The Yamuna known as the Jumna or Jamuna, is the second largest tributary river of the Ganges and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 metres on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres, 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. It merges with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years, it crosses several states: Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, passing by Uttarakhand and Delhi, meeting its tributaries on the way, including Tons, its largest tributary, its longest tributary which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, Ken. From Uttaranchal, the river flows into the state of Himachal Pradesh. After passing Paonta Sahib, Yamuna flows along the boundary of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and after exiting Haryana it continues to flow till it merges with the river Ganga at Sangam or Prayag in Allahbad.
It helps create the fertile alluvial Yamuna-Ganges Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna's waters. With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic billion metres and usage of 4,400 cbm, the river accounts for more than 70 per cent of Delhi's water supply. Like the Ganges, the Yamuna is venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna. In Hindu mythology she is the daughter of the Sun Deva and the sister of Yama, the Deva of Death, hence known as Yami. According to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death. At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters are diverted into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh. Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined only by the Somb, a seasonal rivulet from Haryana, by the polluted Hindon River near Noida, so that it continues only as a trickling sewage-bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.
The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad barrage in Delhi, about 375 kilometres. One official described the river as a "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content. There are three main sources of pollution in the river: household and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture, resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites; the Yamuna from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage is called the Upper Yamuna. The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna. Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth's crust caused by plate tectonics; the source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 metres, on the south-western slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas, north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand.
Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit. Standing close to the temple, on its 13-kilometre trek route that follows the right bank of the river, lies Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana. From Markendeya Tirtha, the river flows southwards for about 200 kilometres, through the Lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills Range. Morainic deposits are found along the steep Upper Yamuna, highlighted with geomorphic features such as interlocking spurs, steep rock benches and stream terraces. Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river, such as those near Naugoan. An important part of its early catchment area, totalling 2,320 square kilometres, lies in Himachal Pradesh; the Tons, Yamana's largest tribuary, drains a large portion of the upper catchment area and holds more water than the main stream. It rises from merges after Kalsi near Dehradun.
The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri-Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal draining the ridge of Shimla. Kalanag is the highest point of the Yamuna basin. Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga, Hanuman Ganga and Bata, which drain the upper catchment area of the Yamuna basin. From the upper catchment area, the river descends onto the plains of Doon Valley, at Dak Pathar near Dehradun. Flowing through the Dakpathar Barrage, the water is diverted into a canal for power generation. Further downstream, the Assan River joins the Yamuna at the Asan Barrage, which hosts a bird sanctuary. After passing the Sikh pilgrimage town of Paonta Sahib, the Yamuna reaches Tajewala in Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana. A dam built here in 1873 is the origin of two important canals, the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals, which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh; the Western Yamuna Canal (W
Mandakini is a tributary of the Alaknanda River. Mandakini originates from the Chorabari Glacier near Kedarnath in India. Mandakini is fed by Vasukiganga River at Sonprayag. Mandakini joins Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. Alaknanda proceeds towards Devaprayag where it joins Bhagirathi River to form the Ganges River. Mandakini river flows along NH-107 in Rudraprayag district and turns violent during monsoon destroying parts of the highway and adjoining villages; the prefix "mand" means "calm" and "unhurried", Mandakini thus signifies "she who flows calmly". The Mandakini is mentioned as one of the transcendental rivers in the holy religious work Srimad Bhagavatam. John Leyden's 1810 Malay Annals mention that, the founder of the Sultanate of Malacca, carried a sword named Chora Sa Mandakini as part of his royal regalia; the sword is now a part of the Sultan of Perak's official regalia. The sword is believed to be of Indian origin and between 1,000 years old; the Mandakini is a runnable low volume river from October to April and can be unpredictable during the Monsoon months when all rivers in the area become swollen torrents.
