Vladimir Bougrine known as Wladimir Bugrin was a Russian painter. Vladimir was the second child of two academic painters, his father, Alexander Bougrine, was an icon restorer and his painter mother Nathalie Anikina worked at the Hermitage. He was brought up in two rooms at his ancestral home on the Neva River, transformed after the Revolution into community accommodation; when the German army surrounded Leningrad in September 1941 beginning the 900-day Siege and his sister suffered the famine and the cold that would kill the young and the old. Their food ration was 125 grams of bread a day, Volodia spent his days like the other children looking for food, they were left alone, their parents fighting. He was fortunate, a quarter of the population died, most of them children, but they were the older ones, whose food needs to survive were greater. Between 1956 and 1959, Vladimir attended the Mukhina Institute for art and industrial design and from 1960-65 the academy of Beaux-Arts in Leningrad, he taught art and theatre sets, painted portraits, restored icons.
From the beginning of the 1970s he painted religious topics, against state orders. Like other painters in the Soviet Union, he was courted by Western diplomats and journalists who had their own agenda. From them, he obtained a gilded picture of life in the West; when painters in the Soviet Union tried to break the yoke of the state which commissioned portraits of political leaders and forbade creativity, dissident artists gathered in a movement for free creation and exhibition of their work. Non-conformist artists in Moscow attempted to reach the public by organising in the open-air what was to become known as the Bulldozer Exhibition on 15 September 1974. Police dispersed their exhibits. In Leningrad and his mother were among the leaders of the same movement; when the authorities learnt of the exhibition, being organised, they placed him under house arrest, with police at the door. Vladimir left through a window and with a group of friends marched towards the square where the exhibition would take place.
But the square was full of police, no-one could approach. Although these attempts were thwarted, the artists continued their fight for free expression; the more they fought, the greater the repression from the Soviet authorities. Vladimir was imprisoned in Leningrad, like many other dissident painters, was expelled from his native land; as emigration from the Soviet Union was forbidden for all but Jewish people, the dissident painters, seen as dangerous because rebellious, were expelled as Jewish emigrants. The plane stopped in Vienna; those who did not continue to Israel were housed in a transitville in the city. Vladimir Bougrine had much success in Vienna thanks to his patron Princess Ghislaine Windisch-Graetz and his award-winning portrait of Cardinal Koenig of Vienna, but his intention was to come to France, where he had friends, the Droin family, who had given him support after his imprisonment in Leningrad. In 1977, a few months after arriving in Paris, the French Ministry of Culture introduced him to the Moulin d'Ande, a community of writers and film-makers, run by Suzanne Lipinska and Maurice Pons.
The Moulin was to play a central role in his life thereafter. He was awarded a studio at the Cité des Arts in Paris, continued the rest of his life to paint in Paris, Saint Germain en Laye and Normandy, he continued painting in St. Petersburg in the last two years of his life. From 1969, Vladimir Bougrine participated in over 40 exhibitions, 12 personal ones, in Leningrad, Salzburg, Tokyo, Bologna, Bochum, Aubonne, in the following museums: Russian Museum, Leningrad; when Vladimir was granted French nationality in 1984, he was able to return to his homeland to visit his family in St. Petersburg. Although he and his fellow-artists were instrumental in Glasnost which resulted from the spirit of rebellion, fermenting throughout the land, he was much distressed by the wild capitalism that resulted in gangs of famished children who followed him around the city on his return, he began to regret the change in society and politics and the deleterious effect on children and old people. Vladimir died in St. Petersburg on 10 August 2001.
He is survived by five children of different nationalities. Official Website paintitrussian.com Lili Brochetain Collection, a non-profit presentation of works by prominent Russian artists Galerie Michel Catbotse Vladimir on Artnet.com
Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter, was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s. Plasma can be artificially generated by heating or subjecting a neutral gas to a strong electromagnetic field to the point where an ionized gaseous substance becomes electrically conductive, long-range electromagnetic fields dominate the behaviour of the matter. Plasma and ionized gases have properties and display behaviours unlike those of the other states, the transition between them is a matter of nomenclature and subject to interpretation. Based on the surrounding environmental temperature and density ionized or ionized forms of plasma may be produced. Neon signs and lightning are examples of ionized plasma; the Earth's ionosphere is a plasma and the magnetosphere contains plasma in the Earth's surrounding space environment. The interior of the Sun is an example of ionized plasma, along with the solar corona and stars. Positive charges in ions are achieved by stripping away electrons orbiting the atomic nuclei, where the total number of electrons removed is related to either increasing temperature or the local density of other ionized matter.
This can be accompanied by the dissociation of molecular bonds, though this process is distinctly different from chemical processes of ion interactions in liquids or the behaviour of shared ions in metals. The response of plasma to electromagnetic fields is used in many modern technological devices, such as plasma televisions or plasma etching. Plasma may be the most abundant form of ordinary matter in the universe, although this hypothesis is tentative based on the existence and unknown properties of dark matter. Plasma is associated with stars, extending to the rarefied intracluster medium and the intergalactic regions; the word plasma comes from Ancient Greek πλάσμα, meaning'moldable substance' or'jelly', describes the behaviour of the ionized atomic nuclei and the electrons within the surrounding region of the plasma. Each of these nuclei are suspended in a movable sea of electrons. Plasma was first identified in a Crookes tube, so described by Sir William Crookes in 1879; the nature of this "cathode ray" matter was subsequently identified by British physicist Sir J.
J. Thomson in 1897; the term "plasma" was coined by Irving Langmuir in 1928. Lewi Tonks and Harold Mott-Smith, both of whom worked with Irving Langmuir in the 1920s, recall that Langmuir first used the word "plasma" in analogy with blood. Mott-Smith recalls, in particular, that the transport of electrons from thermionic filaments reminded Langmuir of "the way blood plasma carries red and white corpuscles and germs."Langmuir described the plasma he observed as follows: "Except near the electrodes, where there are sheaths containing few electrons, the ionized gas contains ions and electrons in about equal numbers so that the resultant space charge is small. We shall use the name plasma to describe this region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons." Plasma is a state of matter in which an ionized gaseous substance becomes electrically conductive to the point that long-range electric and magnetic fields dominate the behaviour of the matter. The plasma state can be contrasted with the other states: solid and gas.
Plasma is an electrically neutral medium of unbound negative particles. Although these particles are unbound, they are not "free" in the sense of not experiencing forces. Moving charged particles generate an electric current within a magnetic field, any movement of a charged plasma particle affects and is affected by the fields created by the other charges. In turn this governs collective behaviour with many degrees of variation. Three factors define a plasma: The plasma approximation: The plasma approximation applies when the plasma parameter, Λ, representing the number of charge carriers within a sphere surrounding a given charged particle, is sufficiently high as to shield the electrostatic influence of the particle outside of the sphere. Bulk interactions: The Debye screening length is short compared to the physical size of the plasma; this criterion means that interactions in the bulk of the plasma are more important than those at its edges, where boundary effects may take place. When this criterion is satisfied, the plasma is quasineutral.
