In architecture, a pavilion has several meanings. In architectural terminology it refers to a subsidiary building, either positioned separately or as an attachment to a main building, its function makes it an object of pleasure. In the traditional architecture of Asia, palaces or other large houses may have one or more subsidiary pavilions that are either freestanding or connected by covered walkways, as in the Forbidden City, Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, in the Red Fort and other buildings of Mughal architecture. In another more specific meaning applied to large palaces, it refers to symmetrically placed subsidiary building blocks that appear to be attached to each end of a main building block or to the outer ends of wings that extend from both sides of a central building block – the corps de logis; such configurations provide an emphatic visual termination to the composition of a large building, akin to bookends. Pavilions may be small garden outbuildings, similar to a kiosk; these were popular up to the 18th century and can be equated to the Italian casina rendered in English "casino".
These resembled small classical temples and follies. If there is some space for food preparation, they may be called a banqueting house. A pavilion built to take advantage of a view may be referred to as a gazebo. Bandstands in a park are a class of pavilion. A pool house by a swimming pool may have sufficient charm to be called a pavilion. By contrast, a free-standing pavilion can be a far larger building such as the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, in fact a large oriental style palace. A sports pavilion is a building adjacent to a sports ground used for changing clothes and partaking of refreshments, it has a verandah to provide protection from the sun for spectators. In cricket grounds, as at Lords, a cricket pavilion tends to be used for the building the players emerge from and return to when this is a large building including a grandstand; the term pavilion can be used in stadia baseball parks, to distinguish a single-decked, covered seating area from the more expensive seating area of the main grandstand and the less expensive seating area of the uncovered bleachers.
Externally, pavilions may be emphasised by any combination of a change in height, colour and ornament. Internally they may be part of a rectangular block, or only connected to the main block by a thin section of building; the two 18th-century English country houses of Houghton Hall and Holkham Hall, illustrate these different approaches in turn. In the Place des Vosges, twin pavilions mark the centers of the north and south sides of the square, they are named the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon de la Reine though no royal personage lived in the square. With their triple archways, they function like gatehouses that give access to the privileged space of the square. French gatehouses had been built in the form of such pavilions in the preceding century. In some areas, a pavilion is a term for a hunting lodge; the "Pavillon de Galon" in Luberon, France is a typical 18th century aristocratic hunting pavilion. The pavilion, located on the site of an old Roman villa, includes a garden "à la française,", used by the guests for receptions.
Media related to Pavilions at Wikimedia Commons
Gösta Gärdin was a Swedish Army officer and modern pentathlete who won a bronze medal at the 1948 Summer Olympics. Gärdin was born in Linköping and was the son of colonel Georg Gärdin and Märta, he became a second lieutenant at Småland Artillery Regiment in 1944 and completed the Artillery and Engineering College's higher course from 1949 to 1951. Gärdin became captain in the General Staff Corps in 1956 and major at Boden Artillery Regiment in 1962, he was appointed lieutenant colonel in the General Staff Corps in 1965 and was lieutenant colonel at Svea Artillery Regiment 1967. Gärdin was promoted to colonel in 1969 and became head of the Royal Military Academy which he was until 1973 when he became the commander of Småland Artillery Regiment. Gärdin was promoted to colonel of the 1st rank in 1976 and was Artillery Inspector from 1976 to 1983. Gärdin was adjutant of His Majesty the King from 1965 to 1969 and was chief adjutant from 1969, he was Sweden's Military Sports Federation's leader of modern pentathlon from 1972 to 1984, chairman of its Executive Committee from 1978 to 1983 and secretary general from 1983 to 1996.
Gärdin was a member of the Executive Committee of the International Military Sports Council from 1980 to 1981. Gärdin was a board member of the Swedish Olympic Committee from 1984 to 1996, he was chairman of the Swedish Olympic Academy from 1989 to 2000. Gärdin joined to the Riksidrottens vänner in 1979 and became its chairman in 1989, a position he held for 14 years, he resigned at the annual meeting in 2001 and was elected honorary chairman. Meanwhile, the scholarship Gösta Gärding's Youth Fund was established for "a male or female sports leaders, who for many years engaged in youth activities and promoted the understanding of fair play and joy of sport." In 1946 he married daughter of the factory manager Gunnar Engman and Märta. Gärdin died on 12 December 2015 in Jönköping; the funeral service took place at Gustaf Adolf Church in Stockholm on 22 January 2016
Swedish Defence University
The Swedish Defence University is situated on Drottning Kristinas väg 37 in Östermalm, Stockholm City Centre, next to the campus of the Royal Institute of Technology. Today's Swedish Defence University marks the latest development in a long line of military education tradition; the Higher Artillery College in Marieberg was established in Stockholm in the 19th century. The Swedish Defence University has existed in its present form since 1997; the University was established as a national university college on January 1, 2008, allowing it to issue academic degrees. Known in English as the Swedish National Defence College, the University adopted its current name on February 1, 2015; the University educates domestic and international military and civilian personnel. The University offers training for reserve officers of the Swedish Armed Forces. Graduates contribute, both nationally and internationally, to the management of crisis situations and security issues. Successful candidates are awarded a bachelor's degree in Military Science.
The course is conducted over 6 semesters. On successful completion of all modules 180 credits are awarded; the officers' programme is a three-year undergraduate degree course through which the officers gain proficiency as platoon-level leaders. Teachers and professors from the Swedish Defence University are seen in the media as expert commentators on matters of public interest; the University is a founding member of the International Society of Military Sciences and hosted the ISMS annual conference in 2010. The University contributes towards national and international security through research and development. Research is carried out Military Arts and Sciences and subsequently disseminated both nationally and internationally; the University is a member of the International Association for Military Pedagogy, whose members include military and civilian professionals from military institutions of advanced learning. Military Academy Karlberg List of universities in Sweden The Swedish Armed Forces official website Swedish National Defence College International Society of Military Sciences
Solna Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in Sweden, located just north of the Stockholm City Centre. Its seat is located in the town of Solna, a part of the Stockholm urban area; the municipality is a part of Metropolitan Stockholm. None of the area is considered rural, unusual for Swedish municipalities, which are of mixed rural/urban character. Solna is the third smallest municipality in Sweden in terms of area. Solna borders Stockholm Municipality to the south and northwest; the boundary with Danderyd Municipality is delineated by the Stocksundet sea strait. There are two parishes in Solna Municipality: Solna. Solna is divided into eight traditional parts with no administrative functions: Bergshamra, Hagalund, Huvudsta, Järva, Råsunda and Ulriksdal; the largest districts are Råsunda and Huvudsta, with the Solna Centrum in between them. With few exceptions, Solna's built-up areas have a suburban character, but there are several large parks and Friends Arena, Sweden's new national football stadium adjacent to the Solna station of Stockholm commuter rail.
The final matches of both the 1958 FIFA World Cup and the 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup were played at Råsunda Stadium, the national football stadium from 1937 to 2012. Solna has low tax rates and has attracted a wide range of companies and authorities, making it a major place of work in Stockholm. Among the most important employers are the medical university Karolinska Institutet and the Karolinska University Hospital; the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute are located in Solna. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 30 601, or 38.39% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 14 986, or 26.02% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 79 707 residents in Solna, of which 23 597 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
As with all 290 municipalities of Sweden, Solna has a municipal assembly, holding 61 members elected by proportional representation for a four-year term. An executive committee is appointed by its members. 1943-1956 CA Andersson 1956-1967 KA Larsson 1968-1976 CG Eklund 1977-1982 Sune Berglund 1983-1988 Gösta Fagerberg 1989-1991 Karl Gustav Svensson 1991-1994 Anders Gustâv 1994-1998 Karl Gustav Svensson 1998-2006 Anders Gustâv 2006 Anders Ekegren 2006-2011 Lars-Erik Salminen 2011 Anders Ekegren - 8 juni-24 juli 2011-2012 Lars-Erik Salminen 2012- Pehr Granfalk =Moderate Party =Social Democratic Party =Liberal Party Solna is centrally located in Stockholm and is well served by the Stockholm public transport system with two commuter train stations and six Metro stations as well as a dense bus network run by SL. It was served by trams until 1959. Trams returned after 54 years of absence. A further extension will be opened in 2014. Skanska, NextJet, Vattenfall have their head offices in Solna. Mall of Scandinavia is located in Solna.
The head office of Scandinavian Airlines and SAS Group is located in Solna. The airline head office was located on the property of Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sigtuna Municipality, but now it is back in Solna. Haga Park, part of the Royal National City Park, was initiated by king Gustav III, planned and carried out in the English landscaping style; the city features three of Sweden's royal palaces. Friends Arena, the Swedish national arena of association football, home of local football club AIK. Mall of Scandinavia, Scandinavia's biggest shopping mall The Solna Church was constructed in the 12th century. For defensive purposes, it was built as a round church, is one of few of that kind in Sweden; the following football clubs are located in Solna: AIK Blue Hill KF Råsunda IS Vasalunds IF Solna Gymnasium is the senior high school/sixth form college of Solna. Solna is twinned with: Gladsaxe, Denmark Ski, Norway Pirkkala, Finland Valmiera, Latvia Burbank, California, USAPartnershipsIn addition to this, Solna has two cooperating cities, Greece Bemowo, Poland Category:People from Solna Municipality Football World Cup 1958 1992 European Football Championship FIFA Women's World Cup 1995 Solna Municipality - Official site Solna Municipality - Tourist Guide in English
Bengt Trygvesson Liljestrand was a Swedish Army major general. Liljestrand was born in Stockholm, the son of hovrättsråd Trygve Liljestrand and Lolly and brother of lector Greta Renborg, he passed studentexamen in 1937 and became a second lieutenant at Svea Artillery Regiment in 1940 before receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in Uppsala in 1950. Liljestrand was captain in the General Staff Corps in 1942 and served as Chief of Staff of the IV Military Area from 1959 to 1960 and teacher at the Swedish National Defence College from 1960 to 1962, he was Senior Administrative Officer at the Coordination Department at the Ministry of Defense from 1962 to 1963 and was promoted to colonel in the General Staff Corps in 1964. Liljestrand was Section Chief at the Defence Staff from 1964 to 1966 and received a diploma from the Centre d’Etudes Industrielles in Geneva, Switzerland in 1967, he studied at the Institute of International Affairs in Geneva, Switzerland from 1967 to 1968 and was commander of Boden Artillery Regiment from 1968 to 1969.
Liljestrand was Chief of Staff of Western Military Area from 1969 to 1973 when he was promoted to major general. He was head of the Royal Military Academy from 1973 to 1974 and commander of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization from 1974 to 1975 and the United Nations Emergency Force from 1975 to 1976. Liljestrand was commander of the Swedish National Defence College from 1978 until he retired in 1984. Liljestrand returned to Geneva after his retirement to study security policy at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies from 1985 to 1991. In 1943 he married the daughter of general Helge Jung and Ruth. Liljestrand was the father of Ulla, Trygve and Karin, he was buried at Djursholm cemetery. Knight of the Order of the Sword 4th Class of the Order of the Cross of Liberty with swords Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences
In mathematics and art, a moiré pattern or moiré fringes are large-scale interference patterns that can be produced when an opaque ruled pattern with transparent gaps is overlaid on another similar pattern. For the moiré interference pattern to appear, the two patterns must not be identical, but rather e.g. displaced, rotated or have different pitch. Moiré patterns appear in many different situations. In printing, the printed pattern of dots can interfere with the image. In television and digital photography, a pattern on an object being photographed can interfere with the shape of the light sensors to generate unwanted artifacts, they are sometimes created deliberately – in micrometers they are used to amplify the effects of small movements. In physics, its manifestation is the beat phenomenon that occurs in many wave interference conditions; the term originates from moire, a type of textile, traditionally of silk but now of cotton or synthetic fiber, with a rippled or "watered" appearance. Moire, or "watered textile", is made by pressing two layers of the textile when wet.
The similar but imperfect spacing of the threads creates a characteristic pattern which remains after the fabric dries. In French, the adjective moiré derives from the earlier verb moirer, "to produce a watered textile by weaving or pressing". Moirer, in turn, is a variation of the word mouaire, an adoption of the English mohair. Mohair comes from a cloth made from the wool of the Angora goat. Mukhayyar descends from khayyara. "Chosen" is meant in the sense of "a choice, or excellent, cloth". It has been suggested that the Arabic word was formed from the Latin marmoreus, meaning "like marble". By 1660, moire had been adopted in English. Moire and moiré are now used somewhat interchangeably in English, though moire is more used for the cloth and moiré for the pattern. In the liquid crystal display industry, moiré is referred to by the Japanese word mura, which translates to "unevenness. Moiré patterns are an artifact of images produced by various digital imaging and computer graphics techniques, for example when scanning a halftone picture or ray tracing a checkered plane.
This can be overcome in texture mapping through the use of anisotropic filtering. The drawing on the upper right shows a moiré pattern; the lines could represent fibers in moiré silk. The nonlinear interaction of the optical patterns of lines creates a real and visible pattern of parallel dark and light bands, the moiré pattern, superimposed on the lines; the moiré effect occurs between overlapping transparent objects. For example, an invisible phase mask is made of a transparent polymer with a wavy thickness profile; as light shines through two overlaid masks of similar phase patterns, a broad moiré pattern occurs on a screen some distance away. This phase moiré effect and the classical moiré effect from opaque lines are two ends of a continuous spectrum in optics, called the universal moiré effect; the phase moiré effect is the basis for a type of broadband interferometer in x-ray and particle wave applications. It provides a way to reveal hidden patterns in invisible layers. Line moiré is one type of moiré pattern.
Line moiré is the case when the superposed patterns comprise curved lines. When moving the layer patterns, the moiré patterns move at a faster speed; this effect is called optical moiré speedup. More complex line moiré patterns are created if the lines are curved or not parallel. Shape moiré is one type of moiré pattern demonstrating the phenomenon of moiré magnification. 1D shape moiré is the particular simplified case of 2D shape moiré. One-dimensional patterns may appear when superimposing an opaque layer containing tiny horizontal transparent lines on top of a layer containing a complex shape, periodically repeating along the vertical axis. Moiré patterns revealing complex shapes, or sequences of symbols embedded in one of the layers are created with shape moiré, otherwise called band moiré patterns. One of the most important properties of shape moiré is its ability to magnify tiny shapes along either one or both axes, that is, stretching. A common 2D example of moiré magnification occurs when viewing a chain-link fence through a second chain-link fence of identical design.
The fine structure of the design is visible at great distances. Let us consider two patterns made of parallel and equidistant lines, e.g. vertical lines. The step of the first pattern is p, the step of the second is p + δp, with 0 < δp < p. If the lines of the patterns are superimposed at the left of the figure, the shift between the lines increase when going to the right. After a given number of lines, the patterns are opposed: the lines of the second pattern are between the lines of the first pattern. If we look from a far distance, we have the feeling of pale zones when the lines are superimposed, of dark zones when the lines are "opposed"; the middle of the first dark zone is when the shift is equal to p/2. The nth line of the second pattern is shifted by n δp compared to the nth line of the first network