In ice hockey, the goaltender or goalie or goalkeeper is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease. Goaltenders tend to stay beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles and hybrid; because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time. Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater, but the defensive disadvantage this poses means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty.
The goaltender is known as the goalie, goalkeeper, net minder, tender by those involved in the hockey community. In the early days of the sport, the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender; the art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches called the goalie coach who specialize in working with goaltenders. The variation goalie is used for items associated with the position, such as goalie stick and goalie pads. Goaltending is a specialized position in ice hockey. At minor levels and recreational games, goaltenders do switch with others players that have been taught goaltending. A typical ice hockey team may have three goaltenders on its roster. Most teams have a starting goaltender who plays the majority of the regular season games and all of the playoffs, with the backup goaltender only stepping in if the starter is pulled or injured, or in cases where the schedule is too heavy for one goaltender to play every game; the NHL requires. The list provides goaltender options for visiting teams.
These goaltenders are to be called to a game if a team does not have two goaltenders to start the game. An "emergency" goaltender may be called if both roster goaltenders are injured in the same game; some teams have used a goaltender tandem where two goaltenders split the regular season playing duties, though one of them is considered the number one goaltender who gets the start in the playoffs. An example is the 1982-83 New York Islanders with Roland Melanson. Another instance is Grant Fuhr. In an unusual case the 1996-97 Philadelphia Flyers' Ron Hextall and Garth Snow alternated in the playoffs; the goaltender has training that other players do not. He wears special goaltending equipment, different from that worn by other players and is subject to specific regulations. Goaltenders may use any part of their bodies to block shots; the goaltender may hold the puck with his hands to cause a stoppage of play. If a player from the other team hits the goaltender without making an attempt to get out of his way, the offending player may be penalized.
In some leagues, if a goaltender's stick breaks, he can continue playing with a broken stick until the play is stopped, unlike other players who must drop any broken sticks immediately. Additionally, if a goaltender acts in such a way that would cause a normal player to be given a penalty, such as slashing or tripping another player, the goaltender cannot be sent to the penalty box. Instead, one of the goaltender's teammates, on the ice at the time of the infraction is sent to the penalty box in his place. However, the goaltender does receive the penalty minutes on the scoresheet. If the goaltender receives a Game Misconduct or Match penalty, he is removed from the ice and a replacement goaltender is played; the goaltender plays in or near the goal crease the entire game, unlike the other positions where players are on ice for shifts and make line changes. However, goaltenders are pulled if they have allowed several goals in a short period of time, whether they were at fault for the surrendered goals or not, a substituted goaltender does not return for the rest of the game.
In 1995, Patrick Roy was famously kept in net by the head coach as "humiliation" despite allowing nine goals
Glove (ice hockey)
There are three styles of gloves worn by ice hockey players. Skaters wear similar gloves on each hand, while goaltenders wear gloves of different types on each hand. Skaters gloves help prevent the hands getting bruised and battered and stops them from getting burned from the ice; the top padding and shell thumb is designed to help protect the player from flying Hockey pucks and opponents' Ice hockey sticks. In today's hockey game, gloves will fall into two types of categories, the first being the traditional four-roll style; these types of gloves have more room on the inside, giving it a looser feel on the hand than the natural fit gloves. Hockey players who choose the four-roll style have less resistance in their fingers and hands, so wearing the gloves feels less noticeable; the other category of gloves are the tighter natural or anatomical fit glove. These have a much tighter fit than the four-roll gloves, are designed to become an extension of the players' hand; the tapered gloves are tight on the hand, but ergonomically designed for better wrist mobility and range of motion.
Hockey gloves range in sizes, are available in three categories: Youth size hockey gloves run 8", 9"and 10". Goaltenders wear a different type of glove on each hand. While these gloves do offer the goaltender a measure of protection, their design is to aid the goaltender in performance of his duties. On the hand with which he carries his stick called the "stick hand," the goaltender wears a blocker with a large pad across the back of the forearm extending just beyond the wrist. National Hockey League rules mandate that the blocking glove may be no wider than eight inches and no longer than fifteen; the goaltender uses this blocker to deflect shots. On the other hand called the "glove hand", the goaltender wears a catching glove called a trapper, similar to a baseball glove. In addition to using it to catch shots, goaltenders can distribute caught pucks by tossing them from the catching glove. National Hockey League rules limit the perimeter of the catching glove to forty-five inches and the widest part of the glove may not exceed eighteen inches.
