stage in 1977. He has acted as Shylock in a 2004 feature film adaptation and a 2010 stage production of The Merchant of Venice. Having made his filmmaking debut with Looking for Richard, Pacino has directed and starred in the independent film Chinese Coffee and the films Wilde Salomé and Salomé, about the play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Since 1994, Pacino has been the joint president of the Actors Studio with Ellen Burstyn and Harvey Keitel. In 2016, he received the Kennedy Center Honor. Pacino was born in East Harlem, New York City, to Italian American parents Salvatore and Rose Pacino, his parents divorced. His mother took him to The Bronx where they lived with her parents and James Gerardi who were immigrants from Corleone, Sicily, his father, from San Fratello in the Province of Messina, moved to Covina, California to work as an insurance salesman and restaurateur.
In his teenage years, Pacino was known as "Sonny" to his friends. He had ambitions to become a baseball player and was nicknamed "The Actor". Pacino attended Herman Ridder Junior High School, but by secondary school he had dropped out of most of his classes except for English, he subsequently attended the High School of Performing Arts, after gaining admission by audition. His mother disagreed with his decision and, after an argument, he left home. To finance his acting studies, Pacino took low-paying jobs as messenger, busboy and postal clerk, once worked in the mailroom for Commentary magazine. Pacino began smoking and drinking at age nine, used marijuana casually at age 13, but he abstained from hard drugs, his two closest friends died from drug abuse at the ages of 19 and 30. Growing up in the Bronx, Pacino got into occasional fights and was considered somewhat of a troublemaker at school, he acted in basement plays in New York's theatrical underground but was rejected as a teenager by the Actors Studio.
Pacino joined the Herbert Berghof Studio, where he met acting teacher Charlie Laughton, who became his mentor and best friend. In this period, he was unemployed and homeless, sometimes slept on the street, in theaters, or at friends' houses. In 1962, his mother died at the age of 43; the following year, Pacino's grandfather James Gerardi died. Pacino recalled it as "the lowest point of my life". After four years at HB Studio, Pacino auditioned for the Actors Studio; the Actors Studio is a membership organization of professional actors, theatre directors, playwrights in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan. Pacino studied "method acting" under acting coach Lee Strasberg, who appeared with Pacino in the films The Godfather Part II and in... And Justice for All. During interviews he spoke about Strasberg and the Studio's effect on his career. "The Actors Studio meant so much to me in my life. Lee Strasberg hasn't been given the credit he deserves
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.