The Diamond Arm
The Diamond Arm is a Soviet comedy film made by Mosfilm and first released in 1969. The film was directed by director Leonid Gaidai and starred several famous Soviet actors, including Yuri Nikulin, Andrei Mironov, Anatoli Papanov, Nonna Mordyukova and Svetlana Svetlichnaya; the Diamond Arm has become a Russian cult film and is considered by many Russian contemporaries to be one of the finest comedies of all time. It was one of the all-time leaders at the Soviet box office with over 76,700,000 theatre admissions in the Soviet era; the plot of the film was based on a real-life news item about Swiss smugglers who tried to transport jewels in an orthopedic cast. The boss of a black market ring wants to smuggle a batch of jewelry from a foreign state into the Soviet Union by hiding it inside the orthopedic cast of a courier; the Chief sends a minor henchman named Gennadiy'Gesha' Kozodoyev to serve as the courier. Kozodoyev travels to Turkey via a tourist cruise ship; the local co-conspirators do not know.
Due to a mix-up, they mistake Kozodoyev's fellow passenger from the cruise ship, the "ordinary Soviet citizen" Semyon Gorbunkov for the courier. They put the contraband jewels inside the cast. Upon the cruise ship's return to the Soviet Union, Gorbunkov lets the police know what happened, the police captain, working undercover as a taxi driver, uses Gorbunkov as bait to catch the criminals. Gesha and Lyolik attempt to lure Gorbunkov into situations where they can without a wet job, remove the cast and reclaim the contraband jewels. On one such occasion, Gesha invites Gorbunkov to a fancy restaurant with the intention of getting Gorbunkov drunk enough for Lyolik to subdue him, however both Gesha and Gorbunkov become drunk and Gorbunkov is taken home by the police after he and Gesha cause a scene. Gorbunkov's wife begins to suspect that he has either been recruited by foreign intelligence after finding a large amount of money and a gun loaded with blanks in Gorbunkov's possession, or that he is having an affair.
Gorbunkov explains that he is working with the Soviet police on a secret mission, but cannot divulge any details. The Chief sends a female operative, to help retrieve the cast. Sergeyevna invites Gorbunkov to her hotel room under the pretense of wanting to sell Gorbunkov a gown and spikes his drink with a sleeping pill; as Gorbunkov is about to pass out, his building's nosy superintendent who had followed Gorbunkov brings his wife into the hotel room before either Lyolik or the police can get to him. Gorbunkov awakens the next morning to find that his wife has assumed that his story was all a cover up for an affair, has left with the children; the police in the meantime have deduced that Gesha is involved with the smuggling scheme surrounding the cast, ask Gorbunkov to mention to Gesha that he is planning to travel to another city and will have his cast removed there. Gesha reports this to the Chief. Gorbunkov assumes that Lyolik is an undercover policeman, gives away the fact that he has been in contact with the police the entire time.
Lyolik plays along and tells Gorbunkov that he has been authorized to remove the cast a day early at a safehouse along the way to Dubrovka. As Lyolik is about to remove the cast, Gorbunkov deduces that Lyolik is a criminal and attempts to escape. Lyolik and Gesha chase Gorbunkov and with the help of the Chief himself, they capture Gorbunkov. Upon removing Gorbunkov's cast, they realize that the police had removed the diamonds in the cast a long time ago; the criminals kidnap Gorbunkov and attempt to flee as the police track them down in a helicopter and capture them. Gorbunkov is reunited with the police having explained the situation to his wife. Gorbunkov goes on vacation with his family, albeit now with a broken leg as a result of the kidnapping. Yuri Nikulin, Semyon Semyonovich Gorbunkov, an economist at the State Institute for the Planning of Fisheries Nina Grebeshkova, Gorbunkov's wife Andrei Mironov, Gennadiy Kozodoyev, aka Gesha, a male model, Chief's assistant Anatoli Papanov, Chief's assistant, a tough guy Nonna Mordyukova, Varvara Pliushch, upravdom Svetlana Svetlichnaya, Anna Sergeyevna, a femme fatale Stanislav Chekan, Mikhail Ivanovich, Captain Major of militsiya Vladimir Gulyayev, Lieutenant of militsiya Andrei Fajt, salesman of lottery tickets, visitor of the restaurant "Weeping willow" Nikolay Trofimov, Colonel of militsiya Nikolay Romanov, Chief of crime gang Alexander Khvylya, Boris Savelyevich, maitre d'hotel of the restaurant "Weeping willow" Tatyana Nikulina, tour guide Maksim Nikulin, boy with a net Leonid Gaidai, alcoholic Igor Yasulovich, dog owner Roman Filippov, visitor from Kolyma Viktoria Ostrovskaya, prostitute The Island of Bad LuckThe ironic "The Island of Bad Luck" became popular after the film's release.