Most goaltender's glove hands are their non-dominant hand like in baseball, but exceptions do exist
1992 Winter Olympics
The 1992 Winter Olympics known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France. They were the last Winter Olympics to be held the same year as the Summer Olympics, the first where the Winter Paralympics were held at the same site. Albertville was selected as host in 1986, beating Sofia, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo and Berchtesgaden; the games were the third Winter Olympics held in France, after Chamonix in 1924 and Grenoble in 1968, the fifth Olympics overall in the country. Only some of the skating and the opening and closing ceremonies took place in Albertville, while the rest of the events took place in the villages of Courchevel, La Plagne, Les Arcs, Les Menuires, Les Saisies, Méribel, Pralognan-la-Vanoise and Val d'Isère. Sixty-four nations with 1,801 athletes participated in the games, including the Unified Team which represented non-Baltic former Soviet republics. Germany participated as a unified team, while five newly independent European countries debuted, as did six "warm-weather" countries.
Short track speed skating and women's biathlon made their debut as an Olympic sport. The games were the last Winter Games until 2014 to have demonstration sports, consisting of curling, ski ballet and speed skiing, it was the last Olympics to have an outdoor speed skating rink. The games were succeeded by the 1992 Winter Paralympics from 25 March to 1 April. Norwegians won every male cross-country skiing race, with Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang both collecting three gold. Ski jumper Toni Nieminen, 16, became the youngest male gold medalist of a Winter Olympic event. Petra Kronberger won both the combined event and the slalom, while Bonnie Blair won both the 500 m and 1000 m speed skating events and Gunda Niemann took both of the longest races. Kim Kihoon earned gold medals in both men's short track events. Ye Qiaobo of China won the country's first medal in the Winter Olympics, a silver in women's 500 metres speed skating. Annelise Coberger of New Zealand won the southern hemisphere's first Winter Olympic medal—a silver in the women's slalom.
Nicolas Bochatay was killed during a training session. Germany won the most gold; the vote to select the host city of the 1992 Winter Olympics was conducted on 17 October 1986, in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the 91st IOC Session. A record of seven different locales bid for these Games; the 1992 Olympic Winter Games marked the last time both the Winter and Summer games were held in the same year. The 1992 Olympics marks the last time France hosted the Olympics. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Albertville 1992 Winter Olympics at USD 2.0 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 137% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Albertville 1992 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of USD 51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. Magique was the Olympic mascot of these Games, was a little imp in the shape of a star and a cube, it was created by Philippe Mairesse and was presented in 1989. His star shape symbolises dreams and imagination, his colours come with a red hat and a blue costume. There were 57 events contested in 6 sports. See the medal winners, ordered by sport: This was the final time demonstration sports were included in the Winter Olympics programme.
Curling – Competed for the first time since 1924. It became a regular discipline in 1998. Freestyle skiing – Although moguls skiing was an official discipline and ski ballet were still considered demonstration events. Speed skiing – A death occurred during a training session; the sport has not been included in the Winter Olympics program. A total of 64 nations sent athletes to compete in these Games. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, six states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia and Lithuania had their own teams. Croatia and Slovenia, who were making their first appearance at the Winter Olympics, competed as independent nations after leaving Yugoslavia; the UN sanctions against Yugoslavia that saw them miss the 1992 Summer Olympics had yet to come into effect. The German team won most medals in the games, with a total of 10 gold medals, 10 silver and 6 bronze, it was the first time since the 1936 Winter Olympics that Germany competed with a unified team after the reunification.
Making their debuts were Algeria, Brazil, Honduras and Swaziland. It would be the only appearance for both Honduras and Swaziland in Winter Olympics to date; the 1992 Games are the last ones. Albertville Halle Olympique – Figure Skating and Short track spee
The Arizona Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in the Phoenix suburb of Glendale, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League; the Coyotes first played at America West Arena in downtown Phoenix, before moving to Glendale's Gila River Arena in 2003. In 2021, the Coyotes are scheduled to return to the Central Division when an expansion team in Seattle joins the league; the Coyotes were founded on December 1971, as the Winnipeg Jets of the World Hockey Association. After the WHA had ceased operations, they were one of four franchises absorbed into the National Hockey League and granted membership on June 22, 1979; the Jets moved to Phoenix on July 1, 1996, were renamed the Phoenix Coyotes. The NHL took ownership of the Phoenix Coyotes franchise in 2009 after owner Jerry Moyes turned it over to the league after declaring bankruptcy. Spending several years finding prospective owners who would not move the franchise out of Metro Phoenix, the NHL completed the sale of the Coyotes to IceArizona Acquisition Co.
LLC. led by Andrew Barroway, on August 5, 2013. On June 27, 2014, the team changed its geographic name from "Phoenix" to "Arizona", modified its secondary logo. On June 26, 2015, the team introduced updated jerseys for the 2015–16 NHL season; the Coyotes continue to be at odds with the city of Glendale and the use of Gila River Arena, but has signed a lease through the 2018–19 season. The team began play as the Winnipeg Jets, one of the founding franchises in the World Hockey Association; the Jets were the most successful team in the short-lived WHA, winning the Avco World Trophy, the league's championship trophy, three times and making the finals five out of the WHA's seven seasons. It became one of the four teams admitted to the NHL as part of a merger when the financially struggling WHA folded in 1979. However, the club was never able to translate its WHA success into the NHL after the merger; the merger's terms allowed the established NHL teams to reclaim most of the players that had jumped to the upstart league, the Jets lost most of their best players in the ensuing reclamation draft.
As a result, they finished last in the NHL during their first two seasons, including a nine-win season in 1980–81, still the worst in franchise history. However, they recovered quickly, making the playoffs 11 times in the next 15 seasons, but the Jets only won two playoff series due to being in the same division as the powerful Edmonton Oilers and Calgary Flames. Because of the way the playoffs were structured for much of their Winnipeg run, the team was all but assured of having to defeat either the Oilers or the Flames to reach the Conference Finals. In 1984–85, for instance, they finished with the fifth-best record in the NHL, only to be eliminated by the Oilers in the division finals. Two seasons they dispatched the Flames in the first round, only to be eliminated again by the Oilers in the division finals; the franchise would not win another playoff series for 25 years. The Jets ran into financial trouble. Winnipeg was the second-smallest market in the NHL for most of the Jets' existence, after the Quebec Nordiques moved to Denver in 1995 to become the Colorado Avalanche, it became the smallest market.
In addition, the club's home arena, Winnipeg Arena, was one of the smallest in the league. Despite strong fan support, several attempts to keep the team in Winnipeg fell through. In December 1995, Jerry Colangelo, owner of the National Basketball Association's Phoenix Suns. After the franchise considered "Mustangs", "Outlaws", "Wranglers" and "Freeze", a name-the-team contest yielded the nickname "Coyotes", which finished ahead of the second-place "Scorpions". In the summer the move occurred, Jets star Alexei Zhamnov left the team, while the team added established superstar Jeremy Roenick from the Chicago Blackhawks. Roenick teamed up with power wingers Keith Tkachuk and Rick Tocchet to form a dynamic 1–2–3 offensive punch that led the Coyotes through their first years in Arizona. Impressive were young players like Shane Doan, Oleg Tverdovsky and goaltender Nikolai Khabibulin, whom the fans nicknamed the "Bulin Wall". Another key addition to the squad was veteran forward Mike Gartner, who had joined from the Toronto Maple Leafs.
Despite his experience and scoring his 700th career goal on December 15, 1997, Gartner battled injuries in the latter half of the 1997–98 season. The Coyotes did not renew his contract and he retired at the end of the season. After arriving in Phoenix, the team posted six consecutive.500 or better seasons, making the playoffs in every year but one. The one time they did not make the playoffs, in 2000–01, they became the first team to earn 90 points and miss the playoffs; the Coyotes' original home, America West Arena, was suboptimal for hockey. Although considered a state-of-the-art arena when built for the Phoenix Suns, unlike most modern arenas, it was not designed with a hockey rink in mind; the floor was just large enough to fit a standard NHL rink, forcing the Coyotes to hastily re-engineer it to accommodate the 200-foot rink. The configuration left a portion of one end of the upper deck hanging over the boards and ice, obscuring a third of the rink and one goal from several sections; as a result, listed capacity had to be cut down from over 18,000 seats to just over 16,000 – the second-smallest in the league at the time – after the first season.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
The Milwaukee Admirals are a professional ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. They play in Milwaukee, United States at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Panther Arena, they have been affiliated with the NHL's Nashville Predators since that team's founding in 1998. The Admirals first took to the ice in the winter of 1970 as an amateur club known as the Milwaukee Wings, they lost their first game on January 25 when the Madison All-Stars beat them 17–7. They got their first win five days when they defeated the Milwaukee Winter Club 10–8; the next year the team was sold by the original owner Reed Fansher to a group of investors. One of the investors, Erwin J. Merar, owned an appliance store; the team was renamed the "Admirals" after a brand of household appliances sold in Merar's store. Beginning with the 1973–74 season the Admirals joined the newly formed United States Hockey League, their first season in a league was not successful as they ended the season in last place in their division.
They won only 11 games, lost 35, tied two games that season. The Admirals won the USHL league championship in 1976, winning seven straight games in the league's playoffs. In the off-season, the team was purchased by former Chicago Blackhawks announcer Lloyd Pettit and his wife, Jane Bradley Pettit. For the 1977–78 season the Admirals joined the International Hockey League as the USHL was becoming a amateur league; the Admirals appeared in the IHL's Turner Cup finals only once, where they lost to Toledo in six games. They stayed a part of the IHL until it joined the American Hockey League for the 2001–02 season when the IHL ceased operations. Five other IHL franchises joined the AHL that season; the team was allowed to keep their nickname despite the presence of the Norfolk Admirals in the AHL, as Milwaukee has had the nickname since 1977, well before the Norfolk team was established as the Hampton Roads Admirals in the ECHL. In the 2015-16 season, Norfolk moved to the AHL's Pacific Division as the newest incarnation of the San Diego Gulls.
They won their first Calder Cup in 2004. Prior to the finals, Milwaukee needed seven games to defeat the Cincinnati Mighty Ducks in the first round; the Admirals defeated the Chicago Wolves in six games to advance to the conference finals. The Admirals eliminated the Rochester Americans four games to one. Milwaukee went on to sweep the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins to win the Calder Cup; the Admirals completed a rare postseason run in which they needed one fewer games to eliminate their opponents in each subsequent series. The Admirals were purchased in June 2005 by a group of investors, led by Harris J. Turer, including Milwaukee Brewers owner Mark Attanasio, assistant general manager Gord Ash, pitcher Ben Sheets; the Brewers subsequently became the sole uniform sponsor of the Admirals, the Admirals wear a Brewers logo patch on their sweaters. The Admirals won their second division title as a member of the American Hockey League in 2006, clinching the title on the last day of their schedule with a win over the Grand Rapids Griffins.
In the 2006 Calder Cup playoffs after narrowly winning a seven-game playoff series over the Iowa Stars, Milwaukee swept both the Houston Aeros and Grand Rapids Griffins to advance to their second Calder Cup final series. To their disappointment, the Admirals would lose 4–2 to the Hershey Bears. On August 1, 2006, the Admirals unveiled their newest logo to the public at the Henry Maier Festival Park; the logo came with a color change for the team, away from red and blue hues to one of black and light blue. They unveiled their new slogan, "Never Say Die". On March 16, 2016, Milwaukee Admirals owner/CEO Harris Turer along with Wisconsin Center District announced that the Admirals signed a 10-year contract, bringing the Admirals to the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Panther Arena for the 2016-17 AHL season; this 10-year contract results in a $6.4 million dollar investment to bring the arena up to AHL standards with the Admirals contributing two million and the rest being supplied by the Wisconsin Center District.
The Admirals have been the top-level affiliate of the Nashville Predators since that team's founding in 1998. On 22 February 2010, the clubs signed a new agreement that extended that relationship through the 2011–12 season with a mutual option for 2012–13. "I like to say that for our players, the road to Nashville runs through Milwaukee and a look at our roster illustrates this. His is the kind of environment that we want our prospects to develop in." Coincidentally, the two cities' baseball franchises shared a reverse affiliation, as the Nashville Sounds were the Triple-A affiliate of the Milwaukee Brewers from 2005 to 2014. During the 2006–07 season, the Admirals were part of an unusual affiliation agreement with the Edmonton Oilers, who used five partial affiliates in the AHL for the 2006–07 season; these five affiliates included the Milwaukee Admirals, the Grand Rapids Griffins, the Iowa Stars, the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, the Hamilton Bulldogs. This arrangement lasted one season, as the Oilers announced a three-year affiliation with the Springfield Falcons on March 19, 2007.
Milwaukee Admirals 1977–2001 Milwaukee Admirals 2001–present Legend: — – round did not exist at the time Updated April 10, 2019. 9 Phil Wittliff, C, 1973–77 14 Mike McNeill, C, 1992–98 and Fred Berry, C, 1980–84, 1985–87 26 Tony Hrkac, C, 1994–97, 2003–05 27 Danny Lecours, LW, 1975–84, 1985–87 44 Gino Cavallini, C, 1993–96 and Kevin Willison, D, 1981–84, 1985–86 Neil Meadmore, 1987–88 Peter Bakovic, 1988–91 Gino Cavallini, 1994–1996 Tony Hrkac, 1996–97 Jeff Nelson, 1997–99 Marc Moro, 1999–
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in France; the modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The original five Winter Olympic sports were bobsleigh, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, skating; the Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year, in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994.
The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception. Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them, such as Alpine skiing, short track speed skating, freestyle skiing and snowboarding, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic programme; some others, including curling and bobsleigh, have been discontinued and reintroduced. Still others, such as speed skiing and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports; the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC; this allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals, the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games. Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems.
The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by twelve different countries. They have been held four times in the United States, three times in France and twice each in Austria, Japan, Italy and Switzerland; the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany and Herzegovina, Russia and South Korea. The IOC has selected Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, the host of the 2026 Winter Olympics will be selected on June 23, 2019; as of 2018, no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympic Games, which are held in February at the height of the Southern Hemisphere's summer. To date, twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United States. Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Norway and the United States; the only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States.
Germany leads the all-time medal table of the Winter Olympic Games both on number of gold and overall medals won, followed by Norway and the United States. A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organised by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and every fourth year thereafter until 1926. Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin, he attempted to have winter sports figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow and Madge Syers won the individual titles. Three years Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden; the organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports.
The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I; the first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp and featured figure skating and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Hungary and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this "week" of events; the games proved to be