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Milgram experiment

The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram. They measured the willingness of study participants, men from a diverse range of occupations with varying levels of education, to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience. Participants were led to believe that they were assisting an unrelated experiment, in which they had to administer electric shocks to a "learner." These fake electric shocks increased to levels that would have been fatal had they been real. The experiment found, that a high proportion of subjects would obey the instructions, albeit reluctantly. Milgram first described his research in a 1963 article in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology and discussed his findings in greater depth in his 1974 book, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View; the experiments began in July 1961, in the basement of Linsly-Chittenden Hall at Yale University, three months after the start of the trial of German Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem.

Milgram devised his psychological study to answer the popular contemporary question: "Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?" The experiment was repeated many times around the globe, with consistent results. Three individuals took part in each session of the experiment: The "experimenter", in charge of the session; the "teacher", a volunteer for a single session. The "teacher" was led to believe that they were assisting, whereas they were the subject of the experiment; the "learner", an actor and a confederate of the experimenter, who pretended to be a volunteer. The subject and the actor arrived at the session together; the experimenter told them that they were taking part in "a scientific study of memory and learning", to see what the effect of punishment is on a subject's ability to memorize content. He always clarified that the payment for their participation in the experiment was secured regardless of its development.

The subject and actor drew slips of paper to determine their roles. Unknown to the subject, both slips said "teacher"; the actor would always claim to have drawn the slip that read "learner", thus guaranteeing that the subject would always be the "teacher". Next, the teacher and learner were taken into an adjacent room where the learner was strapped into what appeared to be an electric chair; the experimenter told the participants. In a variation of the experiment, the confederate would plead for mercy and yell that he had a heart condition. At some point prior to the actual test, the teacher was given a sample electric shock from the electroshock generator in order to experience firsthand what the shock that the learner would receive during the experiment would feel like; the teacher and learner were separated such that they could communicate, but not see each other. The teacher was given a list of word pairs that he was to teach the learner; the teacher began by reading the list of word pairs to the learner.

The teacher would read the first word of each pair and read four possible answers. The learner would press a button to indicate his response. If the answer was incorrect, the teacher would administer a shock to the learner, with the voltage increasing in 15-volt increments for each wrong answer. If correct, the teacher would read the next word pair; the subjects believed. In reality, there were no shocks. After the learner was separated from the teacher, the learner set up a tape recorder integrated with the electroshock generator, which played prerecorded sounds for each shock level; as the voltage of the fake shocks increased, the learner began making audible protests, such as banging on the wall that separated him from the teacher. When the highest voltages were reached, the learner fell silent. If at any time the teacher indicated a desire to halt the experiment, the experimenter was instructed to give specific verbal prods; the prods were, in this order: Please continue. The experiment requires.

It is essential that you continue. You have no other choice, you must go on. If the subject still wished to stop after all four successive verbal prods, the experiment was halted. Otherwise, it was halted after the subject had given the maximum 450-volt shock three times in succession; the experimenter had prods to use if the teacher made specific comments. If the teacher asked whether the learner might suffer permanent physical harm, the experimenter replied, "Although the shocks may be painful, there is no permanent tissue damage, so please go on." If the teacher said that the learner wants to stop, the experimenter replied, "Whether the learner likes it or not, you must go on until he has learned all the word pairs so please go on." Before conducting the experiment, Milgram polled fourteen Yale University senior-year psychology majors to predict the behavior of 100 hypothetical teachers. All of the poll respondents believed that only a small fraction of teachers would be prepared to inflict the maximum voltage.

Milgram informally polled his colleagues and found that they, believed few subjects would progress beyond a strong shock. He reached out to honorary Harvard University graduate Chaim Homnick, who noted that this experiment would not be concrete evidence of the Nazis' innocence, due to fact that "poor people are more to cooperate." Milgr

Feels So Good (Atomic Kitten album)

Feels So Good is the second studio album by girl group Atomic Kitten and the first full original album featuring Jenny Frost. The style of the album is both comparable and different from the first album as it has upbeat dance songs, but consists of pop ballads and midtempos; as with debut album Right Now, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark members and Atomic Kitten founders, Andy McCluskey and Stuart Kershaw – who parted ways with the group during recording – made multiple songwriting contributions. The album received mixed reviews, but fared well on the charts, reaching number one and selling 80,000 in its first week and the single "The Tide Is High" becoming number one the week before, selling 145,000 copies. Atomic Kitten became only the second girl band to have the number-one single and album at the same time after the Spice Girls. Following the release of the single "The Last Goodbye"/"Be with You", the album climbed back to the top ten in for two weeks; the album was certified double platinum and the album was certified Platinum by the IFPI for selling more than one million copies in Europe.