The Mandakini is a kayakable river with a lot of class class 5 rapids. The upper Mandakini and the lower mandakini are considered to be class 4+ sections while there is a stretch of water in the middle part of the river, class 2-class 3. Ganges Kedarnath Documentary by Mandakini Mathur The River Goddess by Vijay Singh
Lakes of Kumaon hills
Lakes of Kumaon hills are in Uttarakhand state, called the ‘Lake District’ of India. These are under restoration with funds provided by the National Lake Conservation Plan of the Government of India; the lakes are the following. Nainital Lake Bhimtal Lake Sat Tal Lake, Sattal Naukuchiatal
Nanda Devi is the second highest mountain in India, the highest located within the country. It is the 23rd-highest peak in the world, it was considered the highest mountain in the world before computations in 1808 proved Dhaulagiri to be higher. It was the highest mountain in India before 1975 when Sikkim, the state in which Kangchenjunga is located, joined the Republic of India, it is part of the Garhwal Himalayas, is located in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, between the Rishiganga valley on the west and the Goriganga valley on the east. The peak, whose name means "Bliss-Giving Goddess", is regarded as the patron-goddess of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. In acknowledgment of its religious significance and for the protection of its fragile ecosystem, the peak as well as the circle of high mountains surrounding it—the Nanda Devi sanctuary—were closed to both locals and climbers in 1983; the surrounding Nanda Devi National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. Nanda Devi is a two-peaked massif.
The western summit is higher, the eastern summit, called Nanda Devi East, is the lower one. The main summit stands guarded by a barrier ring comprising some of the highest mountains in the Indian Himalayas, twelve of which exceed 6,400 metres in height, further elevating its sacred status as the daughter of the Himalaya in Indian myth and folklore; the interior of this insurmountable ring is known as the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, is protected as the Nanda Devi National Park. Nanda Devi East lies on the eastern edge of the ring, at the border of Chamoli and Bageshwar districts. Together the peaks may be referred to as the peaks of the goddesses Sunanda; these goddesses have occurred together in ancient Sanskrit literature and are worshipped together as twins in the Kumaon, Garhwal and as well as elsewhere in India. The first published reference to Nanda Devi East as Sunanda Devi appears to be in a recent novel that has the Kumaon region as backdrop. In addition to being the 23rd highest independent peak in the world, Nanda Devi is notable for its large, steep rise above local terrain.
It rises over 3,300 metres above its immediate southwestern base on the Dakkhini Nanda Devi Glacier in about 4.2 kilometres, its rise above the glaciers to the north is similar. This makes it among the steepest peaks in the world at this scale comparable, for example, to the local profile of K2. Nanda Devi is impressive when considering terrain, a bit further away, as it is surrounded by deep valleys. For example, it rises over 6,500 metres above the valley of the Goriganga in only 50 km. On the northern side of the massif lies the Uttari Nanda Devi Glacier, flowing into the Uttari Rishi Glacier. To the southwest, one finds the Dakkhini Nanda Devi Glacier, flowing into the Dakkhini Rishi Glacier. All of these glaciers are located within the Sanctuary, drain west into the Rishiganga. To the east lies the Pachu Glacier, to the southeast lie the Nandaghunti and Lawan Glaciers, feeding the Lawan Gad. To the south is the Pindari Glacier, draining into the Pindar River. Just to the south of Sunanda Devi, dividing the Lawan Gad drainage from the Dakkhini Nanda Devi Glacier, is Longstaff Col, 5,910 m, one of the high passes that guard access to the Nanda Devi Sanctuary.
For a list of notable peaks of the Sanctuary and its environs, see Nanda Devi National Park. The ascent of Nanda Devi necessitated fifty years of arduous exploration in search of a passage into the Sanctuary; the outlet is the Rishi Gorge, a deep, narrow canyon, difficult to traverse safely, is the biggest hindrance to entering the Sanctuary. Hugh Ruttledge failed each time. In a letter to The Times he wrote that'Nanda Devi imposes on her votaries an admission test as yet beyond their skill and endurance', adding that gaining entry to the Nanda Devi Sanctuary alone was more difficult than reaching the North Pole. In 1934, the British explorers Eric Shipton and H. W. Tilman, with three Sherpa companions, Angtharkay and Kusang discovered a way through the Rishi Gorge into the Sanctuary; when the mountain was climbed in 1936 by a British-American expedition, it became the highest peak climbed by man until the 1950 ascent of Annapurna, 8,091 metres. It involved steeper and more sustained terrain than had been attempted at such a high altitude.
