1st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)
The 1st Division was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Jade Division; the 1st Division was formed in Tokyo in January 1871 as the Tokyo Garrison, one of six regional commands created in the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army. The Tokyo Garrison had responsibility for the eastern region of Honshū, centered on the Tokyo metropolitan area; the six regional commands were transformed into divisions under the army reorganization of 14 May 1888, based on recommendations by the Prussian military advisor Jakob Meckel to the Japanese government. As one of the oldest Divisions in the Imperial Japanese Army, the 1st Division saw combat in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War. After the wars, the division returned to Tokyo, with permanent headquarters opened in Minami-Aoyama 15 June 1918; the February 26 Incident was an attempted coup d'état staged by elements of the 1st Division in Tokyo in 1936. Because the situation on the Soviet border was still volatile because of the ongoing Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, the 1st division was soon sent to Manchukuo-Soviet border under the command of the Kwantung Army.
The division participated in a Kanchazu Island incident driving off Soviet invaders by 30 June 1937. 1 September 1937 a 101st division was created to garrison Tokyo instead of 1st Division. The parts of the 1st division have participated in disastrous Nonomhan Incident in 1939. During the 1944, the division was reassigned to the Philippines to participate in the Pacific War, based in Manila where it formed the core of General Tomoyuki Yamashita's 14th Area Army. Ordered to oppose the re-occupation of Leyte by the American and Filipino forces, the 1st Division landed at Ormoc City on the west coast of Leyte on 1 November 1944, their orders were to move up Leyte Highway Number 2 to Carigara and to secure the northern half of the island. However and Filipino forces had seized Carigara, American air strikes had deprived the Japanese 1st Division of its supply chain and reinforcements. Unable to reach Carigara, the Japanese fortified hilltops and ridges along the highway, defended these areas against the US and Philippine Commonwealth military offensive from 7 November 1944 though 12 December 1944, in fierce combat, including combat in the middle of a typhoon.
By the time Battle of Leyte was won by American and Filipino forces, of the 11,000 Japanese soldiers, only 800 were evacuated to Cebu in January 1945. As result, the 1st Division ceased to exist as an operational unit; the remnants of division have participated in the Battle for Cebu City though. List of Japanese Infantry Divisions Madej, W. Victor, Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937–1945, Pennsylvania: 1981 Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. 13: The Liberation of the Philippines—Luzon, the Visayas, 1944–1945 University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-07064-X Vego Milan N. Battle for Leyte, 1944: Allied And Japanese Plans, And Execution. Naval Institute Press, 2006. ISBN 1-55750-885-2 This article incorporates material from the Japanese Wikipedia page 第1師団, accessed 8 March 2016
Masanobu Tsuji was a Japanese army officer and politician. During World War II, he was an important tactical planner in the Imperial Japanese Army, he helped plan and lead the final Japanese offensive during the Guadalcanal Campaign. Tsuji was involved in Japanese atrocities throughout the war, including Bataan Death March and Sook Ching, he evaded prosecution for war crimes at the end of the war. He was elected to the Diet as an advocate of renewed militarism. In 1961, he disappeared on a trip to Laos. Tsuji was among the most influential Japanese militarists, he was a leading proponent of the concept of gekokujō, "leading from below" or "loyal insubordination" by acting without or contrary to authorization. He incited the 1939 border clash with the USSR and was a vehement advocate of war with the United States. Masunobu Tsuji was born in the Ishikawa Prefecture in Japan, he received his secondary education at a military academy and graduated from the War College. By 1934, he was active in the Army's political intrigues as a member of the Tōseiha, helped block the attempted coup d'état of the rival Kōdōha.
This brought him the patronage of general and future Prime Minister Hideki Tojo and general and future War Minister Seishirō Itagaki. In 1932, he saw action in China, subsequently travelled as far as Sinkiang. Tsuji served as a staff officer in the Kwantung Army in 1937-1939, his aggressive and insubordinate attitude exacerbated the Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, helped incite to the Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939. After the defeat at Khalkhin Gol, Tsuji opposed any further conflicts with the USSR. After their attack on the USSR in 1941, the Germans urged the Japanese to join the invasion, many in the Japanese military wanted to avenge the defeat at Khalkhin Gol, yet Tsuji was an influential advocate of the attack on the United States. General Ryukichi Tanaka testified after the war that, "the most determined single protagonist in favor of war with the United States was Tsuji Masanobu." Tsuji wrote that his experience of Soviet fire-power at Khalkhin Gol convinced him not to attack the Soviet Union in 1941.
His protectors in the Army got him safely transferred to Taiwan, where he helped organize the Army's jungle warfare school. He was assigned to the Operations Section of the General staff, where he became a strong advocate of war with the United States and Britain, it has been alleged that in late 1941, he planned the assassination of Prime Minister Konoye, if Konoye achieved peace with the U. S; when the war with America and Britain started, Tsuji was on the staff of General Tomoyuki Yamashita, whose army invaded Malaya. He was responsible for planning Yamashita's successful landing in Malaya and subsequent campaign against Singapore. After the capture of Singapore, Tsuji helped plan the Sook Ching - a systematic massacre of thousands of Malayan Chinese who might be hostile to Japan, he was transferred to the staff of General Homma in the Philippines. After the U. S. surrender there, Tsuji sought to have all American prisoners killed, encouraged the brutal mistreatment and casual murder of prisoners in the Bataan Death March.
He had many captured officials of the Philippines government executed. Tsuji planned the Japanese overland attack via the Kokoda Trail. In this as in other operations, he ordered bold offensive moves regardless of difficulties or the costs to the troops involved. In late 1942, Tsuji went to Guadalcanal, where he planned and led the last major Japanese attack on October 23–24. After these attacks were defeated, Tsuji went to Tokyo in person to urge additional reinforcements, but he accepted the Navy's conclusion that nothing could get through, recommended the evacuation of the remaining troops. He impressed the Emperor with his frankness, but the Guadalcanal fiasco had discredited him. He was sent to the Japanese HQ in Nanking, inactive, for the next year. While there, he made contacts with various Chinese, including both collaborators and agents of Chiang Kai-shek's government. In mid-1944, Tsuji was sent to Burma. Tsuji was assigned to 33rd Army, he was an energetic and efficient planner, if notoriously arrogant, once helped quell panic in the ranks by ostentiously having a bath under fire in the front lines.
When the Japanese position in Burma collapsed in 1945, Tsuji escaped, first to Thailand, to China, where he renewed the contacts made in Nanking. He visited Vietnam in disorder with the Viet Minh resisting the re-establishment of French rule. In China, Tsuji was both an employee of Chinese intelligence. After the war, the Japanese war criminals were prosecuted, but Tsuji fled and could avoid the trial of Sook Ching; some other army officials, who followed the command of Tsuji unavoidably, were charged with conducting the Sook Ching and two of them were executed. At the war criminal of Bataan Death March, General Homma, a so-called humanist and was surprised to hear the facts of Bataan death march after the war, was responsible for subordinates and executed, during the escape period of Tsuji. In 1948, he was returned to Japan, he began publishing books and articles about his war experiences, including an account of the Japanese victory in Malaya. He wrote of his years in hiding in Senkō Sanzenri "3,000 li in hiding", which became a best seller.
He was elected to the Diet i
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan is a book by Herbert P. Bix covering the reign of Emperor Hirohito of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989, it won the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction. New York Times review Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan on Open Library at the Internet Archive Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan at Google Books Presentation by Bix on Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, September 15, 2000 Booknotes interview with Bix on Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, September 2, 2001
John Toland (historian)
John Willard Toland was an American writer and historian. He is best known for a biography of Adolf Hitler and a Pulitzer Prize-winning history of World War II-era Japan, The Rising Sun. Toland was born in 1912 in Wisconsin, he attended the Yale School of Drama for a time. His original goal was to become a playwright. In the summers between college years, he traveled with hobos and wrote several plays with hobos as central characters, none of which were performed, he recalled in 1961 that in his early years as a writer he had been "about as big a failure as a man can be". He claimed to have written six complete novels, 26 plays, a hundred short stories before completing his first sale, a short story for which The American Magazine paid $165 in 1954. At one point he managed to get an article on dirigibles into LOOK magazine. Dirigibles were the subject of his first full-length published book, Ships in the Sky, his most important work may be The Rising Sun, for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction in 1971.
Based on original and extensive interviews with high-ranking Japanese officials who survived the war, the book chronicles the Empire of Japan from the military rebellion of February 1936 to the end of World War II. It won the Pulitzer because it was the first book in English to tell the history of the Pacific War from the Japanese point of view, rather than the prevailing American one. Toland tried to write history works as a straightforward narrative, with minimal analysis or judgment. One exception to his general approach is Infamy: Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath, about the Pearl Harbor attack and its subsequent investigation, where he presented evidence that President Franklin D. Roosevelt knew in advance of plans to attack the naval base but remained silent; the book was criticized at the time, today the majority of historians reject the Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge conspiracy theory. While predominantly a writer of nonfiction, Toland wrote two historical novels, Gods of War and Occupation.
He says in his 1997 autobiography that he earned little money from his prize-winner The Rising Sun but was set for life from the earnings of Adolf Hitler, for which he did original research. Toland died of pneumonia on January 2004, at Danbury Hospital in Danbury, Connecticut. Ships in the Sky: The Story of the Great Dirigibles Battle: The Story of the Bulge, 1959, ISBN 0-8032-9437-9, but Not in Shame: The Six Months After Pearl Harbor, 1962, ISBN 0-345-25748-0 The Dillinger Days, 1963, ISBN 0-306-80626-6. The Flying Tigers - Copyrighted 1963 First Printing From Laurel-Leaf Books 1979. Published by Dell Publishing ISBN 0-440-92621-1 The Last 100 Days: The Tumultuous and Controversial Story of the Final Days of World War II in Europe, 1966, reprint ISBN 0-8129-6859-X The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945, 1970 HC ISBN 0-394-44311-X, reprint ISBN 0-8129-6858-1; the Great Dirigibles: Their Triumphs & Disasters, 1972, ISBN 0-486-21397-8. Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography, 1976, ISBN 0-385-42053-6.
No Man's Land: 1918, The Last Year of the Great War, 1980, ISBN 0-385-11291-2 Infamy: Pearl Harbor And Its Aftermath, 1982, ISBN 0-385-42051-X Gods of War, 1985, ISBN 0-385-18007-1. Occupation, 1987, ISBN 0-385-19819-1 In Mortal Combat: Korea 1950-1953, 1991, ISBN 0-688-10079-1 Captured by History: One Man's Vision of Our Tumultuous Century, 1997, ISBN 0-312-15490-9'Death of a Dirigible', February 1959, American Heritage, Volume X Number 2, pp 18–23 List of books by or about Adolf Hitler John Toland Papers at the National Archives Catalog John Toland at Library of Congress Authorities, with 36 catalog records
Senjūrō Hayashi was an Imperial Japanese Army commander of the Chōsen Army of Japan in Korea during the Mukden Incident and the invasion of Manchuria, a Japanese politician and the 33rd Prime Minister of Japan from 2 February 1937 to 4 June 1937. Born in Ishikawa Prefecture, to a samurai-class family in service to Kaga Domain, Hayashi dropped out of school in July 1894 to enlist in the Imperial Japanese Army at the start of the First Sino-Japanese War. After the end of the war, he attended the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, on graduation in June 1897 was assigned to the IJA 7th Infantry Regiment. in 1903, he graduated from the Army Staff College. With the start of the Russo-Japanese War, Hayashi participated in the Siege of Port Arthur. Hayashi's first major command from 1918 to 1920 was as commanding officer of the IJA 57th Infantry Regiment, followed by a time in 1921 attached to the Technical Research Headquarters and as an acting Military Investigator. From 1921 to 1923 he was the head of the Preparatory Course at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, followed by a time attached to the Inspectorate General of Military Training.
From 1923 to 1924 he was the Japanese Army Representative to the League of Nations, followed by another stint attached to the Inspectorate General of Military Training from 1924 to 1925. In 1925, Hayashi became the commanding Officer of the IJA 2nd Infantry Brigade. In 1926 he was made Commandant of the Tokyo Bay Fortress. In 1927, he became the Commandant of the Army War College, followed in 1928 as Deputy Inspector-General of Military Training. In 1929 he became the General Officer Commanding the Imperial Guards Division. In 1930, Lieutenant-General Senjūrō Hayashi, was made Commander in Chief of the Japanese Korean Army. On the day after the Mukden Incident on 19 September, he ordered the IJA 20th Division to split its force, forming the 39th Mixed Brigade. Acting without authorization by the Emperor or central government in Tokyo, Hayashi ordered the 39th Mixed Brigade to cross the Yalu River that same day into Manchuria; the Cabinet was forced to concede the point to the military afterwards and the movement of the 39th Mixed Brigade from Korea was authorized on 22 September.
Following his command in Korea, Hayashi was made Inspector General of Military Training and a member of the Supreme War Council from 1932 to 1934. In 1932, he was awarded with the Order of the Sacred Treasure and in 1934, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun. From 1934 to 1935 Hayashi was Army Minister, again member of the Supreme War Council from 1935 until his retirement the next year; as Army Minister, Hayashi was a supporter of Major General Tetsuzan Nagata, Chief of Military Bureau and the leader of the Tōseiha faction within the Imperial Japanese Army. The Tōseiha scored a victory in July 1935 when General Jinzaburō Masaki, one of the leaders of the Kōdōha faction was removed as Inspector General of Military Training, but Nagata was assassinated the next month. The struggle between the Tōseiha and Kōdōha factions continued below the surface of the government. Hayashi promoted Fumimaro Konoye's doctrines, as a "right-winger" amongst the militarists, who approved of the "fiction" of democracy, the Emperor's role with an "adviser group", against "left-winger" radical militarists, led by Kingoro Hashimoto, wanted a Military Shogunate.
Hayashi served as Prime Minister of Japan for a brief four-month period in 1937. From 1940 to 1941, he was a Privy Councillor. Hayashi suffered from an intracranial hemorrhage in January 1943 and died at his home of 4 February without regaining consciousness, he was posthumously awarded the Order of the Paulownia Flowers. His grave is at the Tama Reien Cemetery in Tokyo. From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers Senjuro Hayashi
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
Saburō Aizawa was a Japanese soldier born in Iwate Prefecture. He reached the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he assassinated Tetsuzan Nagata with his sword on August 12, 1935, because he was reputedly putting the Army "in the paws of high finance". Aizawa made no attempt to resist arrest and said that he "was in an absolute sphere, so there was neither affirmation nor negation, neither good nor evil". After a high-profile trial, he was executed by a firing squad, his actions helped the Tōseiha faction, which he hated, gain absolute control over the Japanese military. Military Academy Incident