It was sung in the movie by the Kozodoyev during the cruise as he strums a guitar while relaxing on the ship's deck. The song is thematic, as it presages the bad luck that Kozodoyev experiences throughout the entire film; the song was recorded by Mironov himself. This is not uncommon, as many Russian actors of that time were proficient in dancing and singing, as well as acting; the Song About RabbitsThe metaphorical "Song About Rabbits" became a popular song during the late 1960
Dnipro, called Dnipropetrovsk until May 2016, is Ukraine's fourth-largest city, with about one million inhabitants. It is 391 kilometres southeast of the capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central part of Ukraine. Dnipro is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance, the centre of Dnipro municipality and extraterritorial administrative centre of Dnipro Raion, its population is 1,000,000 . The first fortified town in what is now Dnipro was built in the mid-16th century according to archeological findings. Known as Ekaterinoslav until 1925, the city was formally inaugurated by the Russian Empress Catherine the Great in 1787 as the administrative centre of the newly acquired vast territories of imperial New Russia, including those ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca; the city was envisioned as the Russian Empire's third capital city, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
Renamed Dnipropetrovsk in 1926, it became a vital industrial centre of Soviet Ukraine, was one of the key centres of the nuclear and space industries of the Soviet Union. In particular, it is home to the Yuzhmash, a major space and ballistic missile design bureau and manufacturer; because of its military industry, it was a closed city until the 1990s. On 19 May 2016 the official name of the city was changed from Dnipropetrovsk to Dnipro. Dnipro is a powerhouse of Ukraine's business and politics and is the native city of many of the country's most important figures. Ukraine's politics are still defined by the legacies of Leonid Kuchma, Pavlo Lazarenko and Yuliya Tymoshenko, whose intermingled careers started in Dnipro. Over time, Dnipro has been known by a number of names: Yekaterinoslav 1776–1782, reestablished 1783–1797 Novorossiysk 1797–1802 Yekaterinoslav 1802–1918 Sicheslav 1918–21 Yekaterinoslav / Katerynoslav 1918–1926 Dnepropetrovsk / Dnipropetrovsk 1926–1992 Dnipropetrovsk 1992–2016 Dnipro 2016–presentThe spelling Catharinoslav was found on some maps of the nineteenth century.
In some Anglophone media the city was known as the Rocket City. In 1918, the Central Council of Ukraine proposed to change the name of the city to Sicheslav. In 1926 the city was renamed after Communist leader Grigory Petrovsky; the 2015 law on decommunization required the city to be renamed, on 19 May 2016 the Ukrainian parliament passed a bill to rename the city to Dnipro. A monastery was founded by Byzantine monks on Monastyrsky Island in the 9th century; the Tatars destroyed the monastery in 1240. At the beginning of the 15th century, Tatar tribes inhabiting the right bank of the Dnieper were driven away by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the mid-15th century, the Nogai and the Crimean Khanate invaded these lands; the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate agreed to a border along the Dnieper, farther east along the Samara River, i.e. through what is today the city of Dnipro. It was in this time that a new force appeared: the Cossacks, they became known as Zaporozhian Cossacks. This was a period of raids and fighting causing considerable devastation and depopulation in that area.
Archeological findings suggest that the first fortified town in what is now Dnipro was built in the mid-16th century. In 1635, the Polish Government built the Kodak fortress above the Dnieper Rapids at Kodaky as a result of rivalry in the region between Poland and Crimean Khanate, to maintain control over Cossack activity. On the night of ¾ August 1635, the Cossacks of Ivan Sulyma captured the fort by surprise, burning it down and butchering the garrison of about 200 West European mercenaries under Jean Marion; the fort was rebuilt by French engineer Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan for the Polish Government in 1638, had a mercenary garrison. Kodak was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks on 1 October 1648, was garrisoned by the Cossacks until its demolition in accordance with the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711; the ruins of the Kodak are visible now. There is a project to restore it and create a tourist centre and park-museum. Following the Treaty of Andrusovo, the lands of Zaporizhian Sich were under a condominium between the Russian Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Rzeczpospolita relinquished its control over the area with signing of the 1686 Treaty of Perpetual Peace and, handing over Zaporizhia to Russia. In 1688 Zaporozhian Cossacks and Tatar forces unsuccessfully tried to destroy the Russian troops in the town's Bohorodytsia Fortress but ended up destroying the unprotected lower town only. Cossacks in 1711 forced the Russians troops out of the town under the Treaty of the Pruth. In the mid-1730s Russians troops returned to the Bohorodytsia Fortress; the Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia was founded in the late-1760s, between the settlements of Stari and Novi Kodaky. It was located at the present centre of the city to the West to d
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies; the Red Army defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920.
Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war civilians; the Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen. Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland, Latvia and Poland—were established as sovereign states, with their own civil wars and wars of independence; the rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the Russian Provisional Government was established during the February Revolution of 1917.
Provisional Government was unable to solve the most pressing issues of the country, most to end the war with Central Powers, was overthrown by the Bolshevik wing of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in the late 1917. From mid-1917 onwards, the Russian Army, the successor-organisation of the old Russian Imperial Army, started to disintegrate. In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force; the Bolsheviks appointed political commissars to each unit of the Red Army to maintain morale and to ensure loyalty. In June 1918, when it had become apparent that a revolutionary army composed of workers would not suffice, Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army; the Bolsheviks overcame opposition of rural Russians to Red-Army conscription units by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance the same practices used by the White Army officers.
The Red Army utilized former Tsarist officers as "military specialists". At the start of the civil war, former Tsarist officers comprised three-quarters of the Red Army officer-corps. By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one party rule became a catalyst for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime. A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including landowners, conservatives, middle-class citizens, pro-monarchists, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule, their military forces, bolstered by forced conscriptions and terror as well as foreign influence, under the leadership of General Nikolai Yudenich, Admiral Alexander Kolchak and General Anton Denikin, became known as the White movement and controlled significant parts of the former Russian Empire for most of the war.
A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno; the Black Army, which counted numerous Jews and Ukrainian peasants in its ranks, played a key part in halting Denikin's White Army offensive towards Moscow during 1919 ejecting White forces from Crimea. The remoteness of the Volga Region, the Ural Region and the Far East was favorable for the anti-Bolshevik forces, the Whites set up a number of organizations in the cities of these regions; some of the military forces were set up on the basis of clandestine officers' organizations in the cities. The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917, they had an agreement with the new Bolshevik governmen
The Leningrad Front was formed during the 1941 German approach on Leningrad by dividing the Northern Front into the Leningrad Front and Karelian Front on August 27, 1941. The Leningrad Front was given the task of containing the German drive towards Leningrad and defending the city from the approaching Army Group North. By September 1941, German forces to the south were stopped on the outskirts of Leningrad, initiating the two-and-a-half-year-long Siege of Leningrad. Although Finnish forces to the north stopped at the old Finnish–Soviet border, the Leningrad front suffered severe losses on the Finnish Front. From September 8, soldiers of the front were forced to conduct operations under the conditions of a blockade, with little supply; some supplies did reach the city however via the lake Road of Life. During the blockade, the front executed various offensive and defensive operations, until with the help of the Baltic and Volkhov Front, the blockade was lifted. From June 1942, Leonid Govorov had been the commander of the front, in June 1944, he was awarded the title Marshal of the Soviet Union.
In January 1943, forces of the Leningrad front made their first advances in years when they took the town of Shlisselburg from German forces, thus restoring communications between Leningrad and the rest of the country. In mid and late-January 1944 the Leningrad front, along with the Volkhov Front, the 1st Baltic Front and the 2nd Baltic Front, pushed back Army Group North and broke the 28-month-long blockade. Several days these forces would liberate all of the Leningrad Oblast and Kalinin Oblast. Six months the Leningrad Front took over the town of Narva. On April 21, 1944, parts of the Leningrad front were broken off to create the 3rd Baltic Front. In June 1944, the Leningrad front, along with the Baltic fleet had carried out the Vyborg operation; as a result of which, Finland would leave the German side of the war. From September–November 1944, the front participated in the Baltic Offensive, it advanced in the Narva-Tartu direction, towards Tallinn. Following the capture of continental Estonia, elements of the front, along with the Baltic fleet, took part in recapturing the Moonsund archipelago.
These were the last offensive operations of the front. Forces of the Leningrad Front were stationed on the Soviet-Finnish border, all along the Baltic coast from Leningrad to Riga; the Leningrad front was reinforced with elements of the disbanded 2nd Baltic Front. These forces were stationed near the Courland Pocket, with the task of containing the German Army Group Courland, which would continue to resist Soviet forces up until the end of war in Europe. On June 24, 1945, the Leningrad front was reorganized into the Leningrad Military District. Upon its creation in August 1941, the Leningrad front included: 8th Army 23rd Army 48th Army Koporye operational group Southern operational group Slutsk operational group Baltic FleetFollowing November 25, 1942, the structure of the Leningrad front increased, it subsequently included: Lieutenant General - Markian Popov. Continuation War#Trench warfare 1942-1943 Любанская операция
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier. While presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, he consolidated enough power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth, he edited the party's newspaper and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies and protection rackets. Arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the 1917 October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo.
Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. During Stalin's rule, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma. Under the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialization, creating a centralized command economy; this led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate accused "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had complete personal control over the state. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements throughout Europe during the 1930s in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe; the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as the two world superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U. S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, famines which killed millions. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori on 18 December 1878, he was the son of Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and Ekaterine "Keke" Geladze, who had married in May 1872, had lost two sons in infancy prior to Stalin's birth. They were ethnically Georgian, Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language. Gori was part of the Russian Empire, was home to a population of 20,000, the majority of whom were Georgian but with Armenian and Jewish minorities. Stalin was baptised on 29 December, he was nicknamed "Soso", a diminutive of "Ioseb". Besarion owned his own workshop; the family found themselves living in poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten years.
Besarion became an alcoholic, drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend, Fr. Christopher Charkviani, she worked as launderer for local families sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 Stalin enrolled at the Gori Church School; this was reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that the boy received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, singing as a choirboy, he got into many fights, a childhood friend noted that Stalin "was the best but the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems. Aged 12, he was injured after being hit by a phaeton, the cause of a lifelong disability to his left arm. At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, he enrolled at the school in August 1894, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.
Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the semina
Kakhovka is a port city on the Dnieper River in Kherson Oblast of southern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Kakhovka Raion, it is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 36,944 It is home to the KZEZO as well as the Tavria Games festival. There is a Swedish consulate in Kakhovka. In 1492 Meñli I Giray established, it was attacked by Cossacks and was destroyed by them under the leadership of Ivan Mazepa in 1695. In 1791 the Russian Colonel D. M. Kulikovsky founded the trade town of Kakhovka. Kakhovka was situated in the Tauria district. In 1848 the town obtained city rights. In the 1870s–90s the town was renowned for having a huge population of low-income contractors. By a Russian economist time-by-time 20-40.000 contractor gathered in 80 % of them males. In December 1918, by the decision of the administration of the Dnipro povit, Kakhovka was declared a city. In August 1920, during the final push in the Russian Civil War to drive the Whites under Wrangel out of the Crimea, Ieronim Uborevich established a bridgehead at Kakhovka, which became the site of fierce battles, "probably the closest the Civil War came to world war trench fighting."
During World War II, Kakhovka was captured by the German Army on August 30, 1941. It was released by the 4th Ukrainian Front during the Melitopol offensive on November 2, 1943. In 1972 the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR gave the city the rank of "city of oblast subordinance" within Kherson Oblast; the 1935 film Three Friends included the song "Kakhovka", which became well known the refrain "Мы мирные люди, но наш бронепоезд/ Стоит на запасном пути". Svetlov chose the site of the little-known Civil War battle for his song because he had grown up nearby and had known the town during the war; the British-Ukrainian food writer, Olia Hercules grew up in Kakhovka. The murder of the Jews of Kakhovka during World War II, at Yad Vashem website