Comics is a medium used to express ideas through images combined with text or other visual information. Comics takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information; the size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics. Common forms include comic strips and gag cartoons, comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, tankōbon have become common, while online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century with the advent of the internet; the history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings in France. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished in the United States, western Europe, Japan; the history of European comics is traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, but the medium became popular in the 1930s following the success of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin.
American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, the output of comics magazines and books expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and academics; the term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to the medium, but becomes plural when referring to particular instances, such as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the humorous work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips, it has become standard for non-humorous works too. In English, it is common to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics.
There is no consensus amongst historians on a definition of comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has only made definition more difficult. Examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of satirical comics leading up to the World War II era; the ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In 1930s, Mr. Chester, an early founder of "the Golden Age of Comics", which make the comics flourished after World War II. In the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work.
Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries. Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, William Hogarth's 18th-century sequential engravings, amongst others. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of, the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825; the most popular was Punch. On occasion the cartoons in these magazines appeared in sequences. American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck and Life; the success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips.
Early Sunday strips were full-page and in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour strips predominated at first, in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama became popular. Thin periodicals called
San Diego Comic-Con
San Diego Comic-Con International is a multi-genre entertainment and comic convention held annually in San Diego, United States. The name, as given on its website, is Comic-Con International: San Diego, it was founded as the Golden State Comic Book Convention in 1970 by a group of San Diegans that included Shel Dorf, Richard Alf, Ken Krueger, Mike Towry. It is a four-day event held during the summer at the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego. On the Wednesday evening prior to the official opening, professionals and pre-registered guests for all four days can attend a pre-event "Preview Night" to give attendees the opportunity to walk the exhibit hall and see what will be available during the convention. Comic-Con International produces two other conventions, WonderCon, held in Anaheim, the Alternative Press Expo, held in San Francisco. Since 1974, Comic-Con has bestowed its annual Inkpot Award on guests and persons of interest in the popular arts industries, as well as on members of Comic-Con's board of directors and the Convention committee.
It is the home of the Will Eisner Awards. Showcasing comic books and science fiction/fantasy related film and similar popular arts, the convention has since included a larger range of pop culture and entertainment elements across all genres, including horror, Western animation, manga, collectible card games, video games and fantasy novels. In 2010 and each year subsequently, it filled the San Diego Convention Center to capacity with more than 130,000 attendees. In addition to drawing huge crowds, the event holds several Guinness World Records including the largest annual comic and pop culture festival in the world; the convention was founded in 1970 by Shel Dorf, Richard Alf, Ken Krueger, Mike Towry, Barry Alfonso, Bob Sourk, Greg Bear. Detroit, Michigan-born, comics fan Shel Dorf, had, in the mid-1960s, mounted the Detroit Triple-Fan Fairs, one of the first commercial comics-fan conventions; when he moved to San Diego, California, in 1970, he organized a one-day convention on March 21, 1970, "as a kind of'dry run' for the larger convention he hoped to stage."
Dorf went on to be associated with the convention as president or manager, for years until becoming estranged from the organization. Alf co-chaired the first convention with Krueger and became chairman in 1971. Following the initial gathering, Dorf's first three-day San Diego comics convention, the Golden State Comic-Con, drew 300 people and was held at the U. S. Grant Hotel from August 1–3, 1970. Other locations in the convention's early years included the El Cortez Hotel, the University of California, San Diego, Golden Hall, before being moved to the San Diego Convention Center in 1991. Richard Alf, chairman in 1971, has noted an early factor in the Con's growth was an effort "to expand the Comic-Con committee base by networking with other fandoms such as the Society for Creative Anachronism and the Mythopoeic Society, among others.." In a Rolling Stone article about the origins of Comic-Con, it noted the work of Krueger, who handled early business matters, worked to get the event to be organized by a non-profit organization.
By the late 1970s, the show had grown to such an extent that Bob Schreck recalled visiting with his then-boss Gary Berman of Creation Conventions and reflecting, "While kept repeating'This show's not any bigger than ours!' I was walking the floor stunned and in awe of just how much bigger it was. I was blown away."According to Forbes, the convention is the "largest convention of its kind in the world. The convention has an estimated annual regional economic impact of more than $140 million. Yet, in 2009, the estimated economic impact was criticized for negatively impacting seasonal businesses outside of Comic-Con, low individual spending estimates of attendees, that a large number of attendees live in San Diego, that the impact of the convention was more cultural than financial. In 2011, the estimated economic impact of that year's convention was $180 million. In 2014, the estimated impact of that year's convention was $177.8 million. In 2016, the estimated impact of that year's convention was down to $150 million.
By 2018, San Diego Comic-Con saw increasing competition from other comic conventions in places such as New York City, Washington, D. C. which caused it to compete for attendees and companies time and budget. The convention is organized by a panel of 13 board members, 16 to 20 full-time and part-time workers, 80 volunteers who assist via committees. Comic-Con International is a non-profit organization, proceeds of the event go to funding it, as well as the Alternative Press Expo and WonderCon; the convention logo was designed by Richard Bruning and Josh Beatman in 1995. In 2015, working with Lionsgate, a video channel was created to host Comic-Con related content. In 2015, through a limited liability company, Comic-Con International purchased three buildings in Barrio Logan. In 2018 Comic-Con International purchased a 29,000-square-foot office in San Diego's Little Italy neighborhood. In 2017, the organization acquired a lease to the Federal Building in Balboa Park built for the California Pacific Internati
The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune; the name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities; the sale closed on June 18, 2018. The predecessor newspapers of the Union-Tribune were: San Diego Herald, founded 1851 and closed April 7, 1860. Both the Union and the Tribune were acquired by Copley Press in 1928 and were merged on February 2, 1992; the merged newspaper was sold to the private investment group Platinum Equity of Beverly Hills, California, on March 18, 2009. On August 17, 2010, the Union-Tribune changed its design to improve "clarity and ease of use".
Changes included being printed on thinner, 100 percent recycled paper, moving the comics to the back of the business section, abbreviating the title The San Diego Union-Tribune on the front page to U-T San Diego. The U-T nameplate was created by Jim Parkinson, a type designer who created nameplates for The Rolling Stone and Newsweek. In November 2011, Platinum Equity sold the newspaper to MLIM Holdings, a company led by Doug Manchester, a San Diego real estate developer and "an outspoken supporter of conservative causes"; the purchase price was in excess of $110 million. Manchester built two landmark downtown hotels, the Manchester Grand Hyatt Hotel and the San Diego Marriott Hotel and Marina, his group owns the Grand Del Mar luxury resort in San Diego. On January 3, 2012, the newspaper announced that it would use the name U-T San Diego "on all of our media products and communications"; the official announcement explained the change as being intended to "unify our print and digital products under a single brand with a clear and consistent expectation of quality".
U-T San Diego bought the North County Times in 2012. On October 15, 2012, the North County Times ceased publication and became the U-T North County Times, an edition of the U-T with some North County–specific content. Six months the U-T North County Times name was dropped and the newspaper became a North County edition of the U-T. In June 2012, U-T San Diego launched a television news channel; the network featured news and editorial content produced by the newspaper's staff, was created as part of the newspaper's growing emphasis on multi-platform content under Manchester. By October 2013, just over a year after its launch, the network re-formatted with a focus on news, amidst a number of major departures among the channel's staff. On February 19, 2014, U-T TV was discontinued, but the network's remaining staff was retained to produce video content for the newspaper's digital properties. In November 2013, the newspaper bought eight more local weekly newspapers in the San Diego area, which continued publication under their own names.
On May 7, 2015, it was announced that the Tribune Publishing Company, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, other newspapers, had reached a deal to acquire U-T San Diego and its associated properties for $85 million. The sale ended the newspaper's 146 years of private ownership; the transaction was completed on May 21, 2015. On the same date, the newspaper reintroduced its previous branding as The San Diego Union-Tribune; the Union-Tribune and the Los Angeles Times became part of a new operating entity known as the California News Group, with both newspapers led by Times publisher and chief executive officer Austin Beutner. The two newspapers would retain distinct operations, but there would be a larger amount of synergy and content sharing between them; the acquisition did not include the newspaper's headquarters, retained by Manchester and would be leased by the newspaper. On May 26, 2015, the newspaper announced it would lay off 178 employees, representing about thirty percent of the total staff, as it consolidated its printing operations with the Times in Los Angeles.
In 2016, The San Diego Union Tribune acquired the monthly entertainment magazine Pacific San Diego. On June 13, 2015, at 10:02 p.m. PDT the final run of The San Diego Union Tribune was printed at the San Diego headquarters in Mission Valley began, it was to print the Sunday edition newspaper for June 14, 2015. The following Monday's newspaper would be printed at the Los Angeles Times location; the dismantling of the printing presses in Mission Valley began in mid-September 2015. In 2016 rival newspaper publisher Gannett Company offered to buy the Tribune Publishing Company; the offer was rejected by management, spurring some shareholder dissatisfaction and a shareholder lawsuit. Meanwhile, the Tribune Publishing Company renamed itself Tronc Inc. Tronc is an acronym for Tribune online content. Effective June 20, the renamed company will trade on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol TRNC. In February 2018, a deal was reached to sell the Union-Tribune to Patrick Soon-Shiong, a medical doctor who has made billions as a biotech entrepreneur.
The deal included the Los Angele
Sheldon "Shel" Dorf was an American comic book enthusiast and the founder of the San Diego Comic-Con International. Dorf was a freelance artist and graphic designer, who lettered the Steve Canyon comic strip for the last 12 to 14 years of the strip's run. Born in Detroit, Dorf was a fan of comic books and comic strips Chester Gould's work on the daily strip Dick Tracy. Dorf studied at Chicago's Art Institute before moving to New York and beginning his career as a freelancer in the field of commercial design. In the 1960s, Dorf had made the acquaintance of a number of creators working in the two fields, among them Jack Kirby, upon whom Dorf would call. In 1964 back in Detroit, teenager Robert Brusch organised a convention for fans of the comics medium, which Dorf and Jerry Bails, the "father of comics fandom," attended; the next year Dorf and Bails took over the event, christening it the "Detroit Triple Fan Fair" and organizing it as an annual event. The Detroit Triple Fan Fair is credited as being the first held convention featuring comic books as a major component.
Dorf went on to produce the DTFF in 1968 as well. In 1970, Dorf moved to California, to take care of his aging parents, he organized a one-day convention "as a kind of'dry run' for the larger convention he hoped to stage," with Forrest J Ackerman as the star attraction. Dorf's first three-day San Diego comics convention, the Golden State Comic-Con, was held at the U. S. Grant Hotel from August 1–3, 1970, it would grow into the San Diego Comic-Con International, now considered the standard bearer for U. S. comic conventions. The convention moved in subsequent years to the El Cortez Hotel; as "'Founding Father' of San Diego Comic-Con," Dorf received an Inkpot Award at the 1975 San Diego Comic-Con. In 1984 Dorf began compilation and editing of the Dick Tracy comic strips in comic book format for Blackthorne Publishing, "proudly" publishing ninety-nine issues and collecting the material again in twenty-four collections. Chester Gould's daughter, Jean Gould O'Connell credits Dorf with bringing "Tracy out to another generation."
Comics historian Mark Evanier said Caniff "honored Shel by making him into a character. It was a well-meaning football player named "Thud Shelley" who appeared a few times in the Canyon strip. Jack Kirby made Shel into a character... a father figure named Himon who appeared in Mister Miracle. In 1990, Dorf was employed as a consultant on Warren Beatty's big-screen adaptation of Dick Tracy. Dorf would contribute interviews to the comics press and movie collector magazines, his conversations with Milton Caniff and Mort Walker have both been collected in the University Press of Mississippi's Milton Caniff: Conversations and Mort Walker: Conversations respectively, his interview with Wally Wood for TBG was reprinted in Comic Book Artist #14. Dorf died at age 76 on November 3, 2009, from diabetes-related complications in Sharp Memorial Hospital, San Diego, he was survived by Michael. Since 2010, the Shel Dorf Awards have been presented at conventions in Michigan, including Detroit Fanfare and C4. Shel Dorf at the Grand Comics Database Shel Dorf Tribute.com Shel Dorf at the Comic Book DB Remembering Shel Dorf Russ Maheras list of Shel Dorf interviews for "The Buyer's Guide for Comic Fandom"
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti