College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
William Franklin Kern was an American football player and coach. He played college football as a tackle at the University of Pittsburgh in 1925 and 1927 and with the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League in 1929 and 1930. Kern served as the head football coach at the Carnegie Institute of Technology from 1937 to 1939 and at West Virginia University from 1940 to 1942 and again in 1946 and 1947, compiling a career record of 36–35–2. In 1938, he led the Carnegie Tech Tartans to the Sugar Bowl, where they lost to the national champion TCU Horned Frogs, 15–7; as a player in college, he was a first team All-American tackle at the University of Pittsburgh in 1927. Following college, Kern played tackle for the NFL's Green Bay Packers in 1929 and 1930. Kern's tenure at West Virginia was interrupted by military service during World War II, he served as a lieutenant commander in the United States Navy from 1943 to 1945. List of college football head coaches with non-consecutive tenure Career statistics and player information from Pro-Football-Reference ·
Halfback (American football)
A halfback is an offensive position in American football, whose duties involve lining up in the backfield and carrying the ball on most rushing plays, i.e. a running back. When the principal ball carrier lines up deep in the backfield, when that player is placed behind another player, as in the I formation, that player is instead referred to as a tailback; the halfback position is one of the more glamorous positions on the field, is viewed as a requirement for a team's success. Sometimes the halfback can catch the ball from the backfield on short passing plays as he is an eligible receiver, they line up as additional wide receivers. When not running or catching the ball, the primary responsibility of a halfback is to aid the offensive linemen in blocking, either to protect the quarterback or another player carrying the football. Before the emergence of the T-formation in the 1940s, all members of the offensive backfield were legitimate threats to run or pass the ball. Most teams used four offensive backs on every play: a quarterback, two halfbacks, a fullback.
The quarterback began each play a quarter of the way back, the halfbacks began each play side by side and halfway back, the fullback began each play the farthest back. From the 1870s through the 1950s, the halfback position was both an offensive and defensive position. Now that most offensive formations have only one or two running backs, the original designations do not mean as much, as the fullback is now a lead blocker, while the halfback or tailback lines up behind the fullback. There has been a shift in most offense’s dependence on halfbacks, as the quarterback is now considered the most essential part of a team. However, the average output of the halfback has not changed. In the related sport of Canadian football, halfback is a defensive rather than offensive position since the 1980s, though used to refer to an offensive position similar to a slotback that could line up off the tight end or behind the quarterback. Older systems require the halfback be proficient at throwing the ball downfield as well.
Many of the "scat backs" in the modern era produce more total yards and touchdowns than their ancestor "power backs" by breaking off big plays on outside runs and receptions. The spread offense and the hurry-up offense change the halfback’s role but create more opportunity for these plays; the spread, the hurry-up, the pro-style offenses dominate American football but the "smash-mouth" style of play is far from extinct. A power-running scheme is utilized to counter an effective Spread attack, as it allows a team to control the clock and keep the ball out of the opposing offense’s control; this strategy is utilized in NFL, all other forms of American football. The need for "power backs" is prevalent, alongside the need for "scat backs", anything in between. In the past few decades the role of the halfback has gone through a great shift as most offensive game plans are now fueled by creativity and finesse instead of raw force. Stamina and durability is more important than in the hurry-up offense.
On the other hand, speed is valued over strength, pass-catching ability is sometimes valued over blocking proficiency. Power was once the most desired trait in a halfback, but has been over taken by the need for a diverse skill set. In the last few decades the running back’s individual share of offensive output has declined as quarterbacks are treated as the cornerstone of the offense; the demands of an up-tempo offense favor a multiple running back system. From the dawn of American football through the 1880s most offensive schemes focused on the running game. In a running based game plan the halfback was the cornerstone of the offense; this system focused on a physical run attack concentrated in the inside of the field, therefore depended on a skilled "power back." There were no forward passes, pure speed took a backseat to tackle-breaking and bucking ability. There was a focus on physicality over finesse, as this type of playing style earned the moniker of "smash mouth" football. Back Willie Heston of Fielding Yost's "point-a-minute" Michigan team has been acknowledged as the first to play at what was designated as the tailback position on offense.
Prior to Heston, left halfbacks ran plays in one direction, right halfbacks ran plays in the other direction. Because of Heston's speed and agility, Yost placed Heston in the tailback position so that he could carry the ball on plays to either side of the line. Heston's charging ability and open-field running have been credited with leading to the origin of the "seven man line and a diamond on defense." Minnesota's College Football Hall of Fame coaching staff of Henry L. Williams and Pudge Heffelfinger devised the strategy in 1903 to stop Heston. Minnesota had used the then-traditional nine-man line with the fullback backing up the line and a safety man down the field. Heffelfinger suggested that the halfbacks be pulled out of the line and stationed behind the tackles, thus requiring Heston to break through an initial seven-man line and a secondary line consisting of the fullback and two halfbacks. Known as the Minnesota shift, the formation became a standard practice. In 1936, Arch Ward credited Heston with leading to one of the "noteworthy transitions" in football history.