The album was further promoted with the simultaneous release of the book Atomic Kitten: So Good, So Far by Ian McLeish, in which the girl group gave an insight look into their early career. Following the success of their debut album Right Now, Atomic Kitten returned to the studio in the fall of 2001 to begin work on their second album. Once again, the group teamed up with OMD members and Atomic Kitten founders, Andy McCluskey and Stuart Kershaw, who wrote the majority of tracks on Right Now; the first recordings from the album were the songs "Walking on the Water", "The Moment You Leave Me", "No One Loves You", all of which were featured on the album. The songwriting and production agreement with McCluskey and Kershaw was an increasing source of tension within the group, the pair departed during the recording of the album. McCluskey spoke of dissension between himself and the record company, whose "formula" demanded "'Whole Again','Whole Again' and more fucking'Whole Again'". After releasing a cover version of "Eternal Flame" on the previous album, Susanna Hoffs from The Bangles was asked to write a track for the album called "Love Doesn't Have to Hurt".

The girls teamed up with Rob Davis for the songwriting and production of several songs and as a result, Kylie Minogue with whom he collaborated, donated the song "Feels So Good" to the album. Out of gratitude and because they felt it was a great title, the group decided to name the album after that song. Notes and sample credits^ denotes additional producer ^ denotes vocal producer ^ denotes co-producer Feels So Good at Discogs

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 52nd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 52nd United States Congress listed by seniority. As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 52nd Congress. Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members. Seniority depends on the date. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman. Committee chairmanship in the House is associated with seniority. However, party leadership is not associated with seniority. Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, by Michael J. Dubin ISBN 0-7864-0283-0 52nd United States Congress List of United States congressional districts List of United States Senators in the 52nd Congress by seniority Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives

Ovum Recordings

Ovum Recordings is a house music record label founded by Josh Wink and King Britt in October 1994. It is based in Philadelphia; the label celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2014 with a world tour putting on a series of club events plus a special remix of the Josh Wink classic "Are You There?" The label gained media attention though Wink's own releases though releases from other influential producers soon followed, including tracks from house music pioneers DJ Pierre and Lil Louis. Aaron Carl Alexkid Tom Middleton Loco Dice Jimpster DJ Sneak KiNK Steve Bug MANIK Ian Pooley Technasia Vince Watson Wouter De Moor Official site Ovum on Resident Advisor Ovum Discography

St Margaret's, Cley

St Margaret's is the Anglican parish church of Cley next the Sea, Norfolk, in the deanery of Holt, the Archdeaconry of Lynn and the Diocese of Norwich. The dedication is to St Margaret of Antioch, it is the largest church in the Blakeney Haven area, with a nave to match, dates from 1320–1340. Before the end of the 14th century, a large south porch was added; the north and south transepts are derelict. The style is Perpendicular, with some Decorated, it has an octagonal font, carved wooden bench ends and Decorated tracery, a carved rood screen. St Margaret's is a nationally important building, with a Grade I listing for its exceptional architectural interest; the church has a large number of war memorials. In 2008 a white-crowned sparrow, an American bird not seen in the United Kingdom, was spotted in Cley. Visiting birders donated more than £6,000 to a collection for the church's restoration. To commemorate the event an image of the bird was included in a window at St Margaret's


Attarsiya was a 15th–14th century BCE military leader of Ahhiya. In the Hittite archives of circa 1400 BCE, he is described as a "man of Ahhiya", a country identified with the Achaeans and Mycenaean Greece; the campaigns of Attarsiya, as well as his conflict with the Hittite vassal, represent the first recorded Mycenaean Greek military activity on the Anatolian mainland, as well as the first conflict between Achaeans and Hittites. He withdrew from Anatolia after Hittite intervention, but launched a campaign against Alashiya. Contemporary Hittite accounts about the campaigns of Attarsiya and the Ahhiya in general may indicate that there was a possible Mycenaean empire centered on late Bronze Age Greece. Moreover, Attarsiya might be a possible Hittite reconstruction of the Greek name Atreus, a king of Mycenae according to Greek mythology; the activities of Attarsiya are recorded in the Hittite archives, in particular in the Indictment of Madduwata. He is described as a "man of Ahhiya", a typical Hittite way to refer to an enemy king.

This makes Attarsiya the first known Achaean leader, but his exact authority inside the Achaean world remains unclear. The Hittite descriptions seem to agree that he was a local Achaean ruler in western Anatolia, rather than a High king of all the Achaeans. Moreover, the chronology of the correspondent Hittite texts was estimated at the end of the 13th century BCE. However, more recent research, based on a number of archaic characteristics the specific texts feature, place it together with the events described circa two centuries earlier. On the other hand, no relevant information is found in the contemporary Greek Linear B records; the latter, dealing only with administrative issues of the Mycenaean palaces, are of limited value concerning the political developments of the late Bronze Age era. Moreover, although the title of the Mycenaean kings, the wanax, has been read several times in the Linear B texts, no correspondent personal names have been found; the Hittite archives of circa 1400 BCE, during the reign of Arnuwanda I, describe the military campaign of Attarsiya in southwest Anatolia in the region of Lycia.

The Achaean expedition in Anatolia is associated with increased Mycenaean findings in Milet during this period, indicating that a number of Greek people moved from mainland Greece to this region. Attarsiya used the city of Miletus, in west coast Anatolia, under Achaean influence, as a military base. Attarsiya launched a campaign deploying an army that included 100 war chariots and attacked regions which were Hittite vassals, or at least under a certain decree of Hittite influence. Among them, he attacked the Hittite vassal, Madduwatta a prince of the kingdom of Arzawa, managed to expel him from his country; the latter found refuge in the court of the Hittite ruler and was installed by him as a vassal in Zipasla, somewhere in western Anatolia. Attarsiyas managed again to defeat him; the Hittite vassal managed. As a result of Achaean military activity in the region, the Hittites dispatched an army under Kisnapli; the Indictment of Madduwatta gives a brief description of the battle: Kisnapli went into battle against Attarsiya 100 of Attarsiya.

And they fought. One officer of Attarsiya was killed, one officer of ours, was killed. Attasiya... to Madduwatta, he went off to his own land. The way the conflict is described, by counting only two casualties, may point that there was a duel between the nobles of the two sides. However, it is possible that the dead among the common soldiers were not considered important to mention. Although the outcome of the battle remained unresolved, Attarsiya decided to withdraw his troops from the battlefield. After his retreat from the Anatolian mainland, Madduwatta was again installed as a Hittite vassal in the region. Attarsiya, still posing a threat to the Hittites, invaded the island of Alashiya together with a number of his Anatolian allies, including his former enemy Madduwatta; this worried the Hittites. The campaign was launched while the Lukka people of southern Anatolia provided the necessary naval support; the invading force succeeded in controlling Alashiya and overthrowing the local Hittite authorities.

The Mycenaean presence in Cyprus is associated with archaeological evidence, since Mycenaean Greek settlements dating from that time were unearthed there. The campaigns of Attarsiya represent the earliest recorded Mycenaean Greek military activity on the Anatolian mainland, as well as the first conflict between Achaeans and Hittites, it appears. In this context, a decorated shard of pottery from the Hittite capital, depicts a warrior with body armor and boar's tusk helmet, typical of Achaean warfare, while the Hittite king offers a Mycenaean type thrusting sword to the Storm God, Teshub. Despite the withdrawal of Attarsiya after the Hittite intervention, the following decades were a period of Mycenaean expansion on the Anatolian coast. Achaean military activity in the region continues to be attested through several Hittite records until circa 1250 BCE, it has been suggested by several scholars that the term Attarsiya might be a possible Hittite reconstruction of the Greek name Atreus, a mythical king of Mycenae and father of Agamemnon.

However, other scholars argue that though the name is Greek, since he is described as an Ahhiya and connected to Atreus, the person carrying the name is