Plasma frequency: The electron plasma frequency is large compared to the electron-neutral collision frequency. When this condition is valid, electrostatic interactions dominate over the processes of ordinary gas kinetics. Plasma temperature is measured in kelvin or electronvolts and is, informally, a measure of the thermal kinetic energy per particle. High temperatures are needed to sustain ionisation, a defining feature of a plasma; the degree of plasma ionisation is determined by the electron temperature relative to the ionization energy, in a relationship called the Saha equation. At low temperatures and electrons tend to recombine into bound states—atoms—and the plasma will become a gas. In most cases the electrons are close enough to thermal equilibrium that their temperature is well-defined; because of the large difference in ma
Vasile Bătrânac was the head of the anti-Soviet group Arcaşii lui Ştefan and a political prisoner in the Soviet Union. His father was Ion Bătrânac, arrested in 1944 for anti-Soviet activity. National Organization of Bessarabia Arcaşii lui Ştefan was formed in 1945, on the territory of the former Soroca County by teachers Vasile Bătrânac, Victor Solovei, Nicolae Prăjină, Teodosie Guzun, Anton Romaşcan a student, Nichita Brumă. Vasile Bătrânac was the head of the organization. Vasile Plopeanu is a conspirative name that Vasile Bătrânac used while he was the head of the organization from Soroca. In March 1947, the organization had 140 members. On March 23, 1947, Vasile Bătrânac and Vasile Cvasniuc were arrested. On June 11, 1947, he was sent to Siberia. Ştefan Tudor, Organizaţia Naţională din Basarabia "Arcaşii lui Ştefan", Basarabia, 1992, nr.9 Ştefan Tudor, O. N. B. "Arcaşii lui Ştefan" în Literatura şi Arta, nr 14, 16, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26 1997, aprilie-iunie Mihail Ursachi, Organizatia Nationala Din Basarabia Arcaşii lui Ştefan: Amintiri, Rezistenţă armată anticomunistă Organizația Națională din Basarabia “Arcașii lui Ștefan”
Ukrainian Helsinki Group
The Ukrainian Helsinki Group was founded on November 9, 1976 as the "Ukrainian Public Group to Promote the Implementation of the Helsinki Accords on Human Rights" to monitor human rights in Ukraine. The group was active until 1981; the group's goal was to monitor the Soviet Government's compliance with the Helsinki Accords, which ensure human rights. The members of the group based the group's legal viability on the provision in the Helsinki Final Act, Principle VII, which established the rights of individuals to know and act upon their rights and duties. Since 1977 the Ukrainian Helsinki Group foreign affiliate began its activities with the participation of Petro Hryhorenko, Nadiya Svitlychna, Leonid Plyushch and Nina Strokata-Karavanska Nadiya Svitlichna began to host the human rights themed radio programs on Svoboda radio. From the early days the group endured the repressions of Soviet authorities. In February 1977 the authorities began to arrest members of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group, within two years all the founding members were tried and sentenced to exile or imprisonment for 7 to 10 years.
At the end of 1979, six members of the group were forced to emigrate, while other Ukrainian dissidents were not allowed to do so. Soviet authorities used punitive medicine: some Ukrainian Helsinki Group members were threatened with committal. Hanna Mykhailenko, a sympathizer of the Group, was detained in a psychiatric hospital in 1980. Bad conditions in Soviet camps and prisons caused the deaths of UHG members Oleksiy Tykhy and Vasyl Stus on. In 1982 the Initiative Group for the Defense of Believers and the Church was established, which considered itself a part of the Helsinki movement in Ukraine, its organizers, Yosyp Terelia and Vasyl Kobryn, were both sentenced in 1985. Some political prisoners from outside of Ukraine announced their symbolical membership in the Group in 1983. By 1983 the Ukrainian Helsinki Group had 37 members, of whom 22 were in prison camps, 5 were in exile, 6 emigrated to the West, 3 were released and were living in Ukraine, 1 committed suicide. On July 7, 1988 members of group established and registered the Ukrainian Helsinki Association which in 1990 transformed itself into the Ukrainian Republican Party.
In 2004, the Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union was established as association of public human rights organizations. By the estimations of Vasyl Ovsyenko, the Group involved 41 persons in total. About 27 of them were sentenced by Soviet authorities to prisons and camps directly for their membership in the association, they spent altogether in exile. Pyotr Grigorenko Leonid Plyushch Nina StrokataIn 1980 for UHG abroad Nadiya Svitlychna became an editor of the "Herald of Repressions in Ukraine" publication. By 1982, most members of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group had been arrested: Levko Lukyanenko Mykola Rudenko Oleksiy Tykhyi Svyatoslav Karavansky Volodymyr Romanyuk Iryna Senyk Danylo Shumuk Yuriy Shukhevych Oksana Popovych Moscow Helsinki Group Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party Human rights movement in the Soviet Union List of members, known members Ukrainian Helsinki Human rights Union Ukrainian Helsinki Group - Documents, Chronology Haynes, Victor. "The Ukrainian Helsinki Group: a postmortem".
Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 8: 103–113. Zinkevych, Osyp. "Ukrainian Helsinki Group". In Kubiĭovych, Volodymyr. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Vol. 5. University of Toronto Press. Pp. 387–388. ISBN 0802030106; the persecution of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group. Toronto, Canada: Human Rights Commission, World Congress of Free Ukrainians. 1980. ASIN B0000EED4K. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016; the persecution of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group. Toronto, Canada: Human Rights Commission, World Congress of Free Ukrainians. 1985. The human rights movement in Ukraine: documents of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group, 1976–1980. Smoloskyp Publishers. 1980. ISBN 0914834444
Lev Chernyi was a Russian individualist anarchist theorist and poet, a leading figure of the Third Russian Revolution. In 1917, Chernyi was released from his political imprisonment by the Imperial Russian regime, swiftly became one of the leading figures in Russian anarchism. After denouncing the new Bolshevik government in various anarchist publications and joining several underground resistance movements, Chernyi was arrested by the Cheka on a charge of counterfeiting and in 1921 was executed without trial. Chernyi was born Pavel Dimitrievich Turchaninov to an army colonel father. A "déclassé intellectual" whom anarchist historian Paul Avrich compares with Volin, Chernyi advocated a Nietzschean overthrow of the values of bourgeois Russian society, rejected the voluntary communes of anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin as a threat to the freedom of the individual. Chernyi advocated the "free association of independent individuals" in a book titled Associational Anarchism and published in 1907.
Scholars including Avrich and Allan Antliff have interpreted this vision of society to have been influenced by the individualist anarchists Max Stirner, Benjamin Tucker. Subsequent to the book's publication, Chernyi was imprisoned in Siberia under the Russian Czarist regime for his revolutionary activities. On his return from Siberia in 1917, Chernyi enjoyed great popularity among Moscow workers as a lecturer, was at this time one of Russia's leading individualist anarchists and one of anarchism's main ideologues, he was the Secretary and leading theorist of the Moscow Federation of Anarchist Groups, formed in March 1917 after the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and was concerned with disseminating propaganda to Moscow's poorer classes. A personal acquaintance of Lev Kamenev and other leading Bolsheviks, Chernyi denounced the nascent Russian Soviet Republic at a rally on March 5, 1918, declaring that for anarchists, the socialist state was as much an enemy as its bourgeois predecessor and promising to "paralyze the governmental mechanism".
A vociferous advocate of seizing private homes, Chernyi agitated against the state in the pages of Anarkhiia, the anarchist weekly newspaper, proposing detailed means of decentralized production and "complete absence of internal power structures". In the spring of 1918, the anarchist groups within the Moscow Federation formed armed detachments in reaction to the growing repression of all resistance and free expression; these were the Black Guards, precursors to the anarchist Black Army which fought the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War. On the night of April 11, the Cheka raided a building occupied by the Moscow Federation, with the official aim of arresting and charging "robber bands" in the anarchist ranks, they were met with armed resistance by the Black Guards and in the ensuing battle forty anarchists were killed or wounded and about five hundred were imprisoned. Having helped establish an underground group in 1918, Chernyi joined another group called the Underground Anarchists the following year.
The organization, founded by Kazimir Kovalevich and Piotr Sobalev, published two issues of an incendiary broadsheet denouncing the Communist dictatorship as the worst tyranny in human history. On September 25, 1919, together with a number of leftist social revolutionaries, the Underground Anarchists bombed the headquarters of the Moscow Committee of the Communist Party during a plenary meeting. Twelve Communists were killed and fifty-five others were wounded, including eminent Bolshevik theorist and Pravda editor Nikolai Bukharin. Chernyi was detained along with Fanya Baron on a counterfeiting charge. In August 1921, the Moscow Izvestia published an official report announcing that ten "anarchist bandits", among them Chernyi, had been shot without hearing or trial. However, historian of anarchism Paul Avrich contends that Chernyi was executed in September of that year rather than August. Although he was not involved in the bombing of the Communist Party headquarters, Chernyi was, because of his association with the Underground Anarchists, a candidate for a frameup.
The Communists refused to turn over his body to his family for burial, rumors persisted that he had in fact died of torture. Novoe napravlenie v anarkhizme: assotsiatsionnyi anarkhizm. 2nd edn, New York, 1923. O klassakh. Moscow, 1924. Individualist anarchism in Europe List of anarchist poets One of the people who visited his lectures was Gerard Shelley Avrich, Paul; the Russian Anarchists. Stirling: AK Press. ISBN 1-904859-48-8
Leonid Ivanovich Borodin was a Russian novelist and journalist. Born in Irkutsk, Borodin was a Soviet dissident. In the 1960s he belonged to the anti-Communist All-Russian Social-Christian Union for the Liberation of the People, he was arrested and imprisoned in the'strict regime' Camp 17 in 1967, went on hunger strike there with Yuli Daniel and Aleksandr Ginzburg in 1969. After his release in 1973, Borodin’s works were smuggled out of the Soviet Union; the publication of an English translation of The Story of a Strange Time led to his arrest in 1982 on charges of'anti-Soviet propaganda'. He was sentenced to 10 years of hard labour in Perm-36 Maximum Security Camp, as well as five years' internal exile. Released after four years, in the perestroika era, Borodin was allowed to visit the West with his wife. Borodin was the subject and first-person narrator of the 2001 film Leonid Borodin: Looking through the Years. A winner of many literary prizes, including the 2002 Solzhenitsyn Prize, Borodin was editor-in-chief of Moskva, a popular literary magazine.
In 2005 he was appointed to the first convocation of the Public Chamber of Russia. Partings, The Harvill Press, 1988; the Year of Miracle and Grief, Quartet Books, 1988. The Third Truth, Harpercollins, 1992; the Story of a Strange Time, Harpercollins, 1993. 2002 interview after receiving the Solzhenitsyn Prize Moskva Journal New York Times review of Partings New York Times review of The Year of Miracle and Grief
Boris Alekseyevich Chichibabin was a Soviet poet and a laureat of the USSR State Prize, regarded as one of the Sixtiers. He lived in Kharkiv, in the course of three decades became one of the most famous and best-loved members of the artistic intelligentsia of the city, i.e. from the 1950s to 1980s. From the end of the 1950s, his poetry was distributed throughout the Soviet Union as samizdat. Official recognition came only at the end of his life in the time of perestroika. Boris Chichibabin was the son of an army officer, his pseudonym was taken in honour of his uncle once removed on his mother's side, the academic Aleksei Chichibabin, an eminent chemist and one of the first Soviet'nonreturnees'. In 1940, Boris began his studies at the Kharkov Institute, but on the outbreak of war was called up to the Caucasus Front. In 1945 he entered the philological department of the Kharkov State University, but by June 1946 had been arrested and sentenced to five in the camps for "anti-Soviet agitation"; the cause of his arrest was his poetry itself.
In prison Chichibabin wrote «Красные помидоры», in the gulag «Махорку», two spectacular pieces «тюремной лирики». This poetry, put to music by the actor and singer Leonid Pugachev, is known throughout Russia. By the 1950s, by the time of his release from the camps, the principal themes of Chichibabin's writing were marked out. Above all these are the lyrics of the citizenry. "The new Radischev is angry and sad" reminds us of the "state boors" in his poem of 1959, «Клянусь на знамени весёлом» "I bow to the banner of jollity". Chichibabin died in 1994. Мороз и солнце. Kharkov. 1963. Молодость. Moscow: Soviet Writer. 1963. Гармония. Kharkov. 1965. Плывет Аврора: Книга лирики. Kharkov: Prapor. 1968. Колокол: Стихи. Moscow: Izvestiya. 1989. Мои шестидесятые. Kiev: Dnipro. 1990. ISBN 5-308-00690-3. Цветение картошки: Книга лирики. Moscow: Moscow Worker. 1994. ISBN 5-239-01703-4. 82 сонета + 28 стихотворений о любви. Moscow. 1994. ISBN 5-239-01703-4. В стихах и прозе. Kharkov: Joint enterprise "Karavella". 1995. Finnin, Rory. "Forgetting nothing, forgetting no one: Boris Chichibabin, Viktor Nekipelov, the deportation of the Crimean Tatars".
The Modern Language Review. 106: 1091–1124. Doi:10.5699/modelangrevi.106.4.1091. JSTOR 10.5699/modelangrevi.106.4.1091. Биография, стихи, воспоминания А.Н.Губайдуллина Две родины в лирике Б.Чичибабина