The sport's first triple threat, Bradbury Robinson of St. Louis University, passed and punted out of the halfback position, it was as a halfback that Robinson threw the first legal forward pass to teammate Jack Schneider in a game at Carroll College on September 5, 1906. Half
Dick Todd (American football)
Richard S. Todd was an American football player and coach for the Washington Redskins of the National Football League. During his eight-year playing career between 1939 and 1948, Todd played both offense and defense as a fullback and defensive back. In his career, Todd had 11 touchdowns rushing, he scored two touchdowns on punt returns. Todd was named interim coach of the Redskins for nine games in the 1951 season, amassing a 5–4 record. Four years Todd was named head coach for the final two Midwestern State Mustangs football team seasons in 1955 and 1956 before the program was placed on a five-year moratorium which would last 32 seasons, he played college football at Texas A&M University. Dick Todd at Find a Grave
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
George Preston Marshall
George Preston Marshall was an American businessman, the owner and president of the Washington Redskins of the National Football League, from their inception in 1932 in Boston until his death in 1969. Marshall was born in West Virginia, his parents were Blanche Preston Marshall. In 1925, while he was the owner of a chain of laundries in Washington, D. C. founded by his father, he owned the Washington Palace Five basketball team known as the Palace Five Laundrymen from his laundry chain. The team folded in 1928. In 1932, he and three other partners were awarded an NFL franchise for Boston; this team became known as the Boston Braves, as they played on the same field as baseball's Boston Braves. Marshall's partners left the team after one season. In 1933 he moved the team from Braves Field to Fenway Park, which the team would share with the Red Sox, hiring coach "Lone Star" William Henry Dietz, who may have been part Sioux, changing the team nickname to the Redskins. There were four Native Americans on the original Redskins team in 1933.
However, he claimed in an interview at the time that the name had no connection to the heritage of any player or coach. The 1936 team won the Eastern division and hosted the NFL championship game, which Marshall moved from Boston to the Polo Grounds in New York City. Days he announced he was moving the team to Washington, D. C. for the 1937 season. He was romantically tied to silent screen actress Louise Brooks throughout the 1920s and 1930s, she gave him the nickname "Wet Wash" due to his owning of the laundry chain, he was married to film actress-author Corinne Griffith from 1936 to 1958. Although his team enjoyed great success, Marshall is known more for many of the frills which now mark the modern football game. During the early days of the NFL, college football was more popular. Marshall decided to incorporate elements of the college atmosphere into the professional league. Innovations which he introduced include gala halftime shows, a marching band, a fight song; the Redskins marching band is one of only two sanctioned by any NFL team.
The fight song, "Hail to the Redskins" is one of the most famous in the NFL. Marshall, along with George Halas, suggested two major rules changes designed to open up the game and increase scoring which were subsequently adopted. One was to allow a forward pass to be thrown from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage, rather than at a minimum of five yards behind the line, the rule. Another was the move of the goal posts from the end line to the goal line, where they were located in Canadian football, to encourage the kicking of field goals; this change remained in place for about four decades until NFL goal posts were returned to the end line in the mid-1970s as part of an effort to lessen the influence on the game of kicking specialists. Upon obtaining the team in 1932, Marshall pushed to standardize the schedule so that each team played the same number of games, that the teams be split into divisions with the winners meeting in a championship game, that game gate receipts be split between the home team and the visitor using either a 60–40 split or a guaranteed amount of money, whichever was larger.
Marshall did many things to try to endear the team to the people of Washington. During the 1937 season, Marshall rented a train and brought 10,000 fans to New York City to watch the team play the New York Giants; these actions paid off, today, Redskins fans are considered among the league's most loyal, some of the most to travel in large numbers to away games. In the 1950s, Marshall was the first NFL owner to embrace the new medium of television, he initiated the first network appearances for any NFL team and built a huge television network to broadcast Redskins games across the South. Marshall was a hands-on owner. For most of his tenure as the team's owner, he micromanaged the team; the notable exception was during the franchise's first successful era. Marshall suffered a debilitating stroke in 1963, soon after his induction to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, he died at his Georgetown home in Washington in August 1969, his funeral was held at the National Cathedral in Washington with a huge crowd in attendance.
Marshall is buried at the family plot in Indian Mound Cemetery in West Virginia. His legacy includes the George Preston Marshall Foundation which serves the interests of children in the Washington metro area. Marshall has gained infamy for his intractable opposition to having African-Americans on his roster. According to professor Charles Ross, "For 24 years Marshall was identified as the leading racist in the NFL". Though the league had had a sprinkling of black players, blacks were excluded from all NFL teams in 1933. While the rest of the league began signing individual blacks in 1946 and drafting blacks in 1949, Marshall held out until 1962 before signing a black player. Along with his own personal views, Marshall refused to sign African-American players because of a desire to appeal to Southern markets; until the Dallas Cowboys entered the league in 1960, the Redskins were the southernmost team in the NFL. His intractability was mocked in Washington Post columns by legendary writer Shirley Povich, who sarcastically used terms from the civil rights movement and related court cases to describe games: for instance, he once wrote that Jim Brown "integrated" the end zone, making the score "separate but unequal".
In 1962, Interior Secretary Stewart Udall and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy issued an ultimatum — unless Marshall signed a black
John Bain "Jock" Sutherland was an American football player and coach. He coached college football at Lafayette College and the University of Pittsburgh and professional football for the Brooklyn Dodgers and Pittsburgh Steelers, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1951. A native of Coupar Angus in Scotland, Sutherland got his start in football by playing end at the University of Pittsburgh known as Pitt, under legendary coach Glenn Scobey "Pop" Warner. Sutherland was named an All-American and played on Pitt's national championship teams in 1915 and 1916. Sutherland played on Pitt's undefeated 1917 team; the 1917 team was known as "The Fighting Dentists" because on occasion every position was filled by dental students. The dental students on the 1917 team included Sutherland, Katy Easterday, Skip Gougler, "Tank" McLaren and "Jake" Stahl. Sutherland lettered in wrestling and captained the track and field team at Pitt for which he specialized in the hammer throw and shot put.
He was a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity, Psi Omega national dental fraternity, Omicron Delta Kappa, the Druids Society, a secret society at the university. Sutherland graduated from the University of Pittsburgh's School of Dentistry, where he held a professorship in the instruction of bridge and crown. In 1919, Sutherland played in a few games with the Massillon Tigers of the Ohio League, the direct predecessor to the modern National Football League. However, he soon left the team and began his head coaching career at Lafayette College from 1919 to 1923, leading the Leopards to the 1921 Eastern Collegiate Championship. In 1924, Sutherland replaced his former coach and mentor, as head coach at Pitt. Sutherland, described as "a national hero" in a Saturday Evening Post article, became a admired and influential coach at the University while compiling a record of 111–20–12. On offense, he ran a double-wing formation known as the "Sutherland Scythe", he was known for his calm and direct demeanor, never ranting to motivate his team.
During his tenure, Sutherland's teams were named Eastern football champions seven times including 1925, 1927, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937. During this time, Pitt appeared in four Rose Bowl games and turned down a bid for the 1938 Rose Bowl. Sutherland's teams were named "National Champions" by various selectors for nine different seasons including 1925, 1927, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937, 1938. Of these, the University of Pittsburgh recognizes five of those years as national championship seasons, while one of them, 1937, includes the Associated Press national championship designation which, at the time, was only the third instance in which the AP poll had been published. Sutherland coached the famed "Dream Backfield" of John Chickerneo, Dick Cassiano, Harold Stebbins, Marshall Goldberg, which at the time was considered to be the best backfield in history by some, including Don Miller, a member of The Four Horsemen of Notre Dame. After years of struggling with the University for sustained financial support, Sutherland resigned in 1938 because the school's Chancellor, John Gabbert Bowman, instituted a policy of de-emphasis for the football program, eliminating athletic scholarships, student athlete stipends, the recruiting funds.
Bowman's moves, which resulted in Sutherland's departure, were controversial among students and supporters of the football program. As of 2009, his career coaching record of 144–28–14 in 20 seasons at the collegiate level, an.812 winning percentage, is the 25th best winning percentage in all divisions of college football and 11th best among coaches from the top division known as the Division I FBS. His.812 winning percentage is the 5th best such mark during the first 20 years of any coaches' career. He is tied for the 23rd fewest games to reach 100 victories, accomplished in his 132nd game as coach. Sutherland coached in the National Football League with the Brooklyn Dodgers for two seasons, 1940–41, before leaving the team to serve the United States during World War II. During the war, Sutherland served in the United States Navy and achieved the rank of Lieutenant commander. Upon returning to the United States, Sutherland landed with the Pittsburgh Steelers, where he was head coach and team vice president.
He led the Steelers to their first playoff appearance in 1947. While on a scouting trip for the Steelers in April 1948, Sutherland was found in his car in Bandana, where he was experiencing confusion and was taken to a hospital in Cairo, where he was diagnosed with "nervous exhaustion", he was flown back to Pittsburgh for further treatment. An exploratory surgery was required to determine whether he was suffering from a hemorrhage or a tumor. Sutherland died in Pittsburgh on April 11, 1948, following surgery to remove a malignant brain tumor, he is interred in Pittsburgh's Homewood Cemetery. Sutherland was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1951 as a coach, he is memorialized on the Pitt campus with a street, Sutherland Drive, the student residence Sutherland Hall. *The Pittsburgh Panthers claim a share of the 1934 national championship per a 1970 Sports Illustrated study on national championships that the school has used since its publication as the basis of its claims. However, this championship is not included in the Official NCAA Records Book's list of national champions.
Alberts, Robert C.. Pitt: The Story of the University of Pittsburgh 1787–1987. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press. P. 543. ISBN 0-8229-1150-7. Retrieved December 1