Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
Kellogg School of Management
The Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University is the business school of Northwestern University. Its main campus is in Evanston, with additional campuses in downtown Chicago and Miami, Florida. Kellogg offers MBA, MSM, PhD programs, along with dual-MBA/JD, dual-MBA/MDI, MMM programs. Kellogg partners with schools in China, Singapore, Spain, Hong Kong, Germany and Thailand. Founded in 1908 in downtown Chicago as the School of Commerce, the school was chartered to educate business leaders with "good moral character". Kellogg pioneered the use of group projects and evaluations and popularized the importance of "teamwork" and "team leadership" within the business world; the school, founded in 1908 as Northwestern University's School of Commerce, a part-time evening program, was one of 16 founding members of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the organization that sets accreditation standards for business schools. As one of the organization's original members, the school played a major role in helping to establish the Graduate Management Admission Test.
Researchers associated with the school have made contributions to fields such as marketing and decision sciences. For instance, Walter Dill Scott, a pioneer in applied psychology, helped establish some of the earliest advertising and marketing courses in the first decade of the twentieth century, he went on to serve as president of Northwestern University from 1920–1939. More Philip Kotler and Sidney J. Levy's groundbreaking 1969 Journal of Marketing article, "Broadening the Conception of Marketing," laid the foundations for a expanded understanding of marketing. Kotler's Marketing Management text has played a key role in deepening the field's scholarship. In 1919, Ralph E. Heilman, a Northwestern graduate with a doctorate from Harvard, was appointed the dean of the school, and in the next year, the school launched a graduate program leading toward the Master of Business Administration degree, drawing nearly 400 students in its first two years. In 1939, Homer Vanderblue became the fifth dean of the school.
During immense resource shortages caused by World War II, Dean Vanderblue kept the school functioning and led it through its transition from technical specialization toward a broader managerial education. In 1951, the school began offering executive education courses; the Institute for Management, a four-week summer program based in Evanston, expanded the following year to two sections. The program's success led to it being expanded in Europe in 1965 with a similar program offered in Bürgenstock, Switzerland. In 1976, the school expanded its executive education offerings in Evanston, introducing a degree-granting program known as the Executive Management Program. A watershed event in the school's history was the opening of the James L. Allen Center, home of the Kellogg executive education programs; the vision of Dean Donald P. Jacobs, the Allen Center enlisted the help of significant business figures in the Chicago-area, most notably James L. Allen, a Kellogg alumnus and co-founder of consultancy Booz Allen Hamilton.
The Allen Center's cornerstone was laid in 1978 while the facility opened Oct 31, 1979. In 1956, the school was renamed the School of Business; this training was oriented toward general management, rather than narrowly functional skills, as had been the case in many business schools for much of the 20th century. The training was designed to provide management skills suitable for leadership roles whether in the corporate, public, or nonprofit sectors – rather than careers focused on traditional business. To reflect this change, the school in 1969 stopped issuing the MBA credential in favor of the MM, or master of management degree. A point of differentiation for nearly three decades, the school more returned to the traditional MBA; these dramatic changes were predicated upon a key change under Dean John Barr: In 1966, Northwestern elected to discontinue its respected undergraduate program to focus its energies on graduate education. The school decided to pursue a research-based faculty, it attracted a number of world-class quantitative experts, many in the field of game theory, to build the school's Managerial Economics and Decision Sciences Department.
This department was founded in 1967 and led by Professor Stanley Reiter. In 1979, in honor of a $10 million gift made to the school on behalf of John L. Kellogg, the school was renamed as the J. L. Kellogg Graduate School of Management; the funds allowed the school to expand its research and teaching mission by establishing three endowed professorships. Before the Kellogg gift, the school had been expanding its research-focused faculty: In 1978 alone, the school added six additional "named" professorships and two new research professorships. In 2001, in an effort to improve the school's image, its name was shortened to the Kellogg School of Management." In June 2009, Kellogg announced that Dipak C. Jain would step down after eight years as return to teaching. On September 1, 2009, Sunil Chopra, former Senior Associate Dean for Curriculum and Teaching and the IBM Distinguished Professor of Op
Hospira was an American global pharmaceutical and medical device company with headquarters in Lake Forest, Illinois. It had 19,000 employees. Before its acquisition by Pfizer, Hospira was the world's largest producer of generic injectable pharmaceuticals, manufacturing generic acute-care and oncology injectables, as well as integrated infusion therapy and medication management systems. Hospira's products are used by hospitals and alternate site providers, such as clinics, home healthcare providers and long-term care facilities, it was the hospital products division of Abbott Laboratories. On September 3, 2015, Hospira was acquired by Pfizer, who subsequently sold off the medical devices portion of Hospira to ICU Medical. Worldwide sales in 2014 were $4.5 billion. Current results are now part of Pfizer's consolidated statements. In January 2004, Abbott announced. Hospira's name was picked by employee vote; the name is derived from the words hospital, spirit and the Latin word "spero," which means "hope."
Hospira became an independent company on Monday, May 3, 2004, with 14,000 employees, 14 manufacturing sites and an estimated $2.5 billion in annual sales. In 2007, Hospira purchased Mayne Pharma Ltd. an Australian-based specialty injectable pharmaceuticals company, for $2.1 billion. The deal expanded its presence in the oncology market. More recent acquisitions by Hospira include biotechnology business from Pliva-Croatia in 2009, the generic injectable pharmaceuticals business of Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd. a leading Indian pharmaceuticals company, for $400 million, announced in late 2009 and completed in 2010. In 2011, Hospira's board chose Mike Ball president of Allergan, as Hospira's new CEO. Ball became CEO in March 2011. Hospira named John Staley its non-executive chairman with the retirement of former executive chairman Christopher Begley in January 2012. Begley had announced his retirement as Hospira's chief executive in August 2010, but had remained as executive chairman. In 2015, Pfizer signed an agreement to acquire Hospira.
The $17 billion acquisition was completed in September, 2015. A year Pfizer sold the medical devices portion of Hospira to ICU Medical for $900 million in cash and other consideration. Sodium thiopental is an anesthetic discovered by Abbott Laboratories in the 1930s. Hospira manufactured the drug after splitting off from Abbott under the brand name Pentothal; the WHO considers it an essential drug. However, it is used as part of the lethal injection protocol in many US states. Though Hospira has supplied these states with the drug, it has said, "we do not support the use of any of our products in capital punishment procedures." On January 21, 2011, the company announced. Hospira had moved production of the drug from a plant in North Carolina to a plant in Liscate, Italy. However, the Italian government threatened to bar its export unless Hospira monitored the entire supply chain all the way to the end user in order to ensure it only used for medical purposes and not converted for use in executions.
The Italian constitution bans the use of capital punishment. Company officials determined there was no way it could prevent sodium thiopental from being used in executions, did not want to expose their employees to liability. Oxaliplatin: In August 2009, Hospira introduced a generic version of Sanofi-Aventis SA's colon-cancer drug known generically as oxaliplatin and by the brand name Eloxatin, in the United States. In April 2010, Hospira announced a legal settlement with Sanofi-Aventis. Under the settlement terms, Hospira agreed to stop selling oxaliplatin injection in the United States by June 30, 2010, can relaunch the product in the United States on Aug. 9, 2012. Biosimilars: In 2010, the U. S. Congress passed legislation that would allow the marketing of biosimilar drugs in the United States; the legislation would allow 12 years of data exclusivity for brand-name biologics. Some consumer groups, like AARP, oppose this provision, saying it would cause lack of access to the promise of such drugs.
