The Albanians are an ethnic group native to the Balkan Peninsula and are identified by a common Albanian ancestry, culture and language. They live in Albania, North Macedonia, Serbia as well as in Croatia and Italy, they constitute a diaspora with several communities established in the Americas and Oceania. The ethnogenesis of the Albanians and the Albanian language is a matter of controversy among the historians and ethnologists, they appear for the first time in historical records from the 11th century mentioning a tribe of people living in the area which today constitutes the mountainous region around the Mat and Drin. The Shkumbin splits the Albanians into two cultural and linguistical subgroups, the Ghegs and Tosks, though both groups identify with a common ethnic and national culture; the history of the Albanian diaspora is centuries old and has its roots in migration from the Middle Ages established in Southern Europe and subsequently on across other parts of the world. Between the 13th and 18th centuries, sizeable numbers of Albanians migrated to escape either various social, economic or political difficulties.
One population who became the Arvanites settled Southern Greece between the 13th and 16th centuries assimilating into and now self-identifying as Greeks. Another population who emerged as the Arbëreshës settled Sicily and Southern Italy constituting the oldest continuous Albanian diaspora. Smaller populations such as the Arbanasis whose migration dates back to the 18th century are located in Southern Croatia and scattered across Southern Ukraine. In the 13th century, the Ghegs converted to Roman Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy as a means to resist the Slavic Serbs. In the 15th century, Skanderbeg led the medieval Albanian resistance to the Ottoman conquest. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Albanians in large numbers converted to Islam, in part due to the privileged legal and social position of Muslims in the empire and coercion by Ottoman authorities in times of war. Albanians attained important political and military positions within the Ottoman Empire and culturally contributed to the wider Muslim world.
Following the Albanian National Awakening, during the Balkan Wars, in 1912, Albanians were partitioned between the newly-formed Independent Albania and Serbia and Montenegro. From 1945 to 1992, Albania was ruled by a communist government. Albanians in neighbouring Yugoslavia underwent periods of discrimination that concluded with the breakup of that state in the early 1990s and the independence of Kosovo in 2008; the Albanians and their country Albania have been identified by many ethnonyms. The most common native ethnonym is "Shqiptar", plural "Shqiptarë". From these ethnonyms, names for Albanians were derived in other languages, that were or still are in use. In English "Albanians"; the term "Albanoi" is first encountered twice in the works of Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, the term "Arvanitai" is used once by the same author. He referred to the "Albanoi" as having taken part in a revolt against the Byzantine Empire in 1043, to the "Arbanitai" as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium; these references have been disputed as to.
Historian E. Vranoussi believes, she notes that the same term in medieval Latin meant "foreigners". The reference to "Arvanitai" from Attaliates regarding the participation of Albanians in a rebellion around 1078 is undisputed. In Byzantine usage, the terms "Arbanitai" and "Albanoi" with a range of variants were used interchangeably, while sometimes the same groups were called by the classicising name Illyrians; the first reference to the Albanian language dates to the latter 13th century. The ethnonym Albanian has been hypothesized to be connected to and stem from the Albanoi, an Illyrian tribe mentioned by Ptolemy with their centre at the city of Albanopolis. Linguists believe that the alb part in the root word originates from an Indo-European term for a type of mountainous topography, from which other words such as alps are derived. Through the root word alban and its rhotacized equivalents arban and arbar, the term in Albanian became rendered as Arbëneshë/Arbëreshë for the people and Arbënia/Arbëria for the country.
The Albanian language was referred to as Arbërisht. While the exonym Albania for the general region inhabited by the Albanians does have connotations to Classical Antiquity, the Albanian language employs a different ethnonym, with modern Albanians referring to themselves as Shqiptarë and to their country as Shqipëria. Two etymologies have been proposed for this ethnonym: one, derived from the etymology from the Albanian word for eagle. In Albanian folk etymology, this word denotes a bird totem, dating from the times of Skanderbeg as displayed on the Albanian flag; the other is within scholarship that connects it to the verb'to speak' from the Latin "excipere". In this instance the Albanian endonym like Slav and others would have been a term connoting "those who speak [intelligibly, th
Military academies in Russia
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces. Russian institutions called "academy" are post-graduate professional military schools for experienced, commissioned officers who have the equivalent of a bachelor's degree. Upon graduation, officers receive the equivalent of a master's degree and, if trained in military leadership are appointed as battalion commanders or higher from Lt. Colonel and up. Graduates with non-command training are appointed to various staff positions equivalent to Major or Lt. Colonel. Commissioned officers can study on the Kandidat Nauk level, equivalent to a Ph. D. degree. This research-oriented degree is required for faculty positions in military schools and defense research institutes. Selected experienced researchers in military academies hold limited-term positions as senior scholars leading to the prestigious post-doctoral Doktor Nauk degree, the equivalent of a habilitation at Central European universities where it is a prerequisite for full professor positions in institutions of higher learning.
There are a number of "officer commissioning schools" for various services known as Higher Military Schools or Institutes. As of 2010, a major reorganization of Russian military officer education, spanning the range from General Staff Academy to officer commissioning school, was underway. Previous names include: Marshal Voroshilov Military Academy of the WPRA General Staff, it has been the senior Russian professional school for officers in their late 30s. The "best and the brightest" senior commissioned officers of all forces are selected to attend this most prestigious of all Soviet military academies. Students are admitted to the Academy in the ranks of lieutenant colonel and Major General. Most are newly promoted generals; the precedence and grouping of these academies are drawn from Michael Holm's site. In 1918 the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow was established as the academy of the General Staff, which became the RKKA Military Academy in 1921, it is named after Mikhail Frunze USSR Minister of Defense in mid-1920s.
It is the equivalent of the US army's Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas or the British army's Staff College, Camberley. Officers in their late twenties up to thirty-two years at the rank of Captain or Major enter if they pass the competitive entry examinations. In the 1930s, higher academic courses were added to the Frunze curriculum as an advanced training program for previous graduates. On, this program became the basis for the "Voroshilov General Staff Academy" and the Frunze Academy refocused upon combined arms ground warfare training at the tactical level; as of 1979, "..within the Academy are'chairs of operational-tactical disciplines, Marxism-Leninism, history of the CPSU and Party-political work, history of war and military art, foreign languages, other subjects and scientific research sections' the Frunze library had about two million volumes of books. In September 1998 the Frunze Academy and the "Malinovsky Academy" were amalgamated into the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, on the site of the former Frunze Academy, which since 2010 is known as Military Educational and Scientific Center.
The Military Educational and Scientific Center has been the site of a number of Russian-Western joint military activities, including an IISS conference in February 2001, U. S.-Russian exercises. After graduation from Military Educational and Scientific Center, every graduate officer receives a diploma and a silver diamond-shaped badge which has to be worn on the right side of his uniform or civilian clothes above all other military or civilian decorations or ribbon bars; as of 2004, the commander was Colonel General Vladimir I. Popov; the Lenin Military-Political Academy specialized in training political officers for the Soviet Armed Forces, until 1942, political commissars for the Armed Forces. After a number of reorganizations, it was in 1994 merged with the "Military Institute of Foreign Languages" and the "Armed Forces Humanities Academy" into the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation which offers cadets various courses and postgraduate studies. Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy was established in 1932 in Moscow as the "J.
V. Stalin Academy of the WPRA Mechanization and Motorization Program", it was named after Marshal Rodion Malinovsky in 1967. Its mission was to train Soviet and Warsaw Pact commanders, staff officers, engineers for armored and mechanized units; the best-qualified graduates were selected for the" centralized operations division" of the General Staff. Students entered as captains and majors, some as lieutenant colonels, about on an intermediate level with the Army's Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth and the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Commanding and staff officers underwent a three-year program while engineers were taught for 4 years. In 1998 the Academy merged with the Frunze Academy to become the "Combined Arms Academy". Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy in Saint Petersburg dates back to 1698. In 1849 it was named Mikhailovskaya after Grand Duke
Marshal of the Soviet Union
Marshal of the Soviet Union was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was created in 1935 and abolished in 1991, forty-one people held this rank; the equivalent naval rank was until 1955 Admiral of the fleet and from 1955 Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union. Both ranks were comparable to NATO rank codes OF-10, to the five-star rank in anglophone armed forces. While the supreme rank of Generalissimus of the Soviet Union, which would have been senior to Marshal of the Soviet Union, was proposed for Joseph Stalin after the Second World War, it was never approved; the military rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was established by a decree of the Soviet Cabinet, the Council of People's Commissars, on 22 September 1935. On 20 November, the rank was conferred on five people: People's Commissar of Defence and veteran Bolshevik Kliment Voroshilov, Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army Alexander Ilyich Yegorov, three senior commanders, Vasily Blyukher, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Tukhachevsky.
Of these, Blyukher and Yegorov were executed during Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–38. On 7 May 1940, three new Marshals were appointed: the new People's Commissar of Defence, Semyon Timoshenko, Boris Shaposhnikov, Grigory Kulik. During World War II, Kulik was demoted for incompetence, the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was given to a number of military commanders who earned it on merit; these included Ivan Konev and Konstantin Rokossovsky to name a few. In 1943, Stalin himself was made a Marshal of the Soviet Union, in 1945, he was joined by his intelligence and police chief Lavrenti Beria; these non-military Marshals were joined in 1947 by politician Nikolai Bulganin. Two Marshals were executed in postwar purges: Kulik in 1950 and Beria in 1953, following Stalin's death. Thereafter the rank was awarded only to professional soldiers, with the exception of Leonid Brezhnev, who made himself a Marshal in 1976, Ustinov, prominent in the arms industry and was appointed Defence Minister in July 1976.
The last Marshal of the Soviet Union was Dmitry Yazov, appointed in 1990, imprisoned after the failed coup against Mikhail Gorbachev in 1991. Marshal Sergei Akhromeev committed suicide in 1991 during the fall of the Soviet Union; the Marshals fell into three generational groups. Those who had gained their reputations during the Russian Civil War; these included both those who were purged in 1937–38, those who held high commands in the early years of World War II. All of the latter except Shaposhnikov and Timoshenko proved out-of-step with modern warfare and were removed from commanding positions; those who made their reputations in World War II and assumed high commands in the latter part of the war. These included Zhukov, Konev, Malinovsky and Govorov; those who assumed high command in the Cold War era. All of these were officers in World War II, but their higher commands were held in the Warsaw Pact or as Soviet Defence Ministers; these included Grechko, Kulikov, Ogarkov and Yazov. All Marshals in the third category had been officers in World War II, except Brezhnev, a commissar and Ustinov, People's Commissar for Armaments.
Yazov, 20 when the war ended, had been a platoon commander. The rank was abolished with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, it was succeeded in the new Russia by the rank of Marshal of the Russian Federation, held by only one person, Marshal Igor Sergeyev, Russian Defence Minister from 1997 to 2001. Note: All Marshals of the Soviet Union, with the exception of Non-Military Marshals, had at least started their military careers in the Army; the Service Arms listed are the services they served in during their respective tenures as Marshals of the Soviet Union. Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Russian Federation History of Russian military ranks Military ranks of the Soviet Union Marshal of the branch Chief marshal of the branch Field Marshal of Imperial Russia Ranks and insignia of the Red Army and Navy 1935–1940, 1940–1943 Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955, 1955–1991 Biographies of all the Marshals of the USSR
Army General (Soviet rank)
Army general was a rank of the Soviet Union, first established in June 1940 as a high rank for Red Army generals, inferior only to the marshal of the Soviet Union. In the following 51 years the Soviet Union created 133 generals of the army, 32 of whom were promoted to the rank of marshal of the Soviet Union, it is a direct counterpart of the Russian Federation's "Army general" rank. The rank was given to senior officers of the Ministry of Defence and General Staff, to meritorious military district commanders. From the 1970s, it was frequently given to the heads of the KGB and the Ministry of the Interior. Soviet army generals include Aleksei Antonov, Issa Pliyev and Yuri Andropov; the Soviet rank of army general is comparable to NATO OF-9 level and equivalent to the UK and US ranks of general. The corresponding naval rank is admiral of the fleet, used in both the Soviet and Russian navies, although conferred much more rarely. Army general was used for the infantry and marines, but in the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops and signal troops the ranks of marshal of the branch and chief marshal of the branch were used.
Versions of rank insignia Army general in the USSR The contemporary Russian Army retains the rank of army general and it is still used. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the ranks of marshal of the branch and chief marshal of the branch were abolished, the most senior officers of these branches now hold the rank of army general. Although chief marshals and marshals and admirals of the fleet were in service equivalent to the army general, in rank they superseded them until 1974 when the rank army general was formally equated with the chief marshals of a troop arm and marshals of a troop arm, it was at this time that their shoulder straps were changed from a four star to a single, larger star and the army logo. After 1974 they were permitted to wear the marshal's star necklace. Before 1943, army generals wore five stars on their collar patches. Since 1943, they have worn four stars on their shoulder straps. From 1974 they wore a single large star with a ground forces emblem. In 1997 their Russian successors returned to the four-star insignia.
In 2013 the single large star returned as the insignia for the rank of army general in the Russian Federation. Russian military ranks Army general Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955, 1955–1991 Ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation's armed forces 1994–2010
Taalaibek Omuraliev is a Kyrgyzstani General and the Former Minister of Defense of Kyrgyzstan. Between September 1986 and October 2005, he commanded various units of the Soviet Union and Kyrgyzstan. From October 2, 2005 to March 2006 - Bishkek Higher Military School of the Armed Forces of the Kyrgyz Republic, Deputy Head of the School. In November 2009, he was appointed the commander of the Southern grouping of troops. From July 2010 to December 2011, he was the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Kyrgyz Republic. On December 26, 2011, Omuraliev was appointed Minister of Defense by president Almazbek Atambayev, he would keep that job until April 2014 being succeeded by Abibilla Kudayberdiev. 1986 - Alma-Ata Higher All-Arms Command School 2000 - Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation 2009 - Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia
A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned. Three types of academy exist: pre-school-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's degree level qualification, those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state. A naval academy is distinguished from one. In U. S. usage, the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy are both service academies. The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as engineers and artillery, with scientific training; the Royal Danish Naval Academy was set up in 1701, making it the oldest military academy in existence. The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1720 as the earliest military academy in Britain.
Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Royal Engineers. In France, the École Royale du Génie at Mézières was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the École Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the nobility. French military academies were copied in Prussia, Austria and minor powers, including Turin and the Kingdom of Savoy, in the late 18th century. By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations; these military schools had two functions: to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission. The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Régime.
The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England was the brainchild of John Le Marchant in 1801, who established schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow, with a grant of £30,000 from Parliament. The two original departments were combined and moved to Sandhurst. In the United States, the military academy at West Point was founded in 1802 and became popular in the 1860s. A military school teaches children of various ages in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. Many military schools are boarding schools, others are magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are run institutions, though some are public and are run either by a public school system or by a state. A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their juvenile criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools; these are called reform schools, are functionally a combination of school and prison.
They attempt to emulate the environment of military boarding schools in the belief that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may not be true. However, their environment and target population are different from those of military schools. Popular culture sometimes shows parents sending or threatening to send unruly children off to military school to teach them good behavior. A similar situation appears in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, while other fictional depictions don't show military academies as punishment (ex. Damien: Omen II and The Presidio. A college-level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military, it is part of a larger system of military training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy; the amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.
Military academies may not grant university degrees. In the U. S. graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course is dedicated to military training. There are two types of military academies: state/private-run. Graduates from national academies are commissioned as officers in the country's military; the new officers have an obligation to serve for a certain number of years. In some countries all military officers train at the appropriate academy, whereas in others only a percentage do and the service academies are seen as institutions which supply service-specific officers within the forces. State or private-run academy graduates have no requirement to join the military after graduation, although some schools have a high rate of graduate military
Rostec the State Corporation for Assistance to Development and Export of Advanced Technology Industrial Product Rostec and Rostekhnologii, is a Russian state-owned holding conglomerate headquartered in Moscow that specializes in consolidating in strategically important companies in the defense and high-tech industries, by assisting in the development and export with the ultimate goal of capitalizing them and bringing them to an initial public offering. Established in 2007, the organization comprises about 700 enterprises, which together form 14 holding companies: eleven in the defense-industry complex and three in civil sectors. Rostec's organizations are located in 60 constituents of the Russian Federation and supply goods to over 70 countries worldwide; the organization is headed by Sergey Chemezov. On 23 November 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed federal law No. 270 to establish a state corporation named Rostekhnologii, passed by the State Duma on 9 November and passed by the Federation Council on 16 November.
In 10 July 2008, newly-elected Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree that transfers 443 struggling enterprises to the ownership under Rostekhnologii. Out of these acquired assets, 30% of such enterprises were in pre-crisis and crisis condition, 28 entities in bankruptcy proceedings, 17 had no business operations, 27 had lost part of their assets or faced a material risk of such loss, with all facing a total debt of RUB630 billion. In addition, these enterprises had worn out fixed assets, dilapidated production chains, poor management. After the acquisition, structural reforms were made, helping the enterprises emerge from their financial struggles with a 20%–30% increase in production growth, five times the national average. Most of the profits were acquired by Rostekhnologii, which 80% of it was from 20% of Rostekhnologii's assets; the 20% included the titanium monopoly VSMPO-AVISMA, helicopter manufacturers Mil and Kamov, AvtoVAZ, KamAZ. This in turn brought executives of some companies in conflict with each other, such as the case with Mil and Kamov in which they refuse to communicate with each other.
As a result, Rostekhnologii had to work with the two companies so they can cooperate with each other. On 21 December 2012, Rostekhnologii rebranded itself as Rostec to make the corporation more open to the world. Rostec featured a new logo, an open square symbolizing a window to the world and a focus frame, as well a new slogan "Partner in development" and implemented changes in its corporate governance structure; the corporation spent $1.5 million for rebranding. The corporate brand, launched in late 2012, is one of Russia's 15 most valuable brands and has a value similar to that of major companies such as Rosneft and Rostelecom. On 16 July 2014, as a result of Russian intervention in Ukraine and Russian annexation of Crimea, Rostec was one of the companies, sanctioned by the Obama administration. Sergey Chemezov, current CEO of Rostec, was one of the individuals targeted by the United States and the European Union, whose visa was banned and assets froze by the E. U.. Rostec's access to U. S. debt markets was limited.
Rostec was forced to rethink its strategy for its holding companies. In December 2015, Rostec's supervisory board approved its development strategy through 2025. According to the strategy, Rostec intends to change the Russian economic model by putting less emphasis on weaponry, aviation components, software and more emphasis on electronics, telecommunications and other high-tech industries; this in turn would diversify the Russian economy, increasing the share of high-tech civilian products and non-primary exports. The Supervisory Board, the Management Board, the General Director are all appointed by the President of Russia. Sergey Chemezov – General Director of Rostec Sergey Ivanov – Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation on the Issues of Environmental Activities and Transport Denis Manturov – Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Yury Borisov – Deputy Prime Minister of Russia for Defence and Space Industry, Russian Deputy Minister of Defence Larisa Brychyova – Aide to the President of Russia and Head of the Presidential State-Legal Directorate Igor Levitin – Aide to the President of Russia Anton Siluanov – Russian Minister of Finance Vladimir Ostrovenko – Deputy Chief of the Presidential administration Dmitry Shugaev – Director of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation Sergey Chemezov – General Director Vladimir Artyakov – First Deputy General Director Nikolay Volobuev – Deputy CEO Igor Zavyalov – Deputy CEO of Finance Aleksandr Nazarov – Deputy General Director Dmitry Lelikov – Deputy General Director for Investment Activity Oleg Yevtushenko – Executive Director Sergey Kulikov – Industrial Director of Electronics Anatoly Serdyukov – Industrial Director of Aviation Sergey Abramov – Industrial Director of Conventional Armament and Special Chemistry Viktor Kiryanov – Managing Director of Infrastructure Projects Vladimir Litvin – Managing Director of Direct Administration Maksim Vybornykh – State Secretary Alla Laletina – Head of Legal Department Yury Koptev – Chairