Norfolk Admirals (AHL)
The Norfolk Admirals were a professional ice hockey team that played in the American Hockey League. They became affiliated with the Anaheim Ducks after being dropped from the Tampa Bay Lightning following their 2012 AHL championship season; the Admirals played in Virginia at the Norfolk Scope. For the 2015–16 season, the Admirals moved to San Diego, California to become the newest version of the San Diego Gulls as part of the AHL's efforts to create a Pacific Division; the Bakersfield Condors from the ECHL moved to Norfolk for the 2015–16 season and use the name Norfolk Admirals. The market was home to: Tidewater Wings Virginia Wings Hampton Gulls Hampton Aces Hampton Roads Gulls Hampton Roads Admirals The original team ownership, Mark Garcea and Page Johnson and gained admission to the American Hockey League as an expansion franchise for the 2000–01 season with an affiliation agreement with the Chicago Blackhawks. On May 26, 2004, the franchise was purchased by Ken Young after the original owners had put it up for sale.
The team name pays homage to the area's long naval history. Norfolk was one of two franchises in the AHL named the Admirals, sharing the nickname with the Milwaukee Admirals; the Milwaukee franchise transferred from the defunct International Hockey League, were allowed to keep their previous moniker. Norfolk's geographically closest rivals were the Hershey Bears, Charlotte Checkers, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins; the Admirals had two mascots, a dog named a rabbit named Hat Trick. On March 19, 2007, the Blackhawks announced that their affiliation with the Admirals would end after the 2006–07 season. On March 29, 2007, the Tampa Bay Lightning announced the Admirals as their new affiliate. On June 14, 2012 Tampa Bay announced their separation from the 2012 Calder Cup champions in favor of the Syracuse Crunch. In that month owner Ken Young announced he had closed a five-year agreement with the Anaheim Ducks. During the 2011–12 season, the Norfolk Admirals set a professional hockey record for the longest winning streak, winning their 28th consecutive game on April 15 against the Adirondack Phantoms.
The streak far surpassed the previous AHL record of 17 straight wins set by the Philadelphia Phantoms in 2004–05, as well as the pro hockey record of 18 games set by the Peoria Rivermen of the original International Hockey League in 1991. The streak garnered international media attention for the Admirals and the American Hockey League, including highlights on NHL Network and ESPN's SportsCenter; the 28-game streak included 13 road games. The win streak started on February 10 against Adirondack. Before their 3-2 OT win against Binghamton on April 14, the previous 20 games were all won in regulation; as of October 20, 2012 the Norfolk Admirals have won 32 regular season games in a row dating back to the 2011–12 season. The winning streak translated into a deep playoff run for the Admirals, where they would win 15 of 18 playoff games, including back to back four game sweeps in the Eastern Conference and Calder Cup Finals. On June 9, 2012, the Admirals captured their first Calder Cup with a 6–1 win over the Toronto Marlies.
However, in the 2012–13 season, the Admirals failed to qualify for the Calder Cup playoffs. On January 6, 2015, it was announced that Norfolk would move to an unknown location on the west coast close to their NHL affiliate, after the franchise was purchased by the Anaheim Ducks. On January 29, 2015, the Ducks confirmed the Admirals' relocation to San Diego to become the newest incarnation of the San Diego Gulls; the Admirals were replaced in Norfolk with the relocated Bakersfield Condors franchise of the ECHL. The new team were affiliated with the Edmonton Oilers. Aaron Downey, 2000–2001 Ajay Baines, 2002–2006 Craig MacDonald, 2006–2007 Dan Jancevski, 2007–2008 Zenon Konopka, 2008–2009 Ryan Craig, 2009–2010 Chris Durno, 2010–2011 Mike Angelidis, 2011–2012 Nate Guenin, 2012–2013 Garnet Exelby, 2013–2014 Dave Steckel, 2014–2015 NHL alumni of the Norfolk Admirals include: In the 2010 Stanley Cup Finals, sixteen former Admirals competed for the championship. Bryan Bickell, Dave Bolland, Troy Brouwer, Adam Burish, Dustin Byfuglien, Corey Crawford, Jake Dowell, Colin Fraser, Jordan Hendry, Duncan Keith, Danny Richmond, Brent Seabrook, Jack Skille, Kris Versteeg were on the Chicago Blackhawks active roster.
Michael Leighton and Lukas Krajicek played for the Philadelphia Flyers. Goals: Troy Brouwer, 41 Assists: Martin St. Pierre, 72 Points: Martin St. Pierre, 99 Penalty minutes: Zack Stortini, 299 Wins: Corey Crawford, 38 GAA: Craig Anderson, 1.94 SV%: Craig Anderson.923 Career goals: Brandon Bochenski, 81 Career assists: Marty Wilford, 141 Career points: Blair Jones, 185 Career penalty minutes: Shawn Thornton, 1198 Career goaltending wins: Dustin Tokarski, 80 Career shutouts: Michael Leighton, 18 Career games: Ajay Baines, 409 Norfolk Admirals official website PilotOnline.com The Internet Hockey Database - Norfolk Admirals The Voice of the Fans since 1997
2004–05 AHL season
The 2004–05 AHL season was the 69th season of the American Hockey League. Twenty-eight teams played 80 games each in the schedule; the Rochester Americans finished first overall in the regular season. The Philadelphia Phantoms won the Calder Cup; this season featured a wealth of talent in the AHL, as the National Hockey League was in the midst of a lockout. Many players who otherwise may have been called up to be members of NHL teams for the season spent the full season in the AHL instead; the lockout provided opportunity for several NHL arenas — including those in Anaheim, Nashville, San Jose and Tampa — to host AHL games during the season. The Edmonton Road Runners, played the entire season in Rexall Place the home of the NHL's Edmonton Oilers. In addition, the shootout was reintroduced to the league, to decide a winner in games which remained tied following the overtime period; the team winning a shootout was credited with a win, the losing team with an overtime loss. The AHL announced a series of experimental rule changes, most notably a restricted area for goaltenders.
Playing the puck outside the restricted area results in an automatic two-minute delay of game penalty. The Toronto Roadrunners moved to Edmonton, becoming the Edmonton Road Runners. Note: GP = Games played. Team PlanetUSA defeated. In the skills competition held the night before, team PlanetUSA defeated team Canada 17-13. List of AHL seasons AHL official site AHL Hall of Fame HockeyDB
2002–03 NHL season
The 2002–03 NHL season was the 86th regular season of the National Hockey League. The Stanley Cup winners were the New Jersey Devils, who won the best of seven series 4–3 against the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim; as always, the regular season saw several surprises. The San Jose Sharks, who many felt would be one of the elite teams in the West, stumbled early and badly disassembled much of the team; the two-year-old Minnesota Wild, on the other hand, got out to an early start and held onto their first-ever playoff berth throughout the season, winning coach Jacques Lemaire the Jack Adams Award. The elite teams of previous years such as the Detroit Red Wings, St. Louis Blues, Colorado Avalanche and New Jersey Devils, were joined by two younger Canadian teams, the Ottawa Senators and Vancouver Canucks; the Dallas Stars, which had missed the playoffs the year before, returned as a major power, backed by the record-setting goaltending of Marty Turco. The most surprising team was the Tampa Bay Lightning, which many had predicted to finish last, winning their first Southeast Division title and making the playoffs for the first time in seven years.
The most disappointing teams, other than the Sharks, were the New York Rangers, who finished out of the playoffs again despite bearing the league's leading payroll, the Carolina Hurricanes, who finished last overall after a surprise run to the Stanley Cup Final the year before. On January 8, 2003, Chicago Blackhawks goaltender Michael Leighton gained a shutout in his NHL debut in a 0–0 tie versus the Phoenix Coyotes. Coyotes goaltender Zac Bierk earned his first career shutout, it was the first—and with the abolition of ties two years the only—time that two goalies in the same game both earned their first career shutouts. At the midpoint of the season, the Canucks lead Ottawa lead the East. Vancouver stumbled somewhat over the stretch and lost the Northwest Division title to Colorado and the Western Conference to Dallas. Ottawa continued to dominate, having the best season in franchise history and winning both the Eastern Conference and the Presidents' Trophy; the season was marred by financial difficulties.
Despite their success, the Ottawa Senators were in bankruptcy protection for all of 2003, at one point could not pay the players. Owner Rod Bryden tried a variety of innovative financing strategies, but these all failed and the team was purchased after the season by billionaire Eugene Melnyk; the Buffalo Sabres entered bankruptcy protection before being bought by New York businessman Tom Golisano. The financial struggles of the Pittsburgh Penguins continued as the team continued to unload its most expensive players; the season was marked by a great number of coaches being fired, from Bob Hartley in Colorado to Darryl Sutter in San Jose and Bryan Trottier of the New York Rangers. Worries over the decline in scoring and the neutral zone trap continued; the season began with an attempted crack down on obstruction and interference, but by the midpoint of the season this effort had petered out. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, OTL = Overtime Losses, GF = Goals For, GA = Goals Against, Pts = Points Divisions: AT – Atlantic, NE – Northeast, SE – Southeast P- Clinched Presidents Trophy.
Divisions: PA – Pacific, CE – Central, NW – Northwest Z- Clinched Conference. NHL Official Guide and Record Book 2009. NHL. p. 156. Note: All dates in 2003; the 2003 Stanley Cup playoffs was one of shocking upsets in the Western Conference and hard fought battles in the Eastern Conference. The most watched series in the first round was that between the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Philadelphia Flyers. Two teams built around physical play with high salary and front-page trade deadline acquisitions; the series did not disappoint and the Flyers ousted the Leafs in seven games. The Senators dispatched the New York Islanders, who had traded away their starting goaltender before the playoffs. Despite losing the first two games, Tampa Bay rallied and defeated their division rival the Washington Capitals. New Jersey defeated the Boston Bruins shutting down star player Joe Thornton. In the west, the first round was one of unmitigated shock to all hockey watchers; the defending champions and perennial cup favourite Detroit Red Wings were swept by the underdog Mighty Ducks of Anaheim behind the goaltending of Jean-Sebastien Giguere.
After losing three out of the first four games, the Minnesota Wild came back and defeated the powerhouse Colorado Avalanche in game seven. Vancouver lost three of its first four games with the St. Louis Blues, but rallied and won game seven; the only round that surprised no one was round seven of the Dallas Stars–Edmonton Oilers grudge match that saw the first place Stars oust the Oilers with only some difficulty. The second round in the west brought more upsets; the Minnesota Wild again fell 3–1 behind while playing Vancouver, but rallied and defeated them in seven games. Giguère's stellar goaltending continued to triumph; the Western Conference final was a meeting of two dark horse teams, but the superb goaltending of Giguère and the Ducks triumphed over the tight checking of the Minnesota Wild. This was the first time since 1994 that a team other than Detroit, Colorado, or Dallas had won the Western conference and earned a trip to the Stanley Cup Final; these playoffs signaled an end to the dominance of the afore mentioned thre
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
NHL Entry Draft
The NHL Entry Draft is an annual meeting in which every franchise of the National Hockey League systematically select the rights to available ice hockey players who meet draft eligibility requirements. The NHL Entry Draft is held once every year within two to three months after the conclusion of the previous season. During the draft, teams take turns selecting amateur players from junior or collegiate leagues and professional players from European leagues; the first draft was held in 1963, has been held every year since. The NHL Entry Draft was known as the NHL Amateur Draft until 1979; the entry draft has only been a public event since 1980, a televised event since 1984. Up to 1994, the order was determined by the standings at the end of the regular season. In 1995, the NHL Draft Lottery was introduced where only teams who had missed the playoffs could participate; the one lottery winner would move up the draft order a maximum of four places, meaning only the top five-placed teams could pick first in the draft, no team in the non-playoff group could move down more than one place.
The chances of winning the lottery were weighted towards the teams at the bottom of the regular season standings. Beginning in 2013, the limit of moving up a maximum of four places in the draft order was eliminated, so the lottery winner would automatically receive the first overall pick, any teams above it in the draft order would still move down one spot; the first NHL Entry Draft was held on June 5, 1963 at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Quebec. Any amateur player under the age of 20 was eligible to be drafted. In 1979, the rules were changed allowing players who had played professionally to be drafted; this rule change was made to facilitate the absorption of players from the defunct World Hockey Association. The name of the draft was changed from "NHL Amateur Draft" to "NHL Entry Draft". Beginning in 1980, any player, between the ages of 18 and 20 is eligible to be drafted. In addition, any non-North American player over the age of 20 can be selected. From 1987 through 1991, 18 and 19-year-old players could only be drafted in the first three rounds unless they met another criterion of experience which required them to have played in major junior, U.
S. college and high school, or European hockey. In 1980, the Entry Draft became a public event, was held at the Montreal Forum. Prior to that year the Entry Draft was conducted in Montreal hotels or league offices and was closed to the general public; the first draft outside of Montreal was held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre in Toronto, Ontario, in 1985. Live television coverage of the draft began in 1984 when the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation covered the event in both English and French for Canadian audiences; the 1987 Entry Draft, held at Joe Louis Arena in Detroit, was the first NHL Draft to be held in the United States. SportsChannel America began covering the event in the United States in 1989. Prior to the development of the Draft, NHL teams sponsored junior teams, signed prospects in their teens to the junior teams. Players were signed to one of three forms: the "A" form; the "C" form could only be signed by the player at age eighteen or by the player's parents in exchange for some signing bonus.
The first drafts were held to assign players who had not signed with an NHL organization before the sponsorship of junior teams was discontinued after 1968. The selection order in the NHL Entry Draft is determined by a combination of lottery, regular season standing, playoff results. While teams are permitted to trade draft picks both during the draft and prior to it, in all cases, the selection order of the draft picks is based on the original holder of the pick, not a team which may have acquired the pick via a trade or other means; the order of picks discussed in this section always references the original team. The basic order of the NHL Entry Draft is determined based on the standings of the teams in the previous season; as with the other major sports leagues, the basic draft order is intended to favour the teams with the weakest performance who need the most improvement in their roster to compete with the other teams. Subject to the results of the NHL Draft Lottery, the teams pick in the same order each round, with each team getting one pick per round.
The basic order of the picks is determined as follows: The teams that did not qualify for the playoffs the previous season The teams that made the playoffs in the previous season but did not win either their division in the regular season or play in the Conference Finals The teams that won their divisions in the previous season but did not play in the Conference Finals The teams that lose in Conference Finals The team, the runner-up in the Stanley Cup Finals The team that won the Stanley Cup in the previous season The number of teams in the second and third group depends on whether the Conference finalists won their division. The teams in each group are ordered within that group based on their point totals in the preceding regular season. Tie-breakers are governed by the same rule
The Atlanta Thrashers were a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta. Atlanta was granted a franchise in the National Hockey League on June 25, 1997, became the League's 28th franchise when it began play in the 1999–2000 season, they were members of the Southeast Division of the NHL's Eastern Conference, played their home games at Philips Arena in downtown Atlanta. The Thrashers qualified for the Stanley Cup playoffs only once, during the 2006–07 season in which they won the Southeast Division, but were swept in the first round by the New York Rangers. In May 2011, the Thrashers were sold to Canadian-based ownership group True North Sports & Entertainment; the group moved the franchise to Winnipeg, which became the second incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets. The sale and relocation were approved by the NHL on June 21, 2011. With the sale and relocation of the team, Atlanta became the first city in the NHL's modern era to have two ice hockey teams relocate to different cities. In both cases, the team moved from Atlanta to a Western Canadian city.
After the departure of the International Hockey League's Atlanta Knights to become the Quebec Rafales, the city of Atlanta was awarded an NHL franchise on June 25, 1997, as part of a four-team tiered expansion. This included teams in Nashville, Columbus and St. Paul, in which each new franchise would begin play as its respective new arena was completed; the birth of the new franchise marked NHL hockey's return to Georgia, as the Atlanta Flames, established in 1972, departed for Canada in 1980 to become the Calgary Flames. The Flames had been the League's first foray into the southern U. S. and their failure discouraged further efforts to bring NHL hockey to the region for another decade. The nickname "Thrashers," after Georgia's state bird, the brown thrasher, was selected from a fan poll. "Thrashers" had been runner-up to "Flames" in the poll, Philips Arena, the Thrashers' new home, was built on the site of the former Omni, home to the Flames. By coincidence, the first encampment which would become Atlanta was called Thrasherville, a historical marker of this is located just down from the arena in front of the State Bar of Georgia.
The newly formed Thrashers selected Patrik Stefan with the first overall selection and Luke Sellars with their 30th overall pick in the 1999 NHL Entry Draft. However, the entire 1999 NHL Entry Draft was a major disappointment for the Thrashers, as all 11 of their draft picks were out of the NHL by the team's last season of existence, their first two picks were called two of the biggest disappointments in draft history. This turn of events was a major surprise, as not only did the media hype Stefan as a franchise player, but hockey experts considered then-Thrashers General Manager Don Waddell to be a man with excellent scouting ability; the Thrashers played their first game on October 1999, losing 4 -- 1 to the New Jersey Devils. Captain Kelly Buchberger scored the franchise's first goal in the loss and the team went on to finish their first season in last place in the Southeast Division, with a record of 14 wins, 61 losses and seven ties for a total of 39 points. Atlanta had the second overall pick in the 2000 NHL Entry Draft.
The team had a fine choice in the 2001 Draft, with first overall pick Ilya Kovalchuk. Both Heatley and Kovalchuk played their first season in the NHL in 2001–02; the early years of the Atlanta Thrashers saw a sharp increase of hockey fans in Atlanta. Ticket sales for Thrashers games averaged at 10,000 per night, with many of them being season tickets; the overall experience of a Thrasher's game was unique compared to other Atlanta teams. A section of the arena was dedicated to season ticket holders that called themselves the "Nasty Nest"; the "Nasty Nest" would shout at the opposing team to disrupt them while they played. The Thrashers had two Thrasher bird heads that would face opposite to the scoreboard; the Thrasher heads would open their beaks to reveal a flamethrower, which would ignite when the team scored a goal. It was at this time that the franchise adopted a motto "Believe in Blueland", used in advertising. Marcel Comeau was named director of amateur scouting for the Thrashers, on July 9, 2003, stayed in the role until the team was sold.
On September 21, 2003, Time Warner, the owners of both the Thrashers and the National Basketball Association's Atlanta Hawks, sold both teams to Atlanta Spirit, LLC, a group consisting of businessmen based both in Atlanta and elsewhere. Tragedy struck the team just eight days after the sale, as star forward Dany Heatley crashed his Ferrari in a one-car accident that injured both himself and Thrashers center Dan Snyder. Heatley suffered a broken jaw and arm, a sprained wrist and a torn anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament; the Thrashers dedicated their entire 2003–04 season to Snyder's memory, Thrashers players wore black patches with Snyd
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi