Sestriere is an alpine village in Italy, a comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin. It is situated in 17 km from the French border, its name derives from Latin: ad petram sistrariam, at sixty Roman miles from Turin. Sestriere has 929 inhabitants and is located on the pass that links Val Chisone and Val Susa, at 2,035 metres above mean sea level The village is surrounded by mountains, which have been exploited to build one of the biggest ski resorts in Italy; the main mountains around Sestriere are: Monte Fraiteve 2,701 m in the north-east, Monte Sises 2,658 m, Punta Rognosa di Sestriere 3,280 m and Monte Motta 2,850 m in the south-east. Sestriere is divided into several smaller hamlets: Sestriere Colle, on the pass top, Sestriere Borgata, in Val Chisone, Champlas du Col and Champlas Janvier, in Val Susa; the pass belonged to the municipality of Cesana, but from the 18 October 1934 the area was unified with the hamlet of Borgata to create the new municipality of Sestriere. The ski resorts at Sestriere were built in the 1930s by Giovanni Agnelli and have been further developed after the Second World War by his nephew Giovanni Nasi.
Sestriere is a popular skiing resort. Together with the villages of Pragelato, Sauze d'Oulx, Cesana Torinese and San Sicario, Montgenèvre in France, it makes up the Via Lattea skiing area. Sestriere is connected to 146 skiable pistes, for a total of up to 400 km of trails, of which 120 are provided with artificial snow. Sestriere has one of the few facilities where it is possible to ski at night on a floodlit run, it hosts FIS Alpine Ski World Cup events, it hosted the FIS World Championships in 1997, the IPC World Championships in 2011. It was a main venue during the 2006 Winter Olympic Games and the 2006 Winter Paralympics, hosting all the men's alpine skiing competitions and being the site of one of the three Olympic Villages; the two hotel towers, one of, part of the Olympic Village, were built in the 1930s by FIAT's founder Giovanni Agnelli, have become the symbol of the village. Pragelato - the resort is part of the Via Lattea, is connected to this area by the Pattemouche-Anfiteatro cableway, built in 2006.
Claviere - This small resort is just over the border in Italy and is included in the Monts de la lune lift pass. It is where the Olympic cross country ski teams practised for the Olympics in 2006. San Sicario - The biathlon and Alpine skiing events were held there in the 2006 Winter Olympic Games, they held the bobsleigh and luge events here. One can attempt the Olympic women's super G and downhill courses. Sauze d'Oulx - Free Style Skiing Olympic events held here in 2006; the resort is acclaimed for its lively après-ski. Serre Chevalier - Nearby French resort with over 250 km of skiing. There is a free day of skiing here on your lift pass. Montgenèvre - Nearby French resort with over 85 km of pistes. Montgenevre's ski area has 8 green runs, 12 blue, 22 red and 10 black slopes and is linked to the Via Lattea ski area. There is a free day of skiing here on your lift pass. In the summertime it is possible to play golf on Europe's highest 18-hole course, it is a starting and arrival point in the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia.
It was the scene of the moment in Lance Armstrong's career when he rode away from the field in a breakaway uphill finish to take the stage in the 1999 Tour de France, the first time he won the race, although he was stripped of his seven victories. Due to its location across two valleys, Sestriere is close to several hiking paths. Sestriere organized an International Athletics Meeting from 1988 until 1995 and in 2004. Due to Sestiere's altitude the organizers aimed to meet conditions that enabled athletes to perform on world record level; the Ferrari company sponsored the meeting and set a new Ferrari car as prize for breaking world records. Due to its position, Sestriere can only be reached by bus. Trains from Torino stop in Oulx. From there, several buses bring passengers to Sestriere; the highway stops in Oulx, but a municipal road leads to the village in 20 minutes. Via Lattea.com - official site -
Athletics at the 1990 Goodwill Games
At the 1990 Goodwill Games, the athletics events were held in Seattle, United States between July 22 and 26, 1990. A total of 43 events were contested, of which 23 by 20 by female athletes. Athletes from the United States and the Soviet Union dominated the competition as they had done in the inaugural edition, with United States coming out on top this time with 54 medal won, 20 of them gold; the Soviet Union was 43 medals in total. The Greater Antillean island nations of Cuba and Jamaica had the third- and fourth-greatest medal hauls, respectively; the number of competitors in each event was smaller than that of the 1986 Goodwill Games and the invited athletes only had to compete in a single final, rather than the qualification-round model found at multi-sport events. Fourteen Games records were beaten in the second edition and one world record was set at the competition – Nadezhda Ryashkina of the Soviet Union beat the previous best mark in the 10,000 metres track walk with her time of 41:56.23.
The 1990 Games saw the athletics competition's first doping infractions, as Tamara Bykova and Larisa Nikitina lost their silver medals after testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs. Ana Fidelia Quirot of Cuba became the first athlete to win two individual gold medals at a single edition of the Games as she won the 400 metres and 800 metres races; the United States took clean sweeps in both the men's and women's 100 metres events, the Soviet Union completed the same feat in the men's hammer throw and women's marathon competitions. Addis Abebe finished as runner-up in the 5000 and 10,000 metres to win Ethiopia's only medals of the entire Games. Sheila Echols left the Games with one medal of each colour, having won the 4×100 m relay gold, 100 m silver, long jump bronze. Among the other notable multiple medallists, Carl Lewis won the long jump gold. For full event details see Athletics at the 1990 Goodwill Games – Results † = Tamara Bykova of the Soviet Union won the high jump silver medal with a jump of 1.92 m, but was disqualified for ephedrine usage †† = Larisa Nikitina of the Soviet Union won the heptathlon silver medal with 6236 points, but was disqualified after testing positive for banned amphetamines * Host nation ResultsGoodwill Games.
GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-06-24. Athletics results. Goodwill Games. Retrieved on 2010-06-24. Official website
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Brazil; the International Olympic Committee oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, bronze medals are awarded for third place; the Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics. The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896, to 306 events with 11,238 competitors from 206 nations in 2016; the Summer Olympics has been hosted on five continents by a total of nineteen countries. The Games have been held four times in the United States; the IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the Summer Olympics for a second time in 2020. The 2024 Summer Olympics will be held in Paris, for a third time one hundred years after the city's last Summer Olympics in 1924.
The IOC has selected Los Angeles, California, to host its third Summer Games in 2028. To date, only five countries have participated in every Summer Olympic Games – Australia, Great Britain and Switzerland; the United States leads the all-time medal table for the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted the Summer Olympic Games four times: the 1904 Games were held in St. Louis, Missouri; the 2028 Games in Los Angeles will mark the fifth occasion on which the Summer Games have been hosted by the U. S. In 2012, the United Kingdom hosted its third Summer Olympic Games in the capital city, which became the first city to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times; the cities of Los Angeles and Athens have each hosted two Summer Olympic Games. In 2024, France will host its third Summer Olympic Games in its capital, making Paris the second city to have hosted three Summer Olympics. In 2028, Los Angeles will become the third city to have hosted the Games three times. Australia, France and Greece have all hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice.
The IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the 2020 Summer Olympics, when it will become the first city outside the Western world to have hosted the Summer Olympics more than once, having hosted the Games in 1964. The other countries that have hosted the Summer Olympics are Belgium, China, Finland, Mexico, South Korea, Soviet Union, Sweden. Asia has hosted the Summer Olympics three times, in Tokyo, Seoul, South Korea, Beijing, China; the Summer Olympics has been held predominantly in English-speaking countries and European nations. Tokyo will be the first city outside these regions to have hosted the Summer Olympics twice; the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro, were the first Summer Olympics to be held in South America and the first that were held during the local winter season. The only two countries in the Southern Hemisphere to have hosted the Summer Olympics have been Australia and Brazil. Africa has yet to host a Summer Olympics. Stockholm, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1912 Games, hosting the equestrian events at the 1956 Summer Olympics.
Amsterdam, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1928 Games and hosting two of the sailing races at the 1920 Summer Olympics. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Hong Kong provided the venues for the equestrian events, which took place in Sha Tin and Kwu Tung; the modern Olympic Games were founded in 1894 when Pierre de Coubertin sought to promote international understanding through sporting competition. He based his Olympics on the Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games, contested in Much Wenlock since 1850; the first edition of de Coubertin's games, held in Athens in 1896, attracted just 245 competitors, of whom more than 200 were Greek, only 14 countries were represented. No international events of this magnitude had been organised before. Female athletes were not allowed to compete, though one woman, Stamata Revithi, ran the marathon course on her own, saying "If the committee doesn't let me compete I will go after them regardless"; the 1896 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated in Athens, from 6 to 15 April 1896.
It was the first Olympic Games held in the Modern era. About 100,000 people attended for the opening of the games; the athletes came with most coming from Greece. Although Greece had the most athletes, the U. S. finished with the most champions. 11 Americans placed first in their events vs. the 10 from Greece
Athletics at the 1994 Goodwill Games
At the 1994 Goodwill Games, the athletics events were held in July at the Petrovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg, Russia. A total of 44 events were contested, of which 22 were by 22 by female athletes; the marathon event was dropped for the 1994 edition and racewalking events took place on the track, making the entire athletics programme a track and field-only affair. The United States won the most gold medals in the athletics competition, but Russia had the greatest total medal haul, winning 41 medals, 10 of which were gold. Cuba, Great Britain and Kenya were the next best achievers in the medal count; the competition remained each event was contested in a single final format. Fifteen Goodwill Games records were equalled or improved at the competition, Marina Pluzhnikova achieved a world record in the little-contested 2000 metres steeplechase; the United States completed medal sweeps in the men's 100 metres, long jump and women's 400 metres. Noureddine Morceli's winning time of 3:48.67 in the mile run was a games record and the fastest of 1994.
In spite of appearances from prominent athletes such as Sergey Bubka, Irina Privalova and Carl Lewis, the stadium failed to reach much more than half of its 28,000 capacity over the five-day competition. Gwen Torrence completed a 100/200 metres double and added the 4×100 metres relay for a third gold of the competition. Irina Privalova was runner-up to Torrence in both the individual sprints. Russia's Yelena Romanova retained her 5000 metres crown and won the 3000 metres race. Jackie Joyner-Kersee won her third consecutive heptathlon title, having dominated the event since the games' inception. Two American men retained their titles won four years at the 1990 Goodwill Games: Michael Johnson in the 200 metres and Kenny Harrison in the triple jump; the performances of former champions Bubka and Lewis did not meet expectations. For full event details see Athletics at the 1994 Goodwill Games – Results * Host nation ResultsGoodwill Games. GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-06-28. Athletics results. Goodwill Games Official website
Rancho Cucamonga, California
Rancho Cucamonga is a city of about 177,000 residents located just south of the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains and Angeles National Forest in San Bernardino County, United States. About 37 miles east of Downtown Los Angeles, Rancho Cucamonga is the 19th most populous city in southern California and the 27th state-wide; the city's seal, which centers on a cluster of grapes, alludes to the city's agricultural history including wine-making. The city's proximity to major transportation hubs and highways has attracted the business of several large corporations, including Coca-Cola, Frito-Lay, Big Lots, Mercury Insurance Group, Southern California Edison, Amphastar Pharmaceuticals; the city had a population of 165,269 according to the 2010 United States Census and the Census Bureau estimated the population to be 177,452 in 2017. The city experiences an average of 287 sunny days per year, compared to a national average of 205 days, its climate is classified as warm Mediterranean, or Csa, under the Köppen climate classification system.
The city's favorable location and host of public amenities have earned it numerous distinctions. Notably, Money Magazine ranked Rancho Cucamonga 42nd on its "Best Places to Live" list in 2006. In addition, Insider Magazine established one Rancho Cucamonga neighborhood as the 13th richest neighborhood in Southern California; the four public high schools earned the Silver distinction in a 2015 ranking of the nation's high schools by U. S. News & World Report. In 2017 the California Department of Education announced that all four high schools were being named California Gold Ribbon Schools. Rancho Cucamonga's first settlers were Native American. By 1200 AD, Kukamongan Native Americans had established a village settlement in the area around present-day Red Hill, near the city's western border. Kukamonga derives its name from a Native American word meaning "sandy place." Anthropologists have determined that this cluster of settlers belonged to the Tongva people or Kich people, at one time one of the largest concentrations of Native American peoples on the North American continent.
In the 18th century, following an expedition led by Gaspar de Portola, the land was incorporated into the Mission System established by Father Junipero Serra and his group of soldiers and Franciscan friars. After a half century of political jockeying in the region, the land came under the control of Juan Bautista Alvarado, governor of Mexico. On March 3, 1839, Alvarado granted 13,000 acres of land in the area called "Cucamonga" to Tubercio Tapia, a first-generation Spanish native of Los Angeles, successful merchant, notorious smuggler. Tapia went on to establish the first winery in California on his newly deeded land. Rancho Cucamonga was purchased by John Rains and his wife in 1858; the Rains family's home, Casa de Rancho Cucamonga, was completed in 1860 and now appears on the National Register of Historic Places. During the ensuing years the town grew. In 1887, irrigation tunnels were dug into Cucamonga Canyon by Chinese laborers and the Santa Fe Railroad was extended through the area. Among the town's economic mainstays was agriculture, including olives, citrus, most notably, vineyards.
In 1913, the Pacific Electric Railway was extended through Rancho Cucamonga in an effort to improve crop transportation. Several landmarks in existence today pay tribute to the city's multicultural founding. In particular, Our Lady of Mt. Carmel remains as a relic of the area's Mexican agriculture laborers while the Chinatown House stands as a reminder of the Chinese immigrants who labored in constructing the area's infrastructure. In 1977, the unincorporated communities of Alta Loma and Etiwanda voted to incorporate, forming the city of Rancho Cucamonga; the former community of Grapeland, first settled in 1869, lay between today's Victoria Groves Park and Central Park. There was a schoolhouse which doubled as a church. In 1890 an irrigation district was formed and $200,000 in bonds were sold to pay for improvements; the Sierra Vista reservoir was built in 1886-87 by J. L. Scofield as the focal point of a network of irrigation pipes; the system was unused, because the bond issue was declared illegal.
"Orchards and vineyards began to die," The Daily Report newspaper reported in a retrospective. "Residents moved out. The post office closed in 1905. Homes, buildings were destroyed or abandoned." The reservoir remained unused until 1956, when the Fontana Union Water Company filled it with 5 million gallons of water. The local school district was merged with the Etiwanda district in 1901. In 1957 the settlement was deserted, but there were still rabbit-proof stone walls marking boundaries of previous citrus orchards. Rancho Cucamonga is part of the Inland Empire and San Bernardino County, a region that lies inland from the Pacific coast and directly east of Los Angeles County. Rancho Cucamonga is located about 37 miles east of Los Angeles, bordered by Upland to its west, Ontario to its south, the San Gabriel Mountains to its north and I-15 and Fontana to its east; the city sits atop an alluvial plain and views of Cucamonga Peak, one of the tallest peaks of the San Gabriel Mountains, are available from all points throughout the city.
The city has a total area of 39.9 square miles, 99.95% of, land and 0.05% water. The city's climate is classified as hot-summer Mediterranean, or Csa, under the Köppen climate classification system. Yearly precipitation is 17.68 inches and the city experiences an average of 287 sunny days per year, compared to a national average of 205 days. The city's estimated 2017 population was 177,452, an estimated 39% increase since 2000; the 2010 United States Census reported
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the third place a bronze medal. More silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones. In 1896, winners' medals were in fact silver; the custom of gold-silver-bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 games and has been copied for many other sporting events. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928 to 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In The Open Championship golf tournament, the Silver Medal is an award presented to the lowest scoring amateur player at the tournament. In many sports with an elimination tournament, including those with a third place playoff, silver is the only medal given to a team that loses, whereas gold and bronze are earned by teams winning their final matches. Notable athletes such as Jocelyne Larocque removed their runners-up/silver medals right after receiving them; some countries present civilian decorations known as Silver Medals. These include: Austria′s Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria Italy′s Silver Medal of Military Valor South Africa′s Silver Medal for Merit The Civil Air Patrol′s Silver Medal of Valor in the United States; the Zoological Society of London awards a Silver Medal "to a Fellow of the Society or any other person for contributions to the understanding and appreciation of zoology, including such activities as public education in natural history, wildlife conservation."
The Royal Academy of Engineering awards a Silver Medal "for an outstanding and demonstrated personal contribution to UK engineering, which results in successful market exploitation, by an engineer with less than 22 years in full-time employment or equivalent." Runner-up Medal Designs for all Olympic Games