Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Lutsk is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine. It is the center of the Volyn Oblast and the administrative center of the surrounding Lutsk Raion within the oblast. Lutsk has the status of a city of oblast significance, equivalent to that of a raion, population,217, 103 Lutsk is an ancient Slavic town, mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle as Luchesk in the records of 1085. The etymology of the name is unclear, there are three hypotheses, either the name may have been derived from the old-Slavic word luka, or the name may have originated from Luka, an ancient Slavic tribe living in this area. The name may have derived from Luchanii, an ancient branch of the tribe mentioned above. Its historical name in Ukrainian is Луцьк, in Russian, Луцк, according to legend Luchesk dates from the 7th century. The first known reference dates from the year 1085. The town served as the capital of Halych-Volynia until the foundation of Volodymyr-Volynsky, the town was established around a wooden stronghold built by a local branch of the Rurik Dynasty.
In 1240 Tatars seized and looted the town but left the castle unharmed. In 1321 George son of Lev, the last of the line, died in a battle with the forces of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1349 the forces of Casimir III captured the town, but Lithuania soon retook it. The town began to prosper during the period of Lithuanian rule, prince Lubart, son of Gediminas, erected Lubarts Castle as part of his fortification programme. Vytautas the Great founded the town itself by importing colonists, in 1427 he transferred the Catholic bishopric from Volodymyr-Volynskyi to Luchesk. Vytautas was the last monarch to use the title of Duke of Volhynia, the town grew rapidly, and by the end of the 15th century there were 19 Orthodox and two Catholic churches. It was the seat of two Christian bishops, one Catholic and one Orthodox, because of that the town was sometimes nicknamed the Volhynian Rome. The cross symbol of Lutsk is featured on the highest Lithuanian Presidential award, in 1429 Lutsk was the meeting place selected for a conference of monarchs hosted by Jogaila and Sophia of Halshany to deal with the Tartar threat.
In 1432 Volhynia became a fief of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Lutsk became the seat of the governors and that same year, the city was granted Magdeburg rights. In 1569 Volhynia was fully incorporated into the Polish kingdom and the became the capital of the Volhynian Voivodeship. After the Union of Lublin the local Orthodox bishop converted to Greek-Catholicism, the town continued to prosper as an important economic centre of the region
A phoneme is one of the units of sound that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. The difference in meaning between the English words kill and kiss is a result of the exchange of the phoneme /l/ for the phoneme /s/, two words that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form a minimal pair. In linguistics, phonemes are written between slashes like this, /p/, whereas when it is desired to show the exact pronunciation of any sound, linguists use square brackets. Within linguistics there are differing views as to exactly what phonemes are, however, a phoneme is generally regarded as an abstraction of a set of speech sounds which are perceived as equivalent to each other in a given language. For example, in English, the k sounds in the kit and skill are not identical. Different speech sounds that are realizations of the same phoneme are known as allophones, phonemes are conventionally placed between slashes in transcription, whereas speech sounds are placed between square brackets.
Thus /pʊʃ/ represents a sequence of three phonemes /p/, /ʊ/, /ʃ/, while represents the sequence of sounds. The symbols used for particular phonemes are often taken from the International Phonetic Alphabet, descriptions of particular languages may use different conventional symbols to represent the phonemes of those languages. A phoneme is a sound or a group of different sounds perceived to have the function by speakers of the language or dialect in question. An example is the English phoneme /k/, which occurs in such as cat, scat. Although most native speakers do not notice this, in most English dialects the c/k sounds in words are not identical, in kit the sound is aspirated. The words therefore contain different speech sounds, or phones, transcribed for the aspirated form, the above shows that in English, and are allophones of a single phoneme /k/. For example, in Icelandic, is the first sound of kátur meaning cheerful, Icelandic therefore has two separate phonemes /kʰ/ and /k/. A pair of words like kátur and gátur that differ only in one phone is called a pair for the two alternative phones in question.
The existence of pairs is a common test to decide whether two phones represent different phonemes or are allophones of the same phoneme. In other languages, including Korean, even though both sounds and occur, no minimal pair exists. The lack of minimal pairs distinguishing and in Korean provides evidence that in this language they are allophones of a single phoneme /t/, the word /tata/ is pronounced, for example. Signed languages, such as American Sign Language have minimal pairs, Sign language minimal pairs refer to one of the signs parameters, movement, palm orientation, and non-manual signal/marker
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Jan Baudouin de Courtenay
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay was a Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations. In 1919-1929 he was a professor at the re-established University of Warsaw in a once again independent Poland and he was born in Radzymin, in the Warsaw Governorate of Congress Poland, to a family of distant French extraction. One of his ancestors had been a French aristocrat who migrated to Poland during the reign of Polish King August II the Strong, in 1862 Baudouin de Courtenay entered the Main School, a predecessor of the University of Warsaw. In 1866 he graduated from its historical and philological faculty and won a scholarship of the Russian Imperial Ministry of Education, having left Poland, he studied at various foreign universities, including those of Prague and Berlin. In 1870 he received a doctorate from the University of Leipzig for his Polish-language dissertation On the Old Polish Language Prior to the 14th Century, Baudouin de Courtenay established the Kazan school of linguistics in the mid-1870s and served as professor at the local university from 1875.
Later he was chosen as the head of faculty at the University of Dorpat. Between 1894 and 1898 he occupied the same post at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków only to be appointed to St. Petersburg, after Poland regained independence in 1918, he returned to Warsaw, where he formed the core of the linguistics faculty of the University of Warsaw. From 1887 he held a permanent seat in the Polish Academy of Skills, in 1925 he was one of the co-founders of the Polish Linguistic Society. His work had a impact on 20th-century linguistic theory. Among the most notable of his achievements is the distinction between statics and dynamics of languages and between a language and speech – compare Saussures concepts of langue and parole. His work on the theory of phonetic alternations may have had an influence on the work of Ferdinand de Saussure according to E. F. K. Koerner, all three schools developed different positions on the nature of Baudouins alternational dichotomy. The Prague School was best known outside the field of Slavic linguistics, throughout his life he published hundreds of scientific works in Polish, Czech, Italian and German.
Apart from his work, Baudouin de Courtenay was a strong supporter of national revival of various national minority. In 1915 he was arrested by the Okhrana, the Russian secret service and he spent three months in prison, but was released. He was an active Esperantist and president of the Polish Esperanto Association, in 1927 he formally withdrew from the Roman Catholic Church without joining any other religious denomination. He is buried at the Protestant Reformed Cemetery in Warsaw with the epitaph “He sought truth and he appears as a character in Joseph Skibells 2010 novel, A Curable Romantic. Baudouin de Courtenay was the editor of the 3rd and 4th editions of the Explanatory Dictionary of the Live Great Russian language compiled by Russian lexicographer Vladimir Dahl, E. F. K. Koerner, Essays in the History of Linguistics, ch.7. The Kazan school of Polish linguistics and its place in the development of phonology
Roman Osipovich Jakobson was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist. Influenced by the work of Ferdinand de Saussure, Jakobson developed, with Nikolai Trubetzkoy, techniques for the analysis of systems in languages. He went on to apply the techniques of analysis to syntax and morphology. He made numerous contributions to Slavic linguistics, most notably two studies of Russian case and an analysis of the categories of the Russian verb and he studied at the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages and at the Historical-Philological Faculty of Moscow University. As a student he was a figure of the Moscow Linguistic Circle and took part in Moscows active world of avant-garde art. The linguistics of the time was overwhelmingly neogrammarian and insisted that the scientific study of language was to study the history. Jakobson was known for his critique of the emergence of sound in film. Jakobson received a degree from Moscow University in 1918. 1920 was a year of conflict in Russia, and Jakobson relocated to Prague as a member of the Soviet diplomatic mission to continue his doctoral studies.
He immersed himself both into the academic and cultural life of pre-World War II Czechoslovakia and established relationships with a number of Czech poets. Jakobson received his Ph. D. from Charles University in 1930 and he became a professor at Masaryk University in Brno in 1933. He made an impression on Czech academics with his studies of Czech verse, in 1926, together with Vilém Mathesius and others he became one of the founders of the Prague school of linguistic theory. There his numerous works on phonetics helped continue to develop his concerns with the structure and this mode of analysis has been since applied to the plane of Saussurean sense by his protégé Michael Silverstein in a series of foundational articles in functionalist linguistic typology. Jakobson escaped from Prague in early March 1939 via Berlin for Denmark, where he was associated with the Copenhagen linguistic circle and he fled to Norway on 1 September 1939, and in 1940 walked across the border to Sweden, where he continued his work at the Karolinska Hospital.
In New York, he began teaching at The New School, at the École libre des hautes études, a sort of Francophone university-in-exile, he met and collaborated with Claude Lévi-Strauss, who would become a key exponent of structuralism. He made the acquaintance of many American linguists and anthropologists, such as Franz Boas, Benjamin Whorf, when the American authorities considered repatriating him to Europe, it was Franz Boas who actually saved his life. After the war, he became a consultant to the International Auxiliary Language Association, in 1949 Jakobson moved to Harvard University, where he remained until his retirement in 1967. In his last decade he maintained an office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in the early 1960s Jakobson shifted his emphasis to a more comprehensive view of language and began writing about communication sciences as a whole
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Once described as Paris of the East, Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. On 9 November 1939, the city was awarded Polands highest military decoration for heroism, Warsaw is one of Europe’s most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world, in 2017 the city came 4th in the “Business-friendly” category and 8th in the “Human capital and life style”. It was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central, Warsaw is considered an Alpha– global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural and economic hub.
The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO, ITO, the Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external security, has its headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union, the city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra and the University of Warsaw. The historic city-centre of Warsaw with its picturesque Old Town in 1980 was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, buildings represent examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. Warsaw provides many examples of architecture from the gothic, baroque and modern periods, the city is positioning itself as Europes chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and renowned restaurants. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, according to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love.
In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland, the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka, other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Варшава /Varšava /Varshava, Varšuva, Varsó. The first fortified settlements on the site of todays Warsaw were located in Bródno, after Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa
It took place separately in various Germanic languages starting around 450 or 500 AD and affected all of the early languages except Gothic. An example of the vowel alternation is the English plural foot ~ feet. Umlaut is a form of assimilation or vowel harmony, the process by one speech sound is altered to make it more like another adjacent sound. When a low or mid-front vowel occurred in a syllable and the front vowel /i/ or the front glide /j/ occurred in the next and this happened less often in the Germanic languages, partly because of earlier vowel harmony in similar contexts. However, for example, proto-Old English /æ/ became /e/ in, for example, the fronted variant caused by umlaut was originally allophonic, but it became phonemic when the context was lost but the variant sound remained. In ancient Germanic, it and some words had the plural suffix -iz. As it contained an i, this suffix caused fronting of the vowel, and when the disappeared. In English, such plurals are rare, woman, goose, mouse, louse and cow.
It can be found in a few fossilized diminutive forms, such as kitten from cat and kernel from corn, Umlaut is conspicuous when it occurs in one of such a pair of forms, but there are many mutated words without an unmutated parallel form. Germanic actively derived causative weak verbs from ordinary strong verbs by applying a suffix, some of these survived into modern English as doublets of verbs, including fell and set vs. fall and sit. Umlaut could occur in borrowings as well if stressed vowel was coloured by a subsequent front vowel, such as German Köln, from Latin Colonia, or Käse, German orthography is generally consistent in its representation of i-umlaut. This is a solution when pairs of words with and without umlaut mutation are compared. However, in a number of words, a vowel affected by i-umlaut is not marked with the umlaut diacritic because its origin not obvious. Either there is no unumlauted equivalent or they are not recognized as a pair because the meanings have drifted apart.
The adjective fertig contains a mutation, but it is spelled with e rather than ä as its relationship to Fahrt has, for most speakers of the language. Likewise, alt has the comparative älter, but the noun from this is spelled Eltern, aufwand has the verb aufwenden and the adjective aufwendig though the 1996 spelling reform now permits the alternative spelling aufwändig. Conversely, some words have umlaut diacritics that do not mark a vowel produced by the sound change of umlaut. Notable examples are Känguru from English kangaroo, and Büro from French bureau, Big Mac can be spelt Big Mäc in German, which even used to be the official spelling used by McDonalds in Germany