The expedition climbed the south ridge known as the Coxcomb Ridge, which leads directly to the main summit. The summit pair were Noel Odell. Noted mountaineer and mountain writer H. Adams Carter was on the expedition, notable for its small scale and lightweight ethic: it included only seven climbers, used no fixed ropes, nor any Sherpa support above 6,200 m. Eric Shipton, not involved in the climb itself, called it "the finest mountaineering achievement performed in the Himalaya."After abortive attempts by Indian expeditions in 1957 and 1961, the second ascent of Nanda Devi was accomplishe
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab
Bhullatal Lake, an artificial manmade lake dedicated to the Garhwali youth of The Garhwal Rifles who helped in construction of the lake, located at just 1 km from the Lansdowne, India. Bhulla in local Garhwali language means young brother. Bhullatal lake is known as Bhulla Lake. There is ample boating facility at the lake with some ducks. Lansdowne, India Nainital Bhimtal Lake Lakes of Kumaon hills Tarkeshwar Mahadev Official website of Uttarakhand Government Bhullatal Lake on Vanvasa Resort website
Roopkund is a high altitude glacial lake at the Nanda Devi Biosphere in Chamoli, Uttarakhand state of India. It lies in the lap of Trishul massif and is famous for the hundreds of human skeletons found at the edge of the lake; the area is uninhabited, in the Himalayas at an altitude of 5,029 metres. Surrounded by rock-strewn glaciers and snow-clad mountains, the lake is a popular trekking destination. A shallow lake, having a depth of about two metres, Roopkund has attracted attention because of the human skeletal remains that are visible at its bottom when the snow melts. Researchers have concluded that the skeletons are the remains of people killed in a sudden, violent hailstorm in the 9th century; because of the human remains, the lake has been called Skeleton Lake in recent times. Skeletons were rediscovered in 1942 by a Nanda Devi game reserve ranger Hari Kishan Madhwal, although there are reports about these bones from the late-19th century. At first, British authorities feared that the skeletons represented casualties of a hidden Japanese invasion force, but it was found that the skeletons were far too old to be Japanese soldiers.
The skeletons are visible in the clear water of the shallow lake during a one-month period when the ice melts. Along with the skeletons, wooden artifacts, iron spearheads, leather slippers, rings were found; when a team from National Geographic magazine retrieved about 30 skeletons, flesh was still attached to some of them. Geneticists Niraj Rai and Manvendra Singh at the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology at Hyderabad conducted DNA tests on a hundred samples from the lake and compared them to the current Indian population. Results indicated that 70 percent of them had an affinity with Iran, while the remaining ones belonged to the local population, it is hypothesized that the Iran group took the help of local porters to seek new land for settlement. Studies placed the time of mass death around the 9th century CE. Local legend says that the King of Kanauj, Raja Jasdhaval, with his pregnant wife, Rani Balampa, their servants, a dance troupe and others went on a pilgrimage to Nanda Devi shrine, the group faced a storm with large hailstones, from which the entire party perished near Roopkund Lake.
Remnants belonging to more than 300 people have been found. Radiocarbon dating of the bones at Oxford University's Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit determined the time period to be 850 CE ±30 years; the Anthropological Survey of India conducted a study of the skeletons during the 1950s and some samples are displayed at the Anthropological Survey of India Museum, Dehradun. Genome-wide DNA study of skeletons from Roopkund by Harney et al. 2018 revealed that the skeletons belonged to two distinct groups. The studies of the skeletons revealed a common cause of death: blows to the back of the head, caused by round objects falling from above; the researchers concluded that the victims had been caught in a sudden hailstorm, just as described in the local legends and songs. There is a growing concern about the regular loss of skeletons and it is feared that, if steps are not taken to conserve them, the skeletons may vanish in the years to come, it is reported that tourists visiting the area are in the habit of taking back the skeletons in large numbers and the district administration has expressed the need to protect the area.
The district magistrate of Chamoli District has reported that tourists and curious researchers are transporting the skeletons on mules and recommended that the area should be protected. Governmental agencies have made efforts to develop the area as an eco-tourism destination in an effort to protect the skeletons. Roopkund is a picturesque tourist destination and one of the important places for trekking in Chamoli District, near the base of two Himalayan peaks: Trisul and Nanda Ghunti; the Lake is flanked by a rock face named Junargali to the North and a peak named Chandania Kot to the East. A religious festival is held at the alpine meadow of Bedni Bugyal every autumn with nearby villages participating. A larger celebration, the Nanda Devi Raj Jat, takes place once every twelve years at Roopkund, during which Goddess Nanda is worshipped.: Roopkund lake is covered with ice for most of the year. Roopkund's skeletons were featured in a National Geographic documentary, "Riddles Of The Dead: Skeleton Lake".
Aitken, Bill. The Nanda Devi Affair, Penguin Books India, 1994. ISBN 0-14-024045-4. Uttarakhand travel guide from Wikivoyage Roopkund Trek, District Administration-Almora