The Japanese language makes use of honorific suffixes when referring to others in a conversation. These suffixes are attached to the end of names, are gender-neutral. Honorific suffixes indicate the level of the speaker and referred individual's relationship and are used alongside other components of Japanese honorific speech, called keigo. Although honorifics are not part of the basic grammar of the Japanese language, they are a fundamental part of the sociolinguistics of Japanese, proper use is essential to proficient and appropriate speech. Referring to oneself using an honorific, or dropping an honorific when it is required, is a serious faux pas, in either case coming across as clumsy or arrogant, they can be applied to either the first or last name depending on, given. In situations where both the first and last names are spoken, the suffix is attached to whichever comes last in the word order. An honorific is used when referring to the person one is talking to, or when referring to an unrelated third party in speech.
It is dropped, however, by some superiors, when referring to one's in-group, or in formal writing, is never used to refer to oneself, except for dramatic effect, or some exceptional cases. Dropping the honorific suffix when referring to one's interlocutor, known as to yobisute, implies a high degree of intimacy and is reserved for one's spouse, younger family members, social inferiors, close friends. Within sports teams or among classmates, where the interlocutors have the same age or seniority, it can be acceptable to use family names without honorifics; some people of the younger generation born since 1970, prefer to be referred to without an honorific. However, dropping honorifics is a sign of informality with casual acquaintances; when referring to a third person, honorifics are used except when referring to one's family members while talking to a non-family member, or when referring to a member of one's company while talking to a customer or someone from another company—this is the uchi–soto distinction.
Honorifics are not used to refer to oneself, except when trying to be arrogant, to be cute, or sometimes when talking to young children to teach them how to address the speaker. Use of honorifics is correlated with other forms of honorific speech in Japanese, such as use of the polite form versus the plain form—using the plain form with a polite honorific can be jarring, for instance. While these honorifics are used on proper nouns, these suffixes can turn common nouns into proper nouns when attached to the end of them; this can be seen on words such as neko-chan which turns the common noun neko into a proper noun which would refer to that particular cat, while adding the honorific -chan can mean cute When translating honorific suffixes into English, separate pronouns or adjectives must be used in order to convey characteristics to the person they are referencing as well. While some honorifics such as -san are frequently used due to their gender neutrality and simple definition of polite unfamiliarity, other honorifics such as -chan or -kun are more specific as to the context in which they must be used as well as the implications they give off when attached to a person's name.
These implications can only be translated into English using either adjectives or adjective word phrases. San is the most commonplace honorific and is a title of respect used between equals of any age. Although the closest analog in English are the honorifics "Mr.", "Miss", "Ms.", or "Mrs.", -san is universally added to a person's name. Because it is the most common honorific, it is the most used to convert common nouns into proper ones, as seen below. San may be used in combination with workplace nouns, so a bookseller might be addressed or referred to as hon'ya-san and a butcher as nikuya-san. San is sometimes used with company names. For example, the offices or shop of a company called Kojima Denki might be referred to as "Kojima Denki-san" by another nearby company; this may be seen on small maps used in phone books and business cards in Japan, where the names of surrounding companies are written using -san. San can be attached to the names of animals or inanimate objects. For example, a pet rabbit might be called usagi-san, fish used for cooking can be referred to as sakana-san, but both would be considered childish and would be avoided in formal speech.
Married people refer to their spouse with -san. Due to -san being gender neutral and used, it can be used to refer to people who are not close or whom one does not know. However, it may not be appropriate when using it on someone, close or when it is clear that other honorifics should be used. Online, Japanese gamers append a numeral 3 to another player's name to denote -san, since the number three is pronounced san. Sama is a more respectful version for people of a higher rank than oneself or divine, toward one's guests or customers, sometimes toward people one admires, it is said to be the origin word for -san but there is no major evidence otherwise. Deities such as native Shinto kami and the Christian God are referred to as kami-sama, meaning "Revered spirit-sama"; when used to refer to oneself, -sama expresses extrem
Tomioka Hachiman Shrine
Tomioka Hachiman Shrine is the largest Hachiman shrine in Tokyo. The shrine was established in Fukagawa in 1627 with reclamation of a shoal; the God Hachiman, whom the shrine reveres, was a local Shinto deity of the Minamoto clan, thus the shinto shrine received cordial protection by the Tokugawa shogunate. On the other hand, the shrine was revered from the people of shitamachi, familiar as "Hachiman of Fukagawa". During the Meiji period, the shrine lost the cordial protection it had enjoyed during the Edo period, it was, chosen as Tokyo Ten Shrines by the Meiji government, despite being considered of inferior status relative to Hikawa Shrine and other major shrines which the government had provided. On 10 March 1945, the shrine was burned down during the bombing of Tokyo. On 18 March 1945, Emperor Hirohito, inspecting the burned area, visited here and received the explanation about the damage in precincts. Upon returning to his palace, the emperor described his impression to Hisanori Fujita, his Grand Chamberlains, comparing the effects to the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923 which he had seen when Crown Prince: It is far more tragic feeling in case of this time.
Concrete remains. It is miserable. Grand chamberlain! Tokyo became a burnt ground at last by this. After the war, two stone monuments to commemorate. In June 2017, the shrine decided to leave the control of Association of Shinto Shrines. On 7 December 2017, the chief priestess of the shrine, Nagako Tomioka, was stabbed to death by her brother Shigenaga Tomioka; the attacker's wife took part in the attack according to the police, injuring the priestess' driver. Her brother stabbed his wife to death before committing suicide. A bloodied samurai sword and knives were found at the scene. Tomioka Hachiman Shrine is known as the birthplace of Kanjin-zumō, founded in 1684 and origin of the current professional sumo. Two basho were held at the shrine every year under the permission of the shogunate, banzuke and other major systems were created in this period. After eighty years, basho had been held in other places in Edo Ekōin came to hold all basho since 1833. In Meiji period, sumo strengthened the relation with Shintoism to survive because of losses of supports from the shogunate and daimyōs, who lost power by the Meiji Restoration, thus the Shinto shrine came to be valued further by sumo.
In 1900, the stone monument to commend successive yokozuna, the Yokozuna Stone, was built by Jinmaku Kyūgorō, the 12th yokozuna. Now, the stone inscribed with the shikona of all yokozuna until Hakuhō Shō, the 69th yokozuna, "unrivaled rikishi" Raiden Tameemon; the shrine has many other stone monuments related to sumo. Thus, when a rikishi reaches the rank of yokozuna, a dedication in the form of dohyō-iri is done at the shrine. Tomioka Hachiman Shrine official website -
Japanese festivals are traditional festive occasions. Some festivals have their roots in Chinese festivals centuries ago, but have undergone great changes as they mixed with local customs; some are so different that they do not remotely resemble the original festival despite sharing the same name and date. There are various local festivals that are unknown outside a given prefecture. Unlike most people in East Asia, Japanese people do not celebrate Lunar New Year. In Yokohama Chinatown, Japan's biggest Chinatown, tourists from all over Japan come to enjoy the festival. Similar for Nagasaki's Lantern Festival, based in Nagasaki Chinatown. See: Japanese New Year. Festivals are based around one event, with food stalls and carnival games to keep people entertained; some are based around temples or shrines, others hanabi, still others around contests where the participants sport loin cloths. Matsuri is the Japanese word for a holiday. In Japan, festivals are sponsored by a local shrine or temple, though they can be secular.
There are no specific matsuri days for all of Japan. Every locale has at least one matsuri in late summer/early autumn related to the rice harvest. Notable matsuri feature processions which may include elaborate floats. Preparation for these processions is organized at the level of neighborhoods, or machi. Prior to these, the local kami may be paraded through the streets. One can always find in the vicinity of a matsuri booths selling souvenirs and food such as takoyaki, games, such as Goldfish scooping. Karaoke contests, sumo matches, other forms of entertainment are organized in conjunction with matsuri. If the festival is next to a lake, renting a boat is an attraction. Favorite elements of the most popular matsuri, such as the Nada no Kenka Matsuri of Himeji or the Neputa Matsuri of Hirosaki, are broadcast on television for the entire nation to enjoy. Sapporo Snow Festival is one of the largest festivals of the year in Sapporo, held in February for one week, it began in 1950. The event is now large and commercialized.
About a dozen large sculptures are built for the festival along with around 100 smaller snow and ice sculptures. Several concerts and other events are held. Lake Shikotsu is the northernmost ice-free lake, 363 meters deep; this festival features a moss-covered cave, which has evergreen draped on the inside and is covered in ice. This festival is held from late January to mid February; this festival features ice sculptures and large. At night the sculptures are illuminated by different colored lights. There is a fireworks show during the festival as well. Admission is free. Amasake is available for purchase to enjoy; this lake festival is held in the beginning of February. Held in the town of Yasumiya, this festival is on the south side of Lake Towada; this festival is open all day, but at 5 pm one can enjoy activities such as going through a snow maze, exploring a Japanese igloo, eat foods from Aomori and Akita prefectures. There is events held on an ice stage; this festival is held annually and features colorful lantern floats called nebuta which are pulled through the streets of Central Aomori.
This festival is held from about August 2–7 every year. This event attracts millions of visitors. During this festival, 20 large nebuta floats are paraded through the streets near Aomori JR rail station; these floats are constructed of wooden bases and metal frames. Japanese papers, called washi, are painted onto the frames; these amazing floats are finished off with the historical figures or kabuki being painted on the paper. These floats can take up to a year to complete. There is a dance portion of this festival. There are haneto dancers and they wear special costumes for this dance. Everyone is welcome to purchase their own haneto costume; this event is held every year. Thousands of artists from all over Tohoku and further regions come to Nango to perform; this is the largest open-air jazz concert held in Tohoku region. This festival began in a small venue indoors. There was such a large response from the fans. One must purchase tickets for this event; this summer jazz festival doesn't cost anything but potential members of the public still need to receive a ticket to enter the event.
Japan celebrates the entire season of the cherry blossoms. There are festivals in nearly every region of Japan, some locations, food is available or a park may be decorated with lanterns; some locations of cherry blossom festivals include: Yaedake Cherry Blossom Festival in Okinawa. This festival takes place from late January – mid February Matsuyama Shiroyama Koen Cherry Blossom Festival in Matsuyama-city, Ehime; this festival takes place early April. Matsue Jozan Koen Festival in Matsue-city, Shimane; this festival has a feature of illuminating the cherry blossom trees at night. This festival takes place late March-early April. Tsuyama Kakuzan Koen Cherry Blossom Festival in Tsuyama-cit
Sanja Matsuri, or Sanja Festival, is one of the three great Shinto festivals in Tokyo. It is considered one of largest; the festival is held in honor of Hinokuma Hamanari, Hinokuma Takenari, Hajino Nakatomo, the three men who established and founded the Sensō-ji Buddhist temple. Sanja Matsuri is held on the third weekend of every May at Asakusa Shrine, its prominent parades revolve around three mikoshi, as well as dancing. Over the course of three days, the festival attracts 1.5 to 2 million locals and tourists every year. Like many Japanese festivals, Sanja Matsuri is a religious celebration, it is a weekend-long Shinto festival, dedicated to the kami of three men. It is believed that two fishermen—brothers named Hinokuma Hamanari and Hinokuma Takenari—found a statuette of the Bodhisattva Kannon caught in a fishing net in the Sumida River on the early morning of March 18, 628; the third man, a wealthy landlord named Hajino Nakatomo, heard about the discovery, approached the brothers and converted them to Buddhism.
The three men devoted their lives to the Buddhist faith and consecrated the statue in a small temple. This temple, now known as the Sensō-ji houses the Kannon statue and is the oldest temple in Tokyo; the Sanja Matsuri appears to have many forms that date back as early as the 7th century, as well as several names such as "Kannon Matsuri" and "Asakusa Matsuri". Sanja Matsuri's present day form was established during the Edo period. In 1649, shōgun Tokugawa Iemitsu commissioned the construction of Asakusa Shrine, a Shinto shrine dedicated to the three kami; the existence of this shrine helped to solidify the festival's importance as well as its current structure and organization. Religious in origin, Sanja Matsuri is a festival of celebration; the atmosphere around Asakusa during the weekend of the festival is charged and energetic. People continuously flood the streets surrounding the Sensō-ji and flutes, whistles and taiko can be heard throughout the district; the festival's main attractions are three Asakusa Shrine-owned mikoshi that appear on the third and final day of the festival.
These three elaborate, black lacquered-wood shrines are built to act as miniature, portable versions of Asakusa Shrine. Decorated with gold sculptures and painted with gold leaf, each mikoshi weighs one ton and cost ¥40 million to construct, they are carried on four long poles lashed together with ropes, each needs 40 people dispersed evenly to safely carry them. Throughout the day, a total of about 500 people participate in carrying each shrine; because of the importance of these three mikoshi, they are spectacles as they are carried through the streets. The areas surrounding each shrine are busy with people, as they are carried, they are shaken and bounced vehemently; this action is believed to intensify the power of the kami that are seated in the shrines and helps to bestow good luck upon their respective neighborhoods. It is not unusual for there to be someone standing on the poles supporting the mikoshi shouting and waving in order to help direct the people carrying the shrine; this sense of direction can be essential when trying to keep the one ton mikoshi from accidentally colliding with street-side shops and causing considerable damage.
While the three primary mikoshi are the most important objects roaming the streets during the Sanja Matsuri 100 other smaller mikoshi are paraded through the neighborhood on Saturday. Of these shrines, several are carried by women or small children. Though not a part of the festivities, the official start of the Sanja Matsuri begins on Thursday with an important religious ceremony; this ceremony requires Asakusa Shrine's head priest to perform a ritual that moves the enshrined kami of the three men at Asakusa Shrine to the three mikoshi that will be paraded around the Asakusa during the weekend. By opening the small doors located on each mikoshi, the three spirits are invited into the miniature shrines where they will reside for the duration of the festival; the festival's more publicized beginning starts on Friday. This famous 19-block grand procession down Yanagi Street and Nakamise-dōri to Asakusa Shrine is an event, used to energize the community, it is most known for its participants' lavish costumes, such as heron-hooded dancers and city officials wearing hakama.
Musicians and dancers parade down the streets of Asakusa in traditional Japanese attire during the procession. In the evening, six mikoshi from the most central neighborhoods are sent parading through the streets on the shoulders of several dozen people. On the following day, Saturday 100 mikoshi from the 44 Asakusa districts gather at the Kaminarimon, they are paraded through Nakamise-dōri and stop at the Hōzōmon where they pay their respects to Kannon, the Goddess of Mercy. Afterwards, the mikoshi are carried to Asakusa Shrine where Shinto priests bless and purify them for the coming year; when the ceremony is completed, they are carried back and paraded through their respective neighborhoods. Sanja Matsuri's most important events occurs on the following Sunday; the procession of the three Asakusa Shrine-owned mikoshi begin their march down Nakamise-dōri toward the Kaminarimon early Sunday morning. These three elaborate shrines honor and represent the three men responsible for founding the Sensō-ji.
During this final day of the festival, these important mikoshi are split up in o
In Greek mythology, a phoenix is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again. Associated with the Sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. According to some sources, the phoenix dies in a show of flames and combustion, although there are other sources that claim that the legendary bird dies and decomposes before being born again. There are different traditions concerning the lifespan of the phoenix, but by most accounts the phoenix lived for 500 years before rebirth. Herodotus, Pliny the Elder, Pope Clement I, Lactantius and Isidore of Seville are among those who have contributed to the retelling and transmission of the phoenix motif. In ancient Greece and Rome, the phoenix was associated with Phoenicia, a civilization famous for its production of purple dye from conch shells. In the historical record, the phoenix "could symbolize renewal in general as well as the sun, the Empire, consecration, life in the heavenly Paradise, Mary, the exceptional man, certain aspects of Christian life".
The modern English noun phoenix derives from Middle English phenix, itself from Old English fēnix. A once-common typological variant is phœnix. Old English fēnix was borrowed from Medieval Latin phenix, derived from Classical Latin phoenīx; the Classical Latin phoenīx represents Greek φοῖνιξ phoinīx.. In ancient Greece and Rome, the phoenix was sometimes associated with the similar-sounding Phoenicia, a civilization famous for its production of purple dye from conch shells. A late antique etymology offered by the 6th- and 7th-century CE archbishop Isidore of Seville accordingly derives the name of the phoenix from its purple-red hue; because the costly purple dye was associated with the upper classes in antiquity and with royalty, in the medieval period the phoenix was considered "the royal bird". In spite of these folk etymologies, with the deciphering of the Linear B script in the 20th century, the original Greek φοῖνιξ was decisively shown to be derived from Mycenaean Greek po-ni-ke, itself open to a variety of interpretations.
Classical discourse on the subject of the phoenix points to a potential origin of the phoenix in Ancient Egypt. In the 19th century scholastic suspicions appeared to be confirmed by the discovery that Egyptians in Heliopolis had venerated the Bennu, a solar bird observed in some respects to be similar to the Greek phoenix. However, the Egyptian sources regarding the bennu are problematic and open to a variety of interpretations; some of these sources may have been influenced by Greek notions of the phoenix, rather than the other way around. Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, gives a somewhat skeptical account of the phoenix: have another sacred bird called the phoenix which I myself have never seen, except in pictures. Indeed it is a great rarity in Egypt, only coming there once in five hundred years, when the old phoenix dies, its size and appearance, if it is like the pictures, are as follow:– The plumage is red golden, while the general make and size are exactly that of the eagle. They tell a story of what this bird does, which does not seem to me to be credible: that he comes all the way from Arabia, brings the parent bird, all plastered over with myrrh, to the temple of the Sun, there buries the body.
In order to bring him, they say, he first forms a ball of myrrh as big as he finds that he can carry. Such is the story; the phoenix is sometimes pictured in ancient and medieval literature and medieval art as endowed with a halo, which emphasizes the bird's connection with the Sun. In the oldest images of phoenixes on record these nimbuses have seven rays, like Helios. Pliny the Elder describes the bird as having a crest of feathers on its head, Ezekiel the Dramatist compared it to a rooster. Although the phoenix was believed to be colorful and vibrant, sources provide no clear consensus about its coloration. Tacitus says; some said that the bird had peacock-like coloring, Herodotus's claim of the Phoenix being red and yellow is popular in many versions of the story on record. Ezekiel the Dramatist declared that the phoenix had red legs and striking yellow eyes, but Lactantius said that its eyes were blue like sapphires and that its legs were covered in yellow-gold scales with rose-colored talons.
Herodotus, Pliny and Philostratus describe the phoenix as similar in size to an eagle, but Lactantius and Ezekiel the Dramatist both claim that the phoenix was larger, with Lactantius declaring that it was larger than an ostrich. The Old English Exeter Book contains an anonymous 677-line 9th-century alliterative poem consisting of a paraphrase and abbreviation of Lactantius, followed by an explication of the Phoenix as an allegory for the resurrection of Christ. Dante refers to the phoenix in Inferno Canto XXIV: In the play Henry VIII by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, the King says in Act V Scene v, in flattering reference to his young daughter Elizabeth: Scholars have observed analogues to the phoenix in a variety of cultures; these analogues include the Hindu garuda and gandaberunda, the Russian firebir
Himeji is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. As of May 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 534,881, with 213,950 households and a population density of 1,000.84 persons per km². The total area is 534.43 km2. Himeji has been the center of Harima Province since the Nara period. After the Battle of Sekigahara, Ikeda Terumasa received a fief at Harima Province and established the Himeji Domain, he expanded its castle town. Himeji was the capital of Himeji Prefecture since 1871, but the prefecture was merged into Hyōgo Prefecture in 1876; the city of Himeji was established on April 1, 1889. After the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, the Japanese government considered moving the nation's capital from Tokyo to Himeji. On March 27, 2006, the town of Yasutomi, the town of Kōdera, the towns of Ieshima and Yumesaki were merged into Himeji. During World War II, Himeji was selected as a target by the United States' XXI Bomber Command because it served as an important rail terminal and contained two large military zones.
On July 3, 1945 at 4:23 PM, 107 Aircraft took off to bomb Himeji. During the raid, 767 tons of incendiary bombs were dropped on Himeji, destroying 63.3% of the built up areas of the city. However, the famous Himeji Castle remained remarkably unscathed with one firebomb being dropped on it; this has resulted in many Himeji residents believing. Himeji has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters. Summers are wetter than winters. A castle town, Himeji is home to the Himeji Castle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. For over 400 years, Himeji Castle has remained intact throughout the extensive bombing of Himeji in World War II and natural disasters such as the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and various typhoons. Other attractions include the Engyō-ji temple, Mount Seppiko, Himeji Central Park, the Himeji City Tegarayama Botanical Garden in Tegarayama Central Park and the Koko-en Garden. Himeji's education system is similar to other cities in Japan. In the city itself, there are 20-30 foreigners who teach English at the local elementary and junior high schools in the JET program.
The schools range from the islands of Ie all the way north past Yumesaki. A North Korean school, Seiban North Korean Elementary and Middle School, can be found in the city. Himeji is twinned or has sister city relationships with six international cities and two Japanese cities, as well as a sister castle located in France. Himeji has a strong relationship with Phoenix, as teachers from America are able to teach English abroad for 1–2 years. Additionally, the Youth Ambassador Exchange Program allows for both Japanese and American high school students to experience the cultures and languages of their respective countries for 3 weeks. Charleroi, Belgium Phoenix, United States Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Taiyuan, China Changwon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture Tottori, capital city in Tottori Prefecture Château de Chantilly in Chantilly, France Kuroda Kanbei, famed strategist under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Mikinosuke Kawaishi, judoka Aya Matsuura, entertainer Psycho le Cému, visual rock band Kenzō Takada, fashion designer Tetsuro Watsuji and historian Himeji City official website Official tourism website
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica