MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Tiffany Renee Darwish known by her mononym Tiffany, is an American singer, songwriter and former teen icon. She is most notable for her 1987 cover of "I Think We're Alone Now,” a song recorded by Tommy James and the Shondells in 1967. Released as the second single from her eponymous album, the song became a teen anthem. Thanks to an original mall tour, "The Beautiful You: Celebrating The Good Life Shopping Mall Tour'87", Tiffany found commercial success; the singles "Could've Been" and "I Saw Him Standing There", a cover version of The Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There", followed soon after, with the former claiming the No. 1 position on the Hot 100. Although Tiffany's second album, Hold an Old Friend's Hand, managed to yield a top-10 single and chart in the upper register of the Billboard 200 in 1988, became a platinum-selling album, it failed to replicate the success of her debut album; the 1990s had two additional releases, 1990's New Inside and the Asia-exclusive Dreams Never Die, both of which failed to rekindle substantial interest.
Tiffany returned in 2001 with her first album in The Color of Silence. Although the album received some minor critical success, it failed to achieve any significant standing. Since Tiffany recorded four additional full-length albums, including an album of 1980s cover songs, focusing on a variety of genres, including country and dance, she continues to tour. Outside of music, Tiffany posed nude in Playboy and guest-starred in several television shows, including Celebrity Fit Club, Australia's version of I'm a Celebrity Get Me Out Of Here and Hulk Hogan's Celebrity Championship Wrestling, the movies Necrosis, Mega Piranha, Mega Python vs. Gatoroid, the latter co-starring fellow 1980s teen idol and musical rival Debbie Gibson. Tiffany was born in 1971 to James Robert Darwish and Janie Wilson, who divorced when she was young, she grew up in California. Tiffany began singing around 1975, when she was four years old, learned the words to the song "Delta Dawn". After the divorce, she resided with her father, but in her adolescence she rebelled against his strict Baptist parenting.
While attending Leffingwell Christian High School, a group of friends and she behaved in a manner which contravened school regulations. In 1981, Tiffany debuted with country music singer Jack Reeves at a country and western venue, Narods, in Chino, California, she passed a hat among the crowd afterwards, collected $235 in what was her first career earnings. When Tiffany was singing at the Palomino Club, she was discovered by Hoyt Axton and his mother Mae Axton. Mae took her to sing in Nashville, where she performed at the Ralph Emery Show, singing Juice Newton's "Queen of Hearts" and Tammy Wynette's "Your Good Girl's Gonna Go Bad". In 1982, Tiffany toured several cities in Alaska; that year, she performed on the same bill as Jerry Lee Lewis and George Jones. Until at least 1987, she was managed by George Tobin. In 1984, she signed a recording contract. In 1985, she appeared on Star Search with Ed McMahon. In 1986, Tiffany signed a contract, she was signed to an MCA contract. Tiffany's album, was released in 1987, but the first single she released from it, "Danny", failed to chart.
Following the failure of "Danny", Tobin sent Tiffany on a nationwide tour of shopping malls, The Beautiful You: Celebrating the Good Life Shopping Mall Tour'87. The tour began at Bergen Mall in New Jersey, her second single, a cover of Tommy James & the Shondells' hit, "I Think We're Alone Now", became a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 list. It remains her biggest hit. Tiffany's ballad "Could've Been" peaked at the No. 1 spot on the Billboard charts in February 1988. Tiffany's modified version of the Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There", retitled "I Saw Him Standing There", peaked at the No. 7 position on the Hot 100. "Feelings of Forever" had chart success from the over 4.1 million selling debut. Tiffany set a record for the youngest female artist to top the Billboard charts with a debut album; that year, Tiffany discovered New Kids on the Block and hired them as her opening act for her concert tour. In 1988, at the peak of her popularity, Tiffany ended up in the middle of a conflict in which Tobin still her manager, was embroiled with her mother and her stepfather over control of her career and earnings.
This led to a court fight which included an attempt by Tiffany to have herself declared an emancipated minor. This was rejected by the court; these legal battles took a toll on the singer's career. In late 1988, Tiffany released her second album; the first single "All This Time" made the top 10. Hold an Old Friend's Hand received positive reviews from critics, went platinum; that year, she provided the voice of Judy Jetson on Jetsons: The Movie, released in 1990. She contributed three songs to the soundtrack, including the single "I Always Thought I'd See You Again"; some controversy resulted from the fact that Janet Waldo, who had voiced the character in all previous Jetsons material, had had all of her recorded dialogue in the movie replaced by Tiffany's voice. The replacement was ma
Sabrina: The Animated Series
Sabrina: The Animated Series is an American animated children's television series based on the Archie Comics character Sabrina the Teenage Witch. It was produced by Savage Studios Ltd. and Hartbreak Films in association with DIC Productions L. P., owned by Disney at the time. Despite being advertised as a spin-off of the live-action series and borrowing certain elements from it, the cartoon was instead set in the original Archie Comics canon, as it contradicted the live-action show's premise of Sabrina not knowing about magic prior to her sixteenth birthday; the series ran on ABC and UPN. Following the series, a movie, Sabrina: Friends Forever and a spin-off series, Sabrina's Secret Life, were produced by DiC, this time without Disney, as they had sold off DIC by this point. Unlike previous incarnations, Sabrina Spellman in this series is depicted as a 12-year-old attending middle school; as in the original comic series, Sabrina lives with her two aunts and Zelda Spellman, her loud-mouthed cat Salem Saberhagen, all of whom advise Sabrina on the use of magic.
Most episodes center on the typical problems of middle school, along with those that stemmed from Sabrina's inexperience with or misuse of various magic and powerful and complex spells. Sabrina and her best friend Chloe would use magic for all sorts of perceived emergencies, ranging from trying to fit into skinny new clothes to turning Sabrina's crush Harvey into a superhero. By the end of each episode, her innate magical abilities would unintentionally backfire and Sabrina would learn that using magic is not the solution to her day-to-day problems. Sabrina Spellman: Sabrina is a half witch–half mortal that won't become magically empowered until she's sixteen, but she is able to borrow spells from her aunts Hilda and Zelda using a magical "Spooky Jar", which she does; the series follows her into her pre-teen years. However, she finds that her meddling turns situations from bad to worse, her friend Chloe is aware of Sabrina's magic but Harvey Kinkle, another friend and her romantic interest, isn't.
She wants one day to marry him. She wears a white tank top with a pink stripe, a green moon-shaped earring paired with a yellow star-shaped earring, pink skirt, pink hair-clips in her bangs, with white and pink sneakers; when she casts a spell the magic produced is pink and yellow. She is voiced by Emily Hart. Hilda Spellman and Zelda Spellman: While Hilda suggests they bend the rules a little and use magic to get ahead, Zelda is determined to say no right up until the moment she gives up. Hilda is more carefree and reckless than her cautious sister Zelda, although they do butt heads sometimes, they are still sisters. In this series and Sabrina's Secret Life and Zelda both have the appearance of teenagers, as this was the punishment they received from Enchantra for "abusing magic" in the past. In the animated series, Zelda wears a red blouse and blue bell bottom pants in addition to a pair of blue glasses, has long red hair. Whenever she casts a spell, the magic produced is always yellow. Hilda wears a purple minidress and has olive skin, with brown hair, shorter than Zelda's.
When she casts a spell the magic produced is purple and yellow. They are both voiced by Melissa Joan Hart, known for playing Sabrina in the Showtime film adaptation and the ABC series. Salem Saberhagen: Salem knows the right buttons to push to talk Sabrina into just about anything, he does it guiltlessly—until he's caught. Salem was once a powerful wizard, but he was locked into a cat-form because he was trying to take over the world. However, he makes up for his predicament with magical trinkets, he is voiced by Nick Bakay, who voiced Salem in the 1996 Sabrina, the Teenage Witch TV series. Uncle Quigley: Uncle Quigley is an original character created for the animated series, he is Sabrina's maternal great-uncle, the household's adult guardian. Because Uncle Quigley doesn't have any magic powers, one understands that Sabrina's mother is a mortal, he is voiced by Jay Brazeau. Chloe Flan: Chloe is Sabrina's best friend. She's the only mortal besides Uncle Quigley, she is voiced by Cree Summer. Harvey Kinkle: Harvey has a cute and sweet personality.
While he only admits to Sabrina that she is his "best pal," he likes her much. However, Harvey is unaware Sabrina is a witch although sees the results of the magic himself, he is voiced by Bill Switzer. Gemini "Gem" Stone: Gemini is snobby and prissy aka mean girl. Gem lives down the street and sees Sabrina as her main competition for Harvey's attention, though Harvey likes Sabrina more, she is similar to Libby Chesler in the sitcom. She is voiced by Chantal Strand. Spookie Jar: Spookie Jar is a genie who resides in a purple cookie jar in Sabrina's kitchen. Whenever Sabrina needs a special spell, she can get one from the Spookie Jar, but they turn out the way she expects. Spookie Jar speaks in rhymes, he is voiced by David Sobolov. Perry "Pi" McDonald: Pi is Harvey's best friend and Sabrina and Chloe's friend too, he is smart and quite unusual in his own special way. His eyes are never seen, he has been described by Sabrina as "totally out of it and smart at the same time." According to the episode "Upside Down Town", it is implied that he is of Chinese descent
Kim Carnes is an American singer-songwriter. Born and raised in Los Angeles, she began her career as a songwriter in the 1960s, writing for other artists while performing in local clubs and working as a session background singer with the famed Waters sisters. After she signed her first publishing deal with Jimmy Bowen, she released her debut album Rest on Me in 1972. Carnes' self-titled second album contained self-penned songs, including her first charting single "You're a Part of Me", which reached No. 35 on the Billboard Adult Contemporary chart in 1975. In the following year, Carnes released Sailin', which featured "Love Comes from Unexpected Places"; the song won the American Song Festival and the award for Best Composition at the Tokyo Song Festival in 1976. In her breakthrough year, 1980, Carnes was commissioned by Kenny Rogers to co-write the songs for his concept album Gideon, their duet from that album, "Don't Fall in Love with a Dreamer," hit No. 4 on Billboard Hot 100, earned the duo a Grammy Award nomination.
That year, her cover of Smokey Robinson's "More Love," from the album Romance Dance, hit No. 10. The following year, Carnes released Mistaken Identity, which featured the worldwide hit, "Bette Davis Eyes." This became the best-selling single of the year in the United States, spending nine weeks at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100, going Gold, won the Grammy Awards for Record of the Year and Song of the Year. Mistaken Identity went to No. 1 on the Billboard 200, was certified Platinum, was nominated for the Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Carnes saw success with the singles "Draw of the Cards," "Does It Make You Remember," "Crazy in the Night," "Make No Mistake, He's Mine," with Barbra Streisand, "What About Me?," with Kenny Rogers and James Ingram, "I'll Be Here Where the Heart Is," from the Flashdance soundtrack, the Grammy Award nominated singles "Voyeur" and "Invisible Hands." Her other successes as a songwriter include co-writing the No. 1 duet "The Heart Won't Lie" with Donna Weiss, recorded by Vince Gill and Reba McEntire.
Her distinctive raspy vocal style has drawn comparisons to Rod Stewart. Her most recent studio album is Chasin' Wild Trains; as of 2017, Carnes was residing in Nashville, where she continues to write music. Kim Carnes was born on July 1945 in Los Angeles, California, her father, James Raymond Carnes, was an attorney, her mother was a hospital administrator. Carnes knew she would be a singer and songwriter from the age of three, despite the fact that she was not born into a musical family. "My mother didn't get my career, my father, an attorney, didn't think singing and writing was a job." As a four-year-old, Carnes "married" her next-door neighbor. Their "honeymoon" car appears on the cover of Chasin' Wild Trains, she was raised in California, graduated from San Marino High School in 1963. A songwriter and performer from an early age, after writing songs for many years, Carnes signed her first publishing deal in 1969 with producer Jimmy Bowen. During this period, she shared demo-recording time with Bowen's other writers, including Don Henley, Glenn Frey, J.
D. Souther. Carnes sang "Nobody Knows," written by Mike Settle, featured in the end credits of the 1971 film Vanishing Point; the film featured Carnes' first cut as a songwriter, "Sing Out for Jesus,", recorded by Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton. In 1971 she and Mike Settle again worked with Bowen to create the bubblegum pop studio group The Sugar Bears. An album, Presenting the Sugar Bears, three singles were released with one song, "You Are The One," reaching #83 on the Billboard charts. In the early 1970s, Carnes and husband Dave Ellingson co-wrote several songs with David Cassidy at the peak of his career as an international idol, toured the world with him as an opening act with her husband. Cassidy's albums, Rock Me Baby, Dreams are Nuthin' More than Wishes and Cassidy Live! include several songs penned by Carnes, along with Ellingson and Cassidy. Carnes provided backing vocals for these albums. After signing with Amos Records, her first solo album, Rest on Me, produced by Jimmy Bowen, was released in 1972.
In 1975, Carnes released her self-titled second album, which contained her first charted hit, "You're A Part Of Me", reached No. 32 on the US Adult Contemporary charts. Carnes re-recorded this track with Gene Cotton three years later; the majority of tracks on this second album were written by Ellingson. Her third album, Sailin', was produced by Jerry Wexler and released in 1976. One track, "Love Comes from Unexpected Places" won Grand Prize at the 1976 American Song Festival; the song earned the award for Best Composition at the Tokyo Song Festival. It gained additional notice. Streisand recorded Carnes's "Stay Away" on her 1978 album Songbird. In spite of Streisand's endorsement of her material, Carnes's own Top 40 breakthrough did not occur till 1978, when Gene Cotton recruited her to record a duet version of "You're a Part of Me," which reached No. 36 on the Billboard Hot 100. In 1979, she recorded a single, using the pseudonym “Connie con Carne,” titled "She Dances With Meat," written by herself and Dave Ellingson.
In 1980, her duet with Kenny Rogers, "Don't Fall in Love with a Dreamer," became a major hit on the Pop and Adult Contemporary charts. The song was culled from Rogers' concept album, written entirel
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks is an American actor and filmmaker. Hanks is known for his comedic and dramatic roles in such films as Splash, Turner & Hooch, A League of Their Own, Sleepless in Seattle, Apollo 13, You've Got Mail, The Green Mile, Cast Away, Road to Perdition, Cloud Atlas, Captain Phillips, Saving Mr. Banks, Sully, he has starred in the Robert Langdon film series, voices Sheriff Woody in the Toy Story film series. He is one of the most popular and recognizable film stars worldwide, is regarded as an American cultural icon. Hanks has collaborated with film director Steven Spielberg on five films to date: Saving Private Ryan, Catch Me If You Can, The Terminal, Bridge of Spies, The Post, as well as the 2001 miniseries Band of Brothers, which launched Hanks as a successful director and screenwriter. In 2010, Spielberg and Hanks were executive producers on the HBO miniseries The Pacific. Hanks' films have grossed more than $4.6 billion at U. S. and Canadian box offices and more than $9.2 billion worldwide, making him the fourth highest-grossing actor in North America.
Hanks has been nominated for numerous awards during his career. He won a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Philadelphia, as well as a Golden Globe, an Academy Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a People's Choice Award for Best Actor for Forrest Gump. In 1995, Hanks became one of only two actors who won the Academy Award for Best Actor in consecutive years, with Spencer Tracy being the other. In 2004, he received the Stanley Kubrick Britannia Award for Excellence in Film from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. In 2014, he received a Kennedy Center Honor, in 2016, he received a Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama, as well as the French Legion of Honor. Thomas Jeffrey Hanks was born in Concord, California on July 9, 1956, to hospital worker Janet Marylyn and itinerant cook Amos Mefford Hanks, his mother was of Portuguese descent. His parents divorced in 1960, their three oldest children, Sandra and Tom, went with their father, while the youngest, remained with their mother in Red Bluff, California.
In his childhood, Hanks' family moved often. While Hanks' family religious history was Catholic and Mormon, he has characterized his teenage self as being a "Bible-toting evangelical" for several years. In school, he was unpopular with students and teachers alike telling Rolling Stone magazine, "I was a geek, a spaz. I was horribly, painfully shy. At the same time, I was the guy, but I didn't get into trouble. I was always a real good kid and pretty responsible." In 1965, his father married a San Francisco native of Chinese descent. Frances had three children. Hanks acted in school plays, including South Pacific, while attending Skyline High School in Oakland, California. Hanks studied theater at Chabot College in Hayward and transferred to California State University, two years later. During a 2001 interview with Bob Costas, Hanks was asked whether he would rather have an Oscar or a Heisman Trophy, he replied. He told New York magazine in 1986, "Acting classes looked like the best place for a guy who liked to make a lot of noise and be rather flamboyant.
I spent a lot of time going to plays. I wouldn't take dates with me. I'd just drive to a theater, buy myself a ticket, sit in the seat and read the program, get into the play completely. I spent a lot of time like that, seeing Brecht, Tennessee Williams and all that."During his years studying theater, Hanks met Vincent Dowling, head of the Great Lakes Theater Festival in Cleveland, Ohio. At Dowling's suggestion, Hanks became an intern at the festival, his internship stretched into a three-year experience that covered most aspects of theater production, including lighting, set design, stage management, prompting Hanks to drop out of college. During the same time, Hanks won the Cleveland Critics Circle Award for Best Actor for his 1978 performance as Proteus in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona, one of the few times he played a villain. Time magazine named Hanks one of the "Top 10 College Dropouts." In 1979, Hanks moved to New York City, where he made his film debut in the low-budget slasher film He Knows You're Alone and landed a starring role in the television movie Mazes and Monsters.
Early that year, he was cast in the lead, Callimaco, in the Riverside Shakespeare Company's production of Niccolò Machiavelli's The Mandrake, directed by Daniel Southern. The following year, Hanks landed one of the lead roles, that of character Kip Wilson, on the ABC television pilot of Bosom Buddies, he and Peter Scolari played a pair of young advertising men forced to dress as women so they could live in an inexpensive all-female hotel. Hanks had partnered with Scolari on the 1970s game show Make Me Laugh. After landing the role, Hanks moved to Los Angeles. Bosom Buddies ran for two seasons, although the ratings were never strong, television critics gave the program high marks. "The first day I saw him on the set," co-producer Ian Praiser told Rolling Stone, "I thought,'Too bad he won't be in tel
Police Academy 2: Their First Assignment
Police Academy 2: Their First Assignment is a 1985 comedy film directed by Jerry Paris. It is the first of six sequels in the Police Academy series. Many actors return from the first film to reprise their roles. Steve Guttenberg reprises his role as the class clown; this was the only film in the series that does not feature Leslie Easterbrook as Lt. Debbie Callahan. New faces in Police Academy. Proctor. In the film, the Police Academy cadets have graduated and are assigned to the worst precinct in town, where they have to help Captain Pete Lassard fight Zed's gang. After a random attack the night before by a local gang known as "The Scullions" and their infantile leader Zed McGlunk, Chief Henry Hurst arrives at the 16th precinct and notifies its captain, Pete Lassard that the precinct is the worst in the city. Lassard protests saying that his officers are outmanned and old, can't get the job done any longer. Hurst gives Lassard 30 days to turn the precinct around or he is out. Before Hurst leaves, Lieutenant Mauser schemes his way into getting a promotion to Captain should Lassard fail.
Capt. Lassard calls his brother Eric, in charge of the Police Academy and asks him for six new recruits. Mauser is seen talking with his dim-witted partner, Sgt. Proctor, as he attempts to take control of the precinct. Commandant Lassard's top graduates Carey Mahoney, Larvell Jones, Eugene Tackleberry, Moses Hightower, Laverne Hooks, Douglas Fackler arrive from the police academy and join the 16th precinct with some of them assigned to a veteran officer partner. Fackler is assigned with Dooley, Mahoney to Vinnie Schtulman, Tackleberry to Sgt. Kathleen Kirkland. Tackleberry confides to Mahoney that he may have fallen in love with Kirkland. Mauser attempts numerous times to sabotage the new recruits while targeting Mahoney. During a patrol and Schtulman spot a robbery at a merchant's place, but the robbers escape in the confusion caused in part by responding officers. Mauser is ready to suspend them, but Mahoney makes a passionate plea that convinces Lassard to give them another chance. While all this is going on, Zed and his gang go "shopping" in a supermarket, causing havoc and chaos.
Mauser gives Mahoney a new assignment: patrolling a tunnel which results in him and his partner being covered with soot. He gets revenge on Mauser by switching his shampoo with Tackleberry's epoxy resin solution from a helmet repair kit, which glues Mauser's hands to his hair, he ends up embarrassing himself in front of the station and has to wear a wig through the remainder of the film. Capt. Lassard spots some of Zed's men and tries to deal with them, but is over-powered and spray-painted; this humiliating act emboldens Lassard to allow the precinct to use "whatever means possible" to help contain the gang. Progress is made and most of the gang is captured in an incident at The Blue Oyster Bar, but Mauser informs the captain that he had most of the charges dropped due to excessive force and procedure violations. Mahoney sees that Mauser did this on purpose, so as revenge he informs the nurse in charge of a body cavity search ordered earlier to perform the procedure on Mauser. Tackleberry goes on a date with Kirkland, where they stay out late dancing.
They profess their love for each other and they make love. Captain Lassard goes to see his brother Eric at a Japanese steakhouse and Eric comes up with an idea to hold a fair. On the night of the fair though, Zed's men trash the place. Lassard is out of a job the next day, his first act is to remove Mahoney and Schtulman, quick to object to Mahoney's dismissal. Mahoney and Lassard get together in a last-ditch attempt to stop the gang, they send in Mahoney undercover to infiltrate the gang. Lassard and Schtulman wire him, using a radio microphone. Under the guise of "Jughead," of the gang "The Archies", he is able to infiltrate the gang and find out both their hiding spot and the name of their leader. However, his cover is blown after the microphone cuts into a radio ad, which leads to Captain Lassard calling every man to the location; the officers are stopped by Mauser. Mauser attempts to conduct a raid, but Fackler accidentally bumps him in an air duct and pushes him inside, which leads to Mauser being captured by Zed and his gang.
The officers manage to overpower and arrest the gang. Zed attempts to escape with Mahoney. However, Mahoney punches Zed down a flight of stairs. It's revealed that Lassard's gun wasn't loaded, as he "hasn't carried live ammo since'73". Lassard is reinstated as captain, as are Mahoney and Schtulman on the force, while Mauser demoted back to lieutenant for nearly blowing Lassard's