Hospira's competitors in specialty injectable pharmaceuticals include Fresenius AG, Baxter International Inc. Bedford Laboratories, Sandoz, Teva Pharmaceuticals as well as divisions of several multinational pharmaceutical companies, its competitors in medication management systems include Baxter, B. Braun Melsungen AG, CareFusion and Fresenius Medical Care AG. In 2014-2015 two security researchers independently identified what were described as severe defects in Hospira's PCA system firmware, the software controlling various of their drug infusion equipment. Numerous remote exploit vulnerabilities were found, in what was believed to be the first FDA safety advisory of its kind; this was followed in July 2015 by a second FDA recommendation that hospitals discontinue use of the affected pumps entirely. The devices, extent of their flaws, implications, were discussed. Official website
Abbott Laboratories is an American health care company with headquarters in Lake Bluff, United States. The company was founded by Chicago physician Wallace Calvin Abbott in 1888 to formulate known drugs, it split off the research-based pharmaceuticals into AbbVie in 2013. In 2017, revenues were $27.39 billion. Abbott has a broad range of branded generic pharmaceuticals, medical devices and nutrition products; the company's in-vitro diagnostics business performs immunoassays and blood screening. Its medical tests and diagnostic instrument systems are used worldwide by hospitals, blood banks, physician offices to diagnose and monitor diseases such as HIV, cancer, heart failure and metabolic disorders, as well as assess other indicators of health. In 1985, the company developed the first HIV blood-screening test. Abbott Point-of-Care manufactures diagnostic products for blood analysis to provide health care professionals diagnostics information at the point of patient care. Abbott provides point-of-care cardiac assays to the emergency department.
In 1888 at the age of 30, Wallace Abbott, an 1885 graduate of the University of Michigan, founded the Abbott Alkaloidal Company in Ravenswood, Chicago. At the time, he owned a drug store, his innovation was the use of the active part of a medicinal plant an alkaloid, which he formed into tiny "dosimetric granules". This approach was successful since it produced more effective dosages for patients. In 1922 he moved the company from Ravenswood to Illinois. Abbott's first international affiliate was in London in 1907, the company added an affiliate in Montreal, Canada. Abbott started operations in Pakistan as a marketing affiliate in 1948. Two manufacturing facilities located at Landhi and Korangi in Karachi continue to produce pharmaceutical products. Expansion continued in 1962 when Abbott entered into a joint venture with Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, to manufacture radio-pharmaceuticals. In 1964, it merged with Ross Laboratories, making Ross a wholly owned subsidiary of Abbott, Richard Ross gained a seat on Abbott's board of directors until his retirement in 1983.
In 1965, Abbott's expansion in Europe continued with offices in France. Abbott Laboratories has been present in India for over 100 years through its subsidiary Abbott India Limited and it is India's largest healthcare products company.. According to Harvard professor Lester Grinspoon and Peter Hedblom, "In 1966 Abbott Laboratories sold the equivalent of two million doses of methamphetamine in powder form to a Long Island criminal dealer". In 2001, the company acquired Knoll, the pharmaceutical division of BASF. In 2002, it divested the Selsun Blue brand to Chattem. In 2002, the company sold Clear Eyes and Murine to Prestige Brands. In 2004, it spun off its hospital products division into a new 14,000 employee company named Hospira, acquired TheraSense, a diabetes-care company, which it merged with its MediSense division to become Abbott Diabetes Care. In 2006, Abbott assisted Boston Scientific in its purchase of Guidant Corporation; as part of the agreement, Abbott purchased the vascular device division of Guidant.
In 2007, Ross was renamed Abbott Nutrition. In 2007, Abbott acquired Kos Pharmaceuticals for $3.7 billion in cash. At the time of acquisition, Kos marketed Niaspan, which raises levels of “good,” or HDL, cholesterol and Advicor, a Niaspan combination drug for patients with multiple lipid disorders. In January 2007, the company agreed to sell its in vitro diagnostics and Point-of-Care diagnostics divisions to General Electric for more than $8 billion; these units were slated to be integrated into the GE Healthcare business unit. The transaction was approved by the boards of directors of Abbott and GE and was targeted to close in the first half of 2007. However, on July 11, 2007, Abbott announced that it had terminated its agreement with GE because the parties could not agree on the terms of the deal. On September 8, 2007, the company completed the sale of the UK manufacturing plant at Queenborough to Aesica Pharmaceuticals, a private equity-owned UK manufacturer. No announcements have been made restricting the movement of staff to Abbott unlike other sell outs.
On February 26, 2009, the company completed its acquisition of Advanced Medical Optics based in Santa Ana, California. In 2009, Abbott opened a satellite research and development facility at Research Park, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In February 2010, Abbott completed its $6.2 billion acquisition of the pharmaceuticals unit of Solvay S. A.. This provided Abbott with a large and complementary portfolio of pharmaceutical products and expanding its presence in key emerging markets. On March 22, 2010, the company completed its acquisition of a Hollywood, Florida-based LIMS company STARLIMS. Under the terms of the deal, Abbott Laboratories acquired the company for $14 per share in an all-cash transaction valued at $123 million. On May 21, 2010, Abbott Laboratories said it would buy Piramal Healthcare Ltd.'s Healthcare Solutions unit for $2.2 billion to become the biggest drug company in India. In October 2011, the company announced that it planned to separate into two companies, one research-based pharmaceuticals and the other in medical devices, generic drugs sold internationally, consumer products, with device company retaining the Abbott name.
The company announced that the other company would be named AbbVie in March
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago is one of twelve regional Reserve Banks that, along with the Board of Governors in Washington, D. C. make up the nation's central bank. The Chicago Reserve Bank serves the Seventh Federal Reserve District, which encompasses the northern portions of Illinois and Indiana, southern Wisconsin, the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, the state of Iowa. In addition to participation in the formulation of monetary policy, each Reserve Bank supervises member banks and bank holding companies, provides financial services to depository institutions and the U. S. government, monitors economic conditions in its District. As one of the Reserve Banks that make up the Federal Reserve System, the Chicago Fed is responsible for: Helping to formulate national monetary policy; the Chicago Fed's CEO, Charles L. Evans, helps formulate monetary policy by taking part and voting in meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee. Providing financial services such as cash, check clearing and electronic payment processing.
Each day the Federal Reserve System processes millions of payments in the form of both paper checks and electronic transfers. These payments services are offered to institutions in the Seventh District on a fee basis; because of a nationwide reduction in the use of checking instruments, the Chicago Fed and most other Reserve Banks ceased processing paper checks on November 17, 2009 and electronic checks in 2010. Items routed to this facility are now routed to the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland or to the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Supervising and regulating state-chartered banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System, bank holding companies, financial holding companies; these organizations are located within the Seventh Federal Reserve District. Charles L. Evans is the president of the Chicago Fed, he took office on September 1, 2007 as the ninth president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. Ellen Bromagen is first chief operating officer of the Chicago Fed.
The Chicago Fed annually co-hosts in Chicago an international banking conference to examine cross-national banking and finance issues. The bank's Money Museum is free and open to the public year-round from 8:30am to 5pm, Monday through Friday, except on Bank holidays. All visitors must show a photo identification, walk through a metal detector and have their bags x-rayed before entering the Money Museum. No food or drink are allowed in the museum. A presentation lasting 45 minutes is available at 1pm on Monday through Friday, or by appointment; the rest of the Money Museum is accessible at any time during open hours. The museum includes a free kiosk, which takes a guest's picture in front of a million dollars in $100 bills. A million dollars in $1 bills and a million dollars in $20 bills are on display; the museum has been known for giving out bags of shredded money as souvenirs. The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Detroit Branch is the only branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago; the following people are on the board of directors as of 2016.
Class A directors are elected by member banks to represent member banks. Class B directors are elected by member banks to represent the public. Class C directors are appointed by the board of governors to represent the public. Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve System Federal Reserve Districts Federal Reserve Branches Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Detroit Branch Structure of the Federal Reserve System Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Facebook Twitter YouTube Historical resources by and about the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, available on FRASER
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen