Višeslav of Serbia
Višeslav or Vojislav, is the first Serbian ruler known by name, who ruled in c. 780. Serbia was a Slavic principality, subject to the Byzantine Empire, located in the western Balkans, bordering with Bulgaria in the east. Mentioned in the De Administrando Imperio from the mid-10th century, Višeslav was a progenitor of the Serbian ruling family, known in historiography as the Vlastimirović dynasty, he descended from "the Serbian prince" who led his people to the Dalmatia province and established hereditary rule under Byzantine suzerainty. The names of Višeslav's predecessors were not included in the DAI; the dynasty ruled the Serbian Principality from the early 7th century until c. 960. The history of the early medieval Serbian Principality and the Vlastimirović dynasty is recorded in the work De Administrando Imperio, compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus; the DAI drew information on the Serbs among others, a Serbian source. The work mentions the first Serbian ruler, without a name but known conventionally as the "Unknown Archon", who led the Serbs from the north to the Balkans.
He received the protection of Emperor Heraclius, was said to have died long before the Bulgar invasion of 680. Slavs settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries. Porphyrogenitus stressed, his account on the first Christianization of the Serbs can be dated to 632–638. According to the DAI, "baptized Serbia", known erroneously in historiography as Raška, included the "inhabited cities" of Destinikon, Tzernabouskeï, Dresneïk, Lesnik and Salines, while the "small land" of Bosna, part of Serbia, had the cities of Katera and Desnik; the other Serb-inhabited lands, or principalities, that were mentioned included the "countries" of Paganija, Zahumlje and the "land" of Duklja, held by the Byzantine empire though it was settled with Serbs as well. These were all shared their northern borders with baptized Serbia; the exact borders of the early Serbian state are unclear. The Serbian ruler was titled "archon of Serbia"; the DAI mentions. The first ruler of the dynasty known by name was Višeslav, who began his rule around 780, being a contemporary of Frankish ruler Charlemagne.
The Serbs at that time were organized into župe, a confederation of village communities equivalent to a county, headed by a local župan. The governorship was hereditary, the župan reported to the Serbian prince, whom they were obliged to aid in war. According to V. Ćorović, the Serbs at first lived withdrawn in gorges, in their old tribal organization, while Byzantine rule was nominally recognized. Domestic rulers, veliki župani, ruled Serbia by right of inheritance; the land was divided between the ruler's brothers, with the oldest brother having certain domestic rule over the collective. According to a theory by historian B. Radojković, Serbia was a "divided principality" and Višeslav could have been a chief military leader, with his company, seized absolute control of ruling power and turned himself into a hereditary ruler, as veliki župan. In this way, the first Serbian state was thus established after 150 years of permanent living in the new homeland and existence of military democracy. B.
Radojković's work was however discredited by S. Ćirković. Although Višeslav is only mentioned by name, the DAI mentions that the Serbs served the Byzantine Emperor, that they were at this time at peace with the Bulgars, their neighbours with whom they shared a common frontier; the Bulgars, under Telerig, planned to colonize Bulgaria with Slavs from the neighbouring Berziti, as the earlier Bulgar expansion had caused massive Slav migrations and depopulation of Bulgaria when, in 762, more than 200,000 people fled to Byzantine territory and were relocated to Asia Minor. The Bulgars were defeated after Emperor Constantine V learned of their planned raid; the Bulgars had by 773 cut off the communication route, the Vardar valley, between Serbia and the Byzantines. In 783, a large Slavic uprising took place in the Byzantine Empire, stretching from Macedonia to the Peloponnese, subsequently quelled by Byzantine patrikios Staurakios. In Pannonia, to the north of Serbia, Frankish ruler Charlemagne started his offensive against the Avars.
Dalmatia, at this time, had firm relations with Byzantium. There was a Byzantine–Frankish conflict in the period of 789–810 over Dalmatia, although nothing is known from contemporary sources about the Slavs in the hinterland; when the general Byzantine–Frankish conflict ended in 812 with the Pax Nicephori, the Franks held the Dalmatian coast while the Byzantines held the Dalmatian cities. Višeslav was succeeded by his son Radoslav followed by his grandson Prosigoj, one of these two most ruled during the revolt of Ljudevit of Lower Pannonia against the Franks. According to Einhard's Royal Frankish Annals, Ljudevit fled from his seat at Sisak to the Serbs in 822, with Einhard mentioning "the Serbs, who control the greater part of Dalmatia" (ad Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae parte
Palilula is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. It has the largest area of all municipalities of Belgrade; the core of Palilula is close to the center of the city, but the municipality includes sparsely populated land left of the Danube. Palilula is located east of Terazije in downtown Belgrade. Like most of Belgrade's neighborhoods it has no firm boundaries and is bordered by the Ruzveltova street and the municipality and neighborhood of Zvezdara on the east, the neighborhood of Hadžipopovac in its own municipality on the north, the neighborhood and municipality of Stari Grad and Jevremovac on the northwest, the Tašmajdan and Bulevar kralja Aleksandra on the south, bordering the municipality of Vračar. Six local communities, sub-municipal administrative units, which make up the neighborhood of Palilula had a population of 36,216 in 1981, 35,579 in 1991, 34,559 in 2002 and 26,942 in 2011. Palilula in the narrowest sense had a population of 12,638 in 1981, 12,178 in 1991, 11,590 in 2002 and 9,817 in 2011.
First houses in the area were built in the 16th century. In the direction from today's Tašmajdan and Cvijićeva street there were gardens, pastures but mills and summer houses of the wealthier citizens of Belgrade; the neighborhood originated in the first half of the 18th century, when the Habsburg Monarchy occupied northern Serbia 1717–1739. The settlement, built as an outer suburb of Belgrade, was named Karlstadt and was known for agriculture and skilled crafts and was considered as the most beautiful part of Belgrade at that time. In the early 19th century, it became overwhelmingly populated by the Serbs and was described as "the village one quarter of the hour walk" away from Belgrade. In 1840, villagers of Palilula rejected the regulatory plan of Belgrade, on the basis that projected new streets would be too wide, even tried to split from the municipality of Belgrade because of the city government's low funding for the village. However, in the late 19th century Palilula became part of the continuously built-up area of Belgrade.
The neighborhood was residential, with commercial facilities closer to the center of Belgrade. When Belgrade was divided into six quarters in 1860, Palilula was one of them. By the census of 1883 it became the most populous one in Belgrade with 7,318 inhabitants, that number grew to 10,563 in 1890. In 1930, a large, wooden stadium was built in the neighborhood. A work of Momir Korunović, it was constructed in only two months for the slet, a massive gymnastic festival held as part of the Sokol movement, it had a capacity of 45,000 spectators. In terms of architecture, it was noted for its ornamented doors, whick Korunović embelished with the elements carved in the Serbian national style. After the slet was finished, the construction was dismantled and re-used as a mobile construction for other festivities. On the location of the stadium, the building of the University of Belgrade's Mechanical Engineering Faculty is situated today. A section of Palilula is dedicated to the hajduk Starina Novak. Features bearing his name include the street, a local community, an elementary school founded in 1922 and a park.
Area occupied by the park today, bounded by the streets of Starine Novaka, Cvijićeva and Dalmatinska, was named Starina Novak Square until 1954. In October 2017 city administration announced that a monument to Starina Novak will be erected in the park. Area bounded by the streets of Stanoja Glavaša, Starine Novaka and Kneza Danila was, for the most part, occupied by the complex of the IKL factory. Before World War II, it was the first aircraft factory in Yugoslavia. After the war new Communist authorities nationalized the company, while the factory complex in Palilula was transformed into the IKL in 1948; the complex was demolished and in 2015 construction of the residential and commercial neighborhood of "Central Garden" began. Apart from the commercial and business sections, it will have 400 apartments. In November 2017 a construction of the 16-storey "Business Garden Tower" was announced, with the deadline of 18 months; the name Palilula comes from the expression pali lulu. One anecdote goes back to times when Belgrade and Serbia were occupied by the Ottoman Empire and Palilula was the area where most crops were, so Turkish rulers banned smoking due to a few instances of accidentally setting crops on fire.
In the late summer and early autumn when all the crops had been harvested, the smoking ban was lifted and locals announced this by calling neighbours, letting them know that pipes might be lit. Another explanation comes from the time of Prince Miloš Obrenović's rule; the area of Palilula is the north of Belgrade. It is the easternmost of all municipalities, it is located on both banks of the Danube, which divides it in two: Šumadija section and Banat section. Šumadija section borders the municipalities of Stari Grad to the west, Vračar and Zvezdara to the south and Grocka to the extreme southeast. It has a river border on the Danube to the province of Vojvodina. Banat section has no land borders to the other Belgrade municipalities, but has a river border on the Danube to the municipalities of Zemun and Stari Grad; the Danube forms a complete western border to the rest of the S
Stefan Uroš I
Stefan Uroš I, known as Uroš the Great was the King of Serbia from 1243 to 1276, succeeding his brother Stefan Vladislav. He was one of the most important rulers in Serbian history. Stefan Uroš was the youngest son of Stefan the First-Crowned and Anna, the granddaughter of Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice. Uroš inherited many personality traits from his mother and paternal grandfather Stefan Nemanja, who raised him along with his two older brothers.. Scholars have argued that Bulgarian influence had been strong and unpopular, causing opposition that led to Vladislav's deposition after the death of Asen; the revolting nobility had chosen Uroš as their candidate for king. It seems that Uroš captured Vladislav and held him in prison; the main resistance against Uroš was led by Beloslava. The hostilities did not last long, the brothers settled. Uroš was courteous towards Vladislav, gave him the administration of Zeta, allowed him to use the title of "king", it is not known why the nobility revolted against Vladislav, nor are the details of the conflict between the two brothers.
At 25 years of age young, he took the throne from his brother Vladislav, despite not having support from in-laws as was the case with his brothers, he ruled energetic and determined. Prior to his accession, the land had been looted by the Tatars and there were widespread internal conflicts; the situation in Europe and in the Balkans were quite favorable for Serbia, which he cleverly used for his benefit. During his reign Serbia strengthened itself and progressed in every way. Uroš determined the direction in political pretensions through penetrating the south in Macedonia and conflict with Hungary in Podunavlje; the land was politically and militarly prepared for serious politics and definitive fortification of Serbia and the Serb people in the Vardar valley and the middle Podunavlje. Apart from this, Uroš correctly determined the direction of Serbian trade politics, as he on several occasions in his fight against the Republic of Ragusa wanted to eliminate Ragusan brokerage and exploitation in his state.
Particular significance in his domestic politics is that he stressed the state principle above all else, subordinated the churches to state interests. He was instrumental in the definite solution to the conflict between the archbishoprics of Bar and Dubrovnik regarding power in Serbia, resolved in favour of Bar. Uroš was the first to begin exploiting the mines, which would become one of the main sources of material wealth and power of the Serbian state in the Middle Ages; as a first result of the opening of mines came the forging of Serbian coins, which he first minted on the Venetian model. He assisted literature and writers. Married to Helen of the French royal family, he lived a modest patriarchal life and content within his family, he in contrast to the splendor of the Byzantine court, proudly emphasized modesty to the Byzantine deputies, which dominated at his court, where everyone had to work. In foreign policy Uroš skillfully used to his advantage the conflict between the Despotate of Epirus and the Empire of Nicaea, two Greek states, both of which sought to inherit the Byzantine Empire and take Constantinople from the Latin Empire.
But when the Latin Empire fell, Emperor Michael Palaiologos of Nicaea took Constantinople, Uroš began to coalite with his wife's cousin, Charles of Anjou, who wanted to recapture Constantinople, through that alliance take as much Byzantine land as possible. Via Charles, who had family ties with the Hungarian kings, Uroš at the end of his reign approached Hungary, with whom he long had been in a bad relation with, married his eldest son and heir, Stefan Dragutin, to Catherine, the daughter of Hungarian King Stephen V. Pushed by his in-laws, with the help of the army he received from Hungary, unhappy with not getting more participation in the government and defeated his father and took over the throne. Uroš retired with his loyals to Hum, disappointed and angry, he died soon thereafter. Under Stefan Uroš I, Serbia became a significant power in the Balkans due to economic development through opening of mines; the mines were developed by the "Sasi". Their settlements, located by the mines, had privileged status – they lived under their own laws and were allowed to adhere to Catholicism and build their churches.
Important mines were located at Novo Brdo and Rudnik. Economic prosperity was fostered by the related intensification of trade with the Dalmatian cities of Dubrovnik and Kotor; the increase in the mining of silver and in trade led to the introduction of larger quantities of royal coinage, modeled after the Venetian standard. In 1252–1253, Uroš I was at war with the Republic of Ragusa, which bordered the Hum, held by his kinsman Radoslav Andrijić. Radoslav swore to fight Ragusa as long as it was in conflict with Serbia, at the same time boasting relations with Béla IV of Hungary. Ragusa took up an alliance with Bulgaria. Peace was ensured in a charter dated May 22, 1254, the crisis ended. During the sec
Miloš Obrenović born Miloš Teodorović was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically. During his rule, he was one of the richest in the Balkans. Miloš Teodorović was the son of Teodor "Teša" Mihailović from Dobrinja, Višnja; this was the second marriage of his mother Višnja, from which sprung Jovan and Jevrem. From Višnja's first marriage, with Obren Martinović from Brusnica, Miloš had half-brothers Jakov and Milan, half-sister Stana. After the death of Obren, Višnja married Teodor in Dobrinja. After the death of his brother Milan, a famed revolutionary with great reputation among the people, Miloš adopted the surname Obrenović. In official documents, his name was sometimes written Miloš Teodorović Obrenović. Miloš fought in the First Serbian Uprising until its end in 1813.
His half-brother Milan took part in the Uprising, rising to become the vojvoda of the Rudnik district, until his death in 1810. After Milan's death, Miloš adopted the surname of his half-brother, Obrenović; this name was the patronymic which his half-brother derived from Obren, the first name of his own father. After the rebellion collapsed, Miloš was among the few of its leaders that remained in Serbia to face the returning Ottomans. In April 1815, Prince Miloš led the Second Serbian Uprising. After defeating the Turks, Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the Turks agreed to the terms of the agreement from 1815. After the killing of Karađorđe Petrović, in 1817, Obrenović became the leader of the Serbs; as a result of the agreement, Serbia remained under Ottoman sovereignty. Miloš Obrenović was left in power as its absolute ruler. Between the end of 1828 and the autumn of 1830, Prince Miloš created a so-called "legislative commission" to translate the Code Napoléon into Serbian and codify the laws and customs of the country.
After discussing the commission, Miloš invited two distinguished legal specialists to come from Hungary to prepare a more suitable criminal and civil code of laws for Serbia. They were Vasilije Lazarević, Bürgermeister of Zemun, Jovan Hadžić, lawyer and member of the municipal senate of Novi Sad. In January 1831, Prince Miloš informed a great national assembly that he had obtained an imperial edict from the Sultan ending all direct obligations of Serbian peasants to their former Turkish lords, guaranteeing Ottoman recognition of Serbian autonomy in most matters of internal administration, offering Serbia the prospect of territorial aggrandizement, as well as the express right to institute schools, a governmental administration of her own; the Sultan's decrees of 1830 and 1833 expanded the same rights to a larger territory, made Serbia a sovereign principality, with Miloš Obrenović as hereditary prince. A Metropolitanate of Serbia was established in Belgrade as an autonomous unit of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Russia's status as the guarantor of Serbia's autonomy was recognized. The supporters of the rule of law rebelled against Miloš's government. Following one such rebellion, he agreed to adopt a constitution, the Sretenje or Candlemas constitution, in 1835; the move was opposed by the ruling Ottoman Empire and Russia. It is believed that the three great empires saw the constitution as a danger to their own autocratic systems of government. Metternich's Austria ridiculed the fact that Serbia had its own flag and foreign ministry. Miloš abolished the constitution at the demand of Russia and Turkey, it was replaced by the "Turkish" Constitution of 1838. Miloš abdicated in 1839 in favor of his sons—Milan, who died a few weeks and Mihailo, who became prince. Mihailo was deposed in 1842, the family was out of power until 1858, when it returned with Miloš restored as prince for the last two years of his life. Miloš Obrenović was given the epithet the Great, he was proclaimed Father of the Fatherland by the National Assembly.
Austria: Order of the Iron Crown, Knight 1st Class Greece: Order of the Redeemer, Grand Cross Ottoman Empire: Nişan-ı Zişan Portrait of the Sultan with Jewels Portrait of the Sultan with Jewels Russia: Order of St. Anna with Crown, 1st Class Order of St. Anna with brilliants, 2nd Class Order of the White Eagle In 1805, Miloš married Ljubica Vukomanović; the couple had eight children. It is speculated that Ljubica had other pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, stillbirths, or children who died shortly after birth, with some sources giving a number as high as 17 pregnancies. Prince Petar Princess Petrija Princess Savka Prince Milan Prince Mihailo Princess Marija Prince Todor Prince Gabriel Stojančević, Vladimir. "Политички погледи кнеза Милоша Обреновића". Историјски часопис. Научно дело. 9–10: 345–362. Cunibert, Barthélemy Sylvestre. Srpski ustanak i prva vladavina Miloša Obrenovića: 1804–1850. Vol. 96. Štamparija D. Dimitrijevića, 1901. Krestić, Nikola Petrović. Protokol kneza Miloša Obrenov
Časlav was Prince of the Serbs from c. 927 until his death in c. 960. He expanded the Serbian Principality when he managed to unite several Slavic tribes, stretching his realm over the shores of the Adriatic Sea, the Sava river and the Morava valley, he fought off the Magyars, who had crossed the Carpathians and ravaged Central Europe, when they invaded Bosnia. Časlav is remembered, as founders of Serbia in the Middle Ages. Časlav was the son of Klonimir, a son of Strojimir who ruled as co-prince in 851–880. He belongs to the first Serbian dynasty, the Vlastimirovićs, is the last known ruler of the family. After the death of Prince Vlastimir, Serbia was an oligarchy ruled by his three sons: Mutimir and Strojimir, although Mutimir, the eldest, had supreme rule. In the 880s, Mutimir seized the throne for himself, exiling his brothers and Klonimir, Strojimir's son, to the Bulgar Khanate; this was most due to treachery. Petar, the son of Gojnik, was kept at the Serbian court of Mutimir for political reasons, but he soon fled to Croatia.
When Mutimir died, his son Pribislav inherited the rule. Bran was defeated and blinded. In 896, Klonimir returned from Bulgaria, backed by Boris I, taking the important stronghold Destinikon. Klonimir was killed; the Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars made de facto the First Bulgarian Empire the most powerful Empire of Southeastern Europe. The Bulgarians won after invading at the right time, they met little resistance in the north because of the Byzantines fighting the Arabs in Anatolia. Časlav was born in the 890s in Preslav, the capital of the First Bulgarian Empire, growing up at the court of Simeon I. His father was Klonimir. In 924, Časlav was sent to Serbia with a large Bulgarian army; the army ravaged a good part of Serbia, forcing Zaharija, who at the time was the prince of Serbia, to flee to Croatia. Symeon summoned all the Serbian dukes to pay homage to their new Prince, but instead of instating Časlav, he took them all captive, annexing Serbia. Bulgaria now expanded its borders. Croatia at this time was ruled by the most powerful monarch in Tomislav.
Bulgarian rule was not popular, many Serbs fled to Byzantium. After the death of Simeon Časlav and four friends escaped to Serbia. Časlav found popular support and restored the state, many exiles returned. He submitted to Byzantine overlordship of Romanos I Lekapenos and gained financial and diplomatic support for his efforts, he maintained close ties with Byzantium throughout his whole reign. Byzantine influence increased in Serbia, Orthodox influences from Bulgaria as well; the period was crucial to the future Christian demonym, as ties formed in this era were to have great importance on how the different Slavic churches would line up when they would split. Many scholars have felt that the Serbs, being in the middle of the Roman and Orthodox jurisdiction, could have been either way information on this era and region is scarce, he enlarged Serbia, uniting the tribes of Bosnia, Old Serbia and Montenegro. He took over regions held by Michael of Zahumlje, who disappeared from sources in 925; the Magyars had settled in the Carpathian basin in 895.
In the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, Emperor Leo had employed the Magyars against the Bulgars in 894. In the years following, the Magyars concentrated on the lands to the west of their realm. In 934 and 943 the Magyars raided far into the Balkans, deep into Byzantine Thrace. According to CPD, the Magyars led by Kisa invaded Bosnia, Časlav hurried and encountered them at the banks of river Drina; the Magyars were decisively defeated, with Kisa being slain by voivode Tihomir. Časlav married off his daughter to Tihomir, as a result of his courage and slaying of the Magyar leader. Kisa's widow requested from the Magyar leaders to give her an army for vengeance. With an "unknown number" of troops, the widow surprised Časlav at Syrmia. In the night, the Magyars attacked captured Časlav and all of his male relatives. On the command of the widow, all of them were bound by their hands and feet and thrown into the Sava river; the events are dated to around 960 or shortly thereafter, as De Administrando Imperio does not mention this event.
After Časlav's death the realm crumbled, local nobles restored the control of each province, according to the'CPD', his son-in-law Tihomir ruled Rascia. The written information about the first dynasty ends with the death of Časlav; the Catepanate of Ras is established between 971–976, during the rule of John Tzimiskes. A seal of a strategos of Ras has been dated to Tzimiskes' reign, making it possible for Tzimiskes' predecessor Nikephoros II Phokas to have enjoyed recognition in Rascia; the protospatharios and katepano of Ras was a Byzantine governor named John. Data on the katepano of Ras during Tzimiskes' reign is missing. Byzantine military presence ended soon thereafter with the wars with Bulgaria, was re-established only c. 1018 with the short-lived Theme of Sirmium, which however did not extend
The Unknown Archon, Unknown Knez, Unnamed Serb Archon, or Serb Archon, refers to the Serbian prince who led the White Serbs from their homeland to settle in the Balkans during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, as mentioned in Emperor Constantine VII's De Administrando Imperio. The work states that he was the progenitor of the first Serbian dynasty, that he died before the settlement of the Bulgars. Serbian historiography treats him as the first Serbian ruler. Serbs were resettled by the Byzantines in the mid-7th century to Asia Minor, where the town of Gordoservon was mentioned in 680. Porphyrogenitus' account on the first Christianization of the Serbs can be dated to 632–638. According to German historian Ludwig Albrecht Gebhardi, the Serb archon was a son of Dervan, the Duke of the Surbi, east of the Saale; this theory was supported by Miloš Milojević, Relja Novaković included the possibility that they were relatives in his work. List of Serbian monarchs
Ljubica Vukomanović was Princess consort of the Principality of Serbia as the wife of Miloš Obrenović, Prince of Serbia, the founder of the Obrenović dynasty, which ruled Serbia in an unbroken line from the time of his election as Prince to the May Overthrow in 1903. Ljubica married Miloš in 1805 and became Princess of Serbia on 6 November 1817 until her husband's abdication on 25 June 1839, she had at least seven surviving children. She was born in September 1788 in Srezojevci, the daughter of wealthy proprietor Radoslav Vukomanović and first wife Marija Damjanović. In 1805 she married Miloš Obrenović, who on 6 November 1817 was elected the Prince of Serbia, making her Princess consort. Ljubica was influential in Serbian politics, her marriage, was volatile, she disagreed with her husband, at one time they separated. Miloš was unfaithful to her. Between 1819 and 1821 Prince Miloš commissioned a fine city mansion to be built in Belgrade for Ljubica and their children; this was built by renowned Hadži-Neimar.
Her husband's rule was autocratic. Milan was succeeded by Mihailo. Ljubica died in Vienna on 26 May 1843, was buried in the Krušedol Monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain. Together, Miloš and Ljubica had at least seven children: Princess Petrija, married in 1834 Todor Bajic de Varadija Princess Jelisaveta, married in 1831, Jovan Nikolic, by whom she had three sons. Prince Milan, died childless after his brief reign. Prince Mihailo, he ruled as Prince of Serbia from 8 July 1839 until his deposition on 14 September 1842. Had no legitimate issue by his wife, Julia Hunyady de Kéthely. Princess Marija Prince Todor Prince Gabriel List of Serbian consorts Princess Ljubica's Residence