Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Milecastle 25 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. Its remains exist as a low platform, are located to the south of the B6318 Military Road, nearly 5 kilometres to the west of its junction with the A68. Milecastle 25 is believed to be a long-axis milecastle with unknown gateways type; such milecastles were thought to have been constructed by the legio VI Victrix who were based in Eboracum. The milecastle measured 15.24 metres across, had broad east and west walls. The north gateway and wall are beneath the road. There are possible traces of a milecastle ditch to the south, but no traces of a spur from the Military Way despite evidence of causways over both the ditch and vallum ditch at this point. 1930 - The location was established. Excavations by T Hepple established the width thickness of the side walls. 1946 - Aerial photograph by the RAF. 1966 - English Heritage Field Investigation. It was noted that the remains consisted of a low mutilated grassy platform, with superficial traces of a ditch on its south side.
Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison; the turrets associated with Milecastle 25 are known as Turret 25A and Turret 25B. Turret 25A is located to the east of Hill Head Farm. Although located in 1930 by T Hepple, trenching in 1959 failed to relocate the turret, it was concluded that a scatter of large sandstones had been mistaken by Hepple for the turret's wall. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 55.019530°N 2.094450°W / 55.019530. It was first excavated in 1930 by T Hepple. Three to four courses of the South face were discovered. Further excavation took place in 1959, its internal dimensions were found to be 4.16 metres. The north wall was found to be 1.6 metres thick, with the remaining walls being 0.91 metres thick. Its construction is of a type associated with Legio XX Valeria Victrix but no evidence was found for an occupation than late Antoninus Pius period.
Sherds from as many as fifty flagons were found, along with more amphora sherds than would be expected. Five gaming pieces were found outside the North-West corner of the turret indicating the existence of a window in the west wall. Further objects of copper and iron, including an arrowhead, were found; the walls were constructed with mortar. The floor was constructed from clay containing mortar, there were dumps of this substance found outside the walls; the internal south-west corner was marked off with a hearth. A platform was added against the south wall. A path lead with traces of a wall evident on its left. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 55.019641°N 2.101832°W / 55.019641.
Milecastle 11 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. No remains exist, but the measured position is the middle of the old village of Throckley Bank Top, under the Working Men's Club. Nothing is known of the construction of Milecastle 11; the curtain wall at this point is known to have been 2.59 metres thick with a clay core. 1858 – Henry MacLauchlan surveyed the area, discovered what he assumed to be the milecastle.1879 – A coin hoard of over 5000 silvered coins in a pot was discovered at a point north of the assumed milecastle position.1928 – Maclauchlan's find is identified as an old pit heap. Trenching in the measured site of the milecastle is unsuccessful.1929 - Further unsuccessful investigation. 1959 - Further unsuccessful trenches by Miss Phillips in the area of demolished miners' cottages.1990 - English Heritage's Central Excavation Unit observed a 0.5 m deep cable trench cut through the site, without result. 2002 - A metalled surface on two levels was discovered north of the presumed milecastle position.
From a point just east of the milecastle, as far as Turret 11B, 145 pits were discovered along the berm. Some retained the impression of two upright stakes; each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison; the turrets associated with Milecastle 11 are known as Turret 11A and Turret 11B. Investigation in 1928 failed to find Turret 11A. Presumed location: 54.996605°N 1.774228°W / 54.996605. No masonry remains, but the location was confirmed in 1919 by the discovery of pottery and occupation earth. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54.996404°N 1.782154°W / 54.996404.
Milecastle 6 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. The exact location of this milecastle is unknown but the wall in this area runs beneath the A186; the area is built over with roads and terraced houses and no milecastle remains are known. In 1966 J Collingwood Bruce suggested that the site of Milecastle 6 lay beneath the Benwell Grove road in Newcastle; each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison; the turrets associated with Milecastle 6 are known as Turret 6A and Turret 6B. Turret 6A has never been located from its remains, it has been positioned from the average distance to Turret 6B. This places Turret 6A 90 yards east of the eastern rampart of Condercum fort; this places it underneath the houses and road of Westholme Gardens in Benwell. Location: 54.976487°N 1.662437°W / 54.976487. It was positioned at a point 308 yards west of the western rampart of Condercum.
This places it somewhere near to the modern road of Two Ball Lonnen. All surface trace of the turret had been obliterated by modern development by 1968. Location: 54.978391°N 1.668827°W / 54.978391.
Milecastle 1 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. It was located near the valley of Stott's Pow, its remains are covered over, are located beneath the recreation ground at Miller's Dene. Early excavations and investigations of Turret 0B were mistakenly interpreted as Milecastle 1.. The Milecastle sits within the parish of Wallsend. Milecastle 1 was a short-axis milecastle of unknown gateway type. Short-axis milecastles were thought to have been constructed by the legio II Augusta who were based in Isca Augusta. Milecastle 1 Easting and Northing: Easting: 360162 Northing: 563796Milecastle 1 English Heritage number: 1003507. 1732 - Horsley recorded the milecastle as short-axis and its proximity to Stott's Pow.1848 - Collingwood Bruce studied the wall and wrote:1852-4 - Henry MacLauchlan surveyed the milecastle's position and recorded it as a short-axis milecastle.1928 - F G Simpson tested the site and found only Roman occupation soil and debris remained, assuming that the foundations had been robbed away.
Simpson measured from outside edge of the east gate of Segedunum to the centre of Milecastle 1 at 1,443 yards. His measurements between the centres of Milecastle 1 and Milecastle 2 was ed 1,453 yards. 1947 - The recreation ground which now covers the site of Milecastle 1 was leveled in 1947. Part of the "Wall Ditch" and traces of the milecastle were still according to Grace Simpson, she stated in her notes that the fragment of Wall Ditch had now disappeared but the trace of the milecastle was still faintly discernible. 1975 - English Heritage Field Investigation. It was noted that:1978- Grace Simpson that the fragment of Wall Ditch had now disappeared but the "trace of the Milecastle... is still faintly discernible". Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures; these turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison. The turrets associated with Milecastle 1 are known as Turret 1A and Turret 1B.
Turret 1A was located near to what is now the junction of the A187 Fossway, Coutts Road. This is based on measurement, no evidence of the turret has been identified. An alternative location would be a third of a Roman mile between the site of Horsely's Milcastle 1 and Milecastle 2. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54.981990°N 1.557071°W / 54.981990. This location was suggested by FG Simpson, is based on measurements from Milecastle 2. No evidence of the turret has been identified. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54.981069°N 1.563253°W / 54.981069.
Milecastle 14 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. Its remains exist as a low platform, south of the B6318 Military Road and about 1 kilometre to the west of the road junction at Rudchester Farm. Milecastle 14 was a short-axis milecastle with unknown gateway type Short axis milecastles were thought to have been constructed by the Legio II Augusta who were based in Isca Augusta; the milecastle had dimensions of 18.29 metres across. The remains of an internal building 5.11 metres wide, have been identified. 1930 – The earthworks of the Milecastle platform are identified from an aerial photograph. 1946 – Stevens investigated the milecastle, identifying the measurements and state of the north gate. Any remaining evidence of the south gate had been ploughed away.1966 – English Heritage Field Investigation. The previous description was confirmed. 1989 – English Heritage Field Investigation. No additional information; each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison.
The turrets associated with Milecastle 14 are known as Turret 14A and Turret 14B. No visible remains exist of Turret 14A, though in 1966, an English Heritage Field Investigation reported a concentration of stone in the field boundary hedge, at NZ 1011 6770, on the highest point of the hill, proposed that this may be an indication of its site. Horsley is ambiguous with regard to the location. Approximate location: 55.003741°N 1.843555°W / 55.003741. Expected location: 55.004493°N 1.848977°W / 55.004493.
Milecastle 3 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. No remains exist, but it was thought to have been located at the junction of the A187 Byker Bridge and Stephen Street. No evidence exists as to the configuration or type of Milecastle 3, though the curtain wall at this stage was certainly a narrow configuration. 1732 - Horsley surveyed the milecastle, recording its position.1776 - The location was visited by Stukeley, who sketched the area for his Iter Boreale'.1789 - Brand visited the site, but noted that many of the stones had been removed from the foundations some years for use in the building of an adjoining house.1848 - Collingwood Briuce reported that a small illegible altar had been found close to the presumed site of the milecastle. The altar was dedicated by Julius Maximus. Having searched the area, he could find no trace of Roman remains. 1858 - Henry MacLauchlan surveyed the area but reported no dependable trace of the milecastle.1928 - FG Simpson measured the distance from Milecastle 2 to Milecastle 3 as 1,450 yards.
1979 - Exploratory trenches were sunk during the building of the Metro, revealing no trace of the milecastle. Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures; these turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison. The turrets associated with Milecastle 3 are known as Turret 3A and Turret 3B. Nothing is known of Turret 3A. Presumed location: 54.974892°N 1.596128°W / 54.974892. Presumed location: 54.972217°N 1.602403°W / 54.972217.