Colorado Springs, Colorado
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality, the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, United States. Colorado Springs is located in the east central portion of the state, it is situated on Fountain Creek and is located 60 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet the city stands over 1 mile above sea level, though some areas of the city are higher and lower. Colorado Springs is situated near the base of Pikes Peak, which rises 14,115 feet above sea level on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains; the city is home to 24 national governing bodies of sport, including the United States Olympic Committee, the United States Olympic Training Center, USA Hockey. The city had an estimated population of 465,101 in 2016, a metro population of 712,000, ranking as the second most populous city in the state of Colorado, behind Denver, the 42nd most populous city in the United States; the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 712,327 in 2016.
The city is included in the Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong region of urban population along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming following the path of Interstate 25 in both states. The city covers 194.9 square miles. In 2018, Colorado Springs received several accolades: U. S. News named Colorado Springs the number one most desirable place to live in the United States, number two on their list of the 125 Best Places to Live in the USA; the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings found that Colorado Springs was the fastest growing city for Millennials. Thumbtack's annual Small Business Friendliness Survey found Colorado Springs to be the number four most business friendly city in the country; the Ute and Cheyenne peoples were the first recorded inhabiting the area which would become Colorado Springs. Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859, after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28.
Colorado City at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August 13, 1859" during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862, when the capital was moved to Denver. In 1871 the Colorado Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font and Fountain Colony and downstream of Colorado City. Within a year, Fountain Colony would be renamed "Colorado Springs", was incorporated; the El Paso County seat shifted from Colorado City in 1873 to the Town of Colorado Springs. On December 1, 1880, Colorado Springs expanded northward with two annexations; the second period of annexations was during 1889–90, included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, another North End addition. In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers." By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.
From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station operated on Knob Hill, aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919. Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925, in 1927 the original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city. In World War II the United States Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it "Peterson Field" in December 1942; this was only one of several military presences around Colorado Springs during the war. In November 1950, Ent Air Force Base was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command; the former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a U. S. Air Force base; the 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area, with the establishment of NORAD's headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM headquarters. Between 1965 and 1968, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak Community College and Colorado Technical University were established in or near the city.
In 1977 most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic training center. The Libertarian Party was founded within the city in the 1970s. On October 1, 1981, the Broadmoor Addition, Cheyenne Canon, Ivywild and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the Nielson Addition and Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation in September 2008; the city lies in a high desert with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 194.6 square miles, of which 194.6 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, urban open-area spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that plague cities that experience tremendous growth, such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime and government budget issues.
Many of the problems are indirec
Adam is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis and in the Quran for the first man created by God, but it is used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human". Biblical Adam is created from adamah, Genesis 1–8 makes considerable play of the bond between them, for Adam is estranged from the earth through his disobedience; the majority view among scholars is that the book of Genesis dates from the Persian period, but the absence from the rest of the Hebrew Bible of all the other characters and incidents mentioned in chapters 1–11 of Genesis, has led a sizable minority to the conclusion that Genesis 1–11 was composed much possibly in the 3rd century BCE. The Bible uses the word אָדָם in all of its senses: collectively, gender nonspecific, male. In Genesis 1:27 "adam" is used in the collective sense, the interplay between the individual "Adam" and the collective "humankind" is a main literary component to the events that occur in the Garden of Eden, the ambiguous meanings embedded throughout the moral and spiritual terms of the narrative reflecting the complexity of the human condition.
Genesis 2:7 is the first verse where "Adam" takes on the sense of an individual man, the context of sex is absent. A recurring literary motif is the bond between Adam and the earth: God creates Adam by molding him out of clay in the final stages of the creation narrative. After the loss of innocence, God curses the earth as punishment for his disobedience. Adam and humanity is cursed to return to the earth from which he was formed; this "earthly" aspect is a component of Adam's identity, Adam's curse of estrangement from the earth seems to describe humankind's divided nature of being earthly yet separated from nature. God himself who took of the dust from all four corners of the earth with each color created Adam therewith, where the soul of Adam is the image of God. Genesis 1 tells of God's creation of the world and its creatures, with humankind as the last of his creatures: "Male and female created He them, blessed them, called their name Adam...". God blesses mankind, commands them to "be fruitful and multiply", gives them "dominion over the fish of the sea, over the fowl of the air, over the cattle, over all the earth, over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth".
In Genesis 2, God forms "Adam", this time meaning a single male human, out of "the dust of the ground" and "breathed into his nostrils the breath of life". God places this first man in the Garden of Eden, telling him that "Of every tree of the garden thou mayest eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt die". God notes that "It is not good that the man should be alone" and brings the animals to Adam, who gives them their names, but among all the animals there was not found a companion for him. God causes a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and forms a woman, Adam awakes and greets her as his helpmate. Genesis 3, the story of the Fall: A serpent persuades the woman to disobey God's command and eat of the tree of knowledge, which gives wisdom. Woman convinces Adam to do whereupon they become conscious of their nakedness, cover themselves, hide from the sight of God. God questions Adam. God passes judgment, first upon the serpent, condemned to go on his belly the woman, condemned to pain in childbirth and subordination to her husband, Adam, condemned to labour on the earth for his food and to return to it on his death.
God expels the man and woman from the garden, lest they eat of the Tree of Life and become immortal. The chiastic structure of the death oracle given to Adam in Genesis 3:19 forms a link between man's creation from "dust" to the "return" of his beginnings. A you return B to the ground C since from it you were taken C' for dust you are B' and to dust A' you will returnGenesis 4 deals with the birth of Adam's sons Cain and Abel and the story of the first murder, followed by the birth of a third son, Seth. Genesis 5, the Book of the Generations of Adam, lists the descendants of Adam from Seth to Noah with their ages at the birth of their first sons and their ages at death; the chapter notes that Adam does not name them. Adam possessed a body of light. According to Jewish mystical tradition the original glory of Adam can be regained through mystical contemplation of God; the rabbis, puzzled by the verse of Genesis 1 which states that God created man and woman together, told that when God created Adam he created a woman from the dust, as he had created Adam, named her Lilith.
Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively; the fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to: Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media; this is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose; this is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped; this is the concern of generalization. Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience; this is the concern of map design. Modern cartography constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems.
What is the earliest known map is a matter of some debate, both because the term "map" is not well-defined and because some artifacts that might be maps might be something else. A wall painting that might depict the ancient Anatolian city of Çatalhöyük has been dated to the late 7th millennium BCE. Among the prehistoric alpine rock carvings of Mount Bego and Valcamonica, dated to the 4th millennium BCE, geometric patterns consisting of dotted rectangles and lines are interpreted in archaeological literature as a depiction of cultivated plots. Other known maps of the ancient world include the Minoan "House of the Admiral" wall painting from c. 1600 BCE, showing a seaside community in an oblique perspective, an engraved map of the holy Babylonian city of Nippur, from the Kassite period. The oldest surviving world maps are from 9th century BCE Babylonia. One shows Babylon on the Euphrates, surrounded by Assyria and several cities, all, in turn, surrounded by a "bitter river". Another depicts Babylon as being north of the center of the world.
The ancient Greeks and Romans created maps from the time of Anaximander in the 6th century BCE. In the 2nd century CE, Ptolemy wrote his treatise on Geographia; this contained Ptolemy's world map – the world known to Western society. As early as the 8th century, Arab scholars were translating the works of the Greek geographers into Arabic. In ancient China, geographical literature dates to the 5th century BCE; the oldest extant Chinese maps come from the State of Qin, dated back to the 4th century BCE, during the Warring States period. In the book of the Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, published in 1092 by the Chinese scientist Su Song, a star map on the equidistant cylindrical projection. Although this method of charting seems to have existed in China before this publication and scientist, the greatest significance of the star maps by Su Song is that they represent the oldest existent star maps in printed form. Early forms of cartography of India included depictions of the pole star and surrounding constellations.
These charts may have been used for navigation. "Mappae mundi are the medieval European maps of the world. About 1,100 of these are known to have survived: of these, some 900 are found illustrating manuscripts and the remainder exist as stand-alone documents; the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi produced his medieval atlas Tabula Rogeriana in 1154. By combining the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East with the information he inherited from the classical geographers, he was able to write detailed descriptions of a multitude of countries. Along with the substantial text he had written, he created a world map influenced by the Ptolemaic conception of the world, but with significant influence from multiple Arab geographers, it remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries. The map was divided with detailed descriptions of each zone; as part of this work, a smaller, circular map was made depicting the south on top and Arabia in the center. Al-Idrisi made an estimate of the circumference of the world, accurate to within 10%.
In the Age of Exploration, from the 15th century to the 17th century, European cartographers both copied earlier maps and drew their own, based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. The invention of the magnetic compass and sextant enabled increasing accuracy. In 1492, Martin Behaim, a German cartographer, made the oldest extant globe of the Earth. In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map bearing the first use of the name "America". Portuguese cartographer Diego Ribero was the author of the first known planisphere with a graduated Equator. Italian cartographer Battista Agnese produced at least 71 manuscript atlases of sea charts. Johannes Werner promoted the Werner projection; this was an equal-area, heart-shaped world map projection, used in the 16th and 17th centuries. Over time, other iterations of this map type arose; the Werner projection places its standard parallel at the North Pole. In 1569, mapmaker Gerardus Mercato
A Sunday school is an educational institution Christian in character. They were first set up in the 1780s in England to provide education to working children. Today, Sunday school has become the generic name for many different types of religious education pursued and conducted on Sundays by various denominations. William King started a Sunday school in 1751 in Dursley and suggested that Robert Raikes start a similar one in Gloucester. Raikes was editor of the Gloucester Journal, he wrote an article in his journal, as a result many clergymen supported schools, which aimed to teach the youngsters reading, cyphering and a knowledge of the Bible. In 1785, 250,000 English children were attending Sunday school. There were 5,000 in Manchester alone. By 1835, the Society for the Establishment and Promotion of Sunday Schools had distributed 91,915 spelling books, 24,232 Testaments and 5,360 Bibles; the Sunday school movement was cross-denominational. Financed through subscription, large buildings were constructed that could host public lectures as well as provding classrooms.
Adults would attend the same classes as the infants. In some towns, the Methodists built their own; the Anglicans set up their own National schools that would act as day schools. These schools were the precursors to a national system of education; the role of the Sunday schools changed with the Education Act 1870 which provided universal elementary education. In the 1920s they promoted sports, ran Sunday School Leagues, they became social centres hosting amateur dramatics and concert parties. By the 1960s, the term Sunday school could refer to the building and to education classes. By the 1970s the largest Sunday school had been demolished; the first recorded Sunday school opened in 1751 in Nottingham. Hannah Ball made another early start, founding a school in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire,in 1769. However, the pioneer of Sunday schools is said to be Robert Raikes, editor of the Gloucester Journal, who in 1781, after prompting from William King, recognised the need of children living in the Gloucester slums.
He opened a school in the home of a Mrs Meredith, operating it on a Sunday - the only day that the boys and girls working in the factories could attend. Using the Bible as their textbook, the children learned to write. In 18th-century England, education was not compulsory; the wealthy educated their children at home, with hired governesses or tutors for younger children. Boys of that class were sent away to boarding schools, hence these fee-based educational establishments were known as public schools; the town-based middle class may have sent their sons to grammar schools, while daughters were left to learn what they could from their mothers or from their fathers' libraries. The children of factory workers and farm labourers received no formal education, worked alongside their parents six days a week, sometimes for more than 13 hours a day. By 1785 over 250,000 children throughout England attended schools on Sundays. In 1784 many new schools opened, including the interdenominational Stockport Sunday School, which financed and constructed a school for 5,000 scholars in 1805.
In the late-19th century this was accepted as being the largest in the world. By 1831 it was reported. Robert Raikes's schools were seen as the precursors of the English state education system; the first Sunday school in London opened at Surrey Chapel under Rowland Hill. By 1831 1,250,000 children in Great Britain, or about 25 per cent of the eligible population, attended Sunday schools weekly; the schools provided basic lessons in literacy alongside religious instruction. In 1833, "for the unification and progress of the work of religious education among the young", the Unitarians founded their Sunday School Association, as "junior partner" to the British and Foreign Unitarian Association, with which it set up offices at Essex Hall in Central London; the work of Sunday schools in the industrial cities was supplemented by "ragged schools", by publicly-funded education under the terms of the Elementary Education Act 1870. Sunday schools continued alongside such increasing educational provision, new forms developed such as the Socialist Sunday Schools movement, which began in the United Kingdom in 1886.
The earliest recorded Sunday school programme in Ireland goes back to 1777 when Roman Catholic priest Daniel Delany - Bishop Daniel Delany of Kildare and Leighlin - started a school in Tullow, County Carlow. This was a sophisticated system which involved timetables, lesson plans and various teaching activities; this system spread to other parishes in the diocese. By 1787 in Tullow alone there were 700 students and girls, men and women, 80 teachers; the primary intent of this Sunday School system was the teaching of the Catholic faith. With the coming of Catholic Emancipation in Ireland and the establishment of the National Schools system, which meant that the Catholic faith could be taught in school, the Catholic Sunday School system became unnecessary; the Church of Ireland Sunday School Society was founded in 1809. The Sabbath School Society of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland was founded in 1862; the American Sunday school system was first begun by Samuel Slater in his textile mills
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Lewis Sperry Chafer
Lewis Sperry Chafer was an American theologian. He founded and served as the first president of Dallas Theological Seminary, was an influential proponent of Christian Dispensationalism in the early 20th century. John Hannah described Chafer as a visionary Bible teacher, a minister of the gospel, a man of prayer with strong piety. One of his students, Charles Caldwell Ryrie, who went on to become a world renown theologian and scholar, stated that Chafer was an evangelist, "an eminent theologian." Chafer was born in Rock Creek, Ohio to Thomas and Lomira Chafer and was the second of three children. His father, a parson, died from tuberculosis when Lewis was 11 years old, his mother supported the family by teaching school and keeping boarders in the family home. Chafer attended the Rock Creek Public School as a young boy, the New Lyme Institution in New Lyme, Ohio from 1885 to 1888. Here he discovered a talent for choir. Chafer quit his studies at Oberlin to work with Arthur T. Reed of Ohio. From 1889 to 1891, Chafer attended Oberlin College.
They were married April 22, 1896 and formed a traveling evangelistic music ministry, he singing or preaching and she playing the organ. Their marriage lasted until she died in 1944. Ordained in 1900 by a Council of Congregational Ministers in the First Congregational Church in Buffalo and in 1903 he ministered as an evangelist in the Presbytery of Troy in Massachusetts and became associated with the ministry of Cyrus Scofield, who became his mentor. During this early period, Chafer began developing his theology, he taught Bible classes and music at the Mount Hermon School for Boys from 1906 to 1910. He joined the Orange Presbytery in 1912 due to the increasing influence of his ministry in the south, he aided Scofield in establishing the Philadelphia School of the Bible in 1913. From 1923 to 1925, he served as general secretary of the Central American Mission; when Scofield died in 1921, Chafer moved to Dallas, Texas to pastor the First Congregational Church of Dallas where Scofield had ministered.
In 1924, Chafer and his friend William Henry Griffith Thomas realized their vision of a simple, Bible-teaching theological seminary and founded Dallas Theological Seminary. Chafer served as president of the seminary and professor of Systematic Theology from 1924 until his death, he died with friends while away at a conference in Seattle, Washington in August 1952. In 1953, the newly built chapel was designated the Lewis Sperry Chafer Chapel after the passed leader. During his life, Chafer received three honorary doctorates: Doctor of Divinity from Wheaton in 1926, Doctor of Letters from Dallas in 1942, Doctor of Theology from the Aix-en-Province, Protestant Seminary in 1946. Chafer had a tremendous influence on the evangelical movement. Among his students were Jim Rayburn, founder of Young Life, Kenneth N. Taylor, author of The Living Bible translation, numerous future Christian educators and pastors, including Howard Hendricks, J. Dwight Pentecost, Charles Caldwell Ryrie, J. Vernon McGee, John Walvoord, who succeeded him as president of DTS.
Chafer was recognized among his peers for his balanced, simple life. He was a well-spoken and relaxed leader and was not a fire and brimstone preacher. Chafer believed the basic truths for Christian living are found in Romans 5, a chapter which teaches about peace, weakness, sacrifice and joy. In recognition of this, Dallas Theological Seminary offers a commencement award, the Lewis Sperry Chafer Award, every year to the graduating master's student who: "in the judgment of the faculty because of his well‐balanced Christian character and spiritual leadership, best embodies and portrays the ideals of Dallas Theological Seminary." An additional award, the Lorrain Chafer Award, is awarded to the graduating international master's student who: "in the judgment of the faculty, best evidences well‐balanced Christian character and spiritual leadership."The Dallas Seminary Foundation has set up a charitable giving program called the Lewis Sperry Chafer Legacy, recognizing the graciousness in Chafer's life.
Chafer is recognized as one of the founders of modern Dispensationalism and was vehemently opposed to covenant theology. Yet, he did not reject the idea of a covenant of redemption, covenant of works, covenant of grace, he affirmed all three along with the Edenic, Noahic, Moasic, Palestinian and New Covenant. He was a pretribulational dispensationalist, his overall theology could be described as based on the inductive study of the entire Bible, having similarities to John Nelson Darby of the Plymouth Brethren, moderate Calvinism, a mild form of Keswick Theology on Sanctification, Presbyterianism, all of these tempered with a focus on spirituality based on simple Bible study and living. Chafer's theology has been the subject of much study and debate in and out of the theological community since his death on the two larger topics of dispensationalism and Christian Zionism that the Jews are a people called unto God with a separate historical purpose and plan from the Church. In 1933, Dallas acquired the periodical Bibliotheca Sacra and began publishing it in 1934.
Chafer wrote about 70 articles for this journal. In 1947, after ten years of work, he completed his Systematic Theology in eight volumes; this was the first time that a premillennial, dispensational framework of Christian theology had been systematized into a single format. The books were so popular
God the Son
God the Son is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology. The doctrine of the Trinity identifies Jesus as the incarnation of God, united in essence but distinct in person with regard to God the Father and God the Holy Spirit; the phrase "God the Son" is not found in the Bible, but is found in Christian sources. By scribal error the term is in one medieval manuscript, MS No.1985, where Galatians 2:20 has "Son of God" changed to "God the Son". The term in English follows Latin usage as found in the Athanasian Creed and other texts of the early church: In Greek "God the Son" is Theos o Iios as distinct from o Iios nominative tu Theu genitive, ὁ υἱός του Θεού, "Son of God". In Latin "God the Son" is Deus Filius; the term deus filius is found in the Athanasian Creed: "Et tamen non tres omnipotentes, sed unus omnipotens. Ita Deus Pater, Deus Filius, Deus Spiritus Sanctus.", but this phrase is translated "So the Father is God: the Son is God: and the Holy Ghost is God". The distinction holds true in other modern languages apart from English, for example: In Hebrew "God the Son" is used in modern Israeli Christian literature in relation to the "Holy Trinity".
As distinct from the term "son of God" as found in Hebrew versions of the New Testament. The term deus filius is used in the Athanasian Creed and formulas such as Deus Pater, Deus Filius, Deus Spiritus Sanctus: Et non tres Dii, sed unus est Deus; the term is used by Saint Augustine in his On the Trinity, for example in discussion of the Son's obedience to God the Father: deo patri deus filius obediens. and in Sermon 90 on the New Testament "2. For hold this fast as a firm and settled truth, if you would continue Catholics, that God the Father begot God the Son without time, made Him of a Virgin in time."The Augsburg Confession adopted the phrase as Gott der Sohn. Jacques Forget in the Catholic Encyclopedia article "Holy Ghost" notes that "Among the apologists, Athenagoras mentions the Holy Ghost along with, on the same plane as, the Father and the Son.'Who would not be astonished', says he,'to hear us called atheists, us who confess God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost, hold them one in power and distinct in order.'
" "Son of God" is used to refer to Jesus in the Gospel of Mark at the beginning in verse 1:1 and at its end in chapter 15 verse 39. Max Botner wrote, "Indeed, if Mark 1:1 presents the "normative understanding" of Jesus' identity it makes a significant difference what the text includes"; the Gospel of John is understood to identify Jesus with the pre-existent Logos or Word, "In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God, the Word was God." The disputed Comma Johanneum includes the Son in the formula "For there are three that bear witness in heaven: the Father, the Word, the Holy Spirit. Jesus identified himself in New Testament canonical writings. "Jesus said to them,'Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.' ", which some Trinitarians believe is a reference to Moses in his interaction with preincarnate God in the Old Testament. "And God said to Moses,'I AM WHO I AM.' And He said,'Thus you shall say to the children of Israel, "I AM has sent me to you."' A manuscript variant in John 1:18 has led to translations including "God the One and Only" referring to the Son.
Theological use of this expression reflects what came to be the standard interpretation of New Testament references, understood to imply Jesus' divinity, but with the distinction of his person from another person of the Trinity called the Father. As such, the title is associated more with the development of the doctrine of the Trinity. Trinitarians believe that a clear reference to the Trinity occurs in Matthew 28:19, "Go, make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit." Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Sons of God Catholic Encyclopedia: The Blessed Trinity The Jewish Encyclopedia: Son of God—by Kaufmann Kohler, Emil G. Hirsch Jesus' Divinity—by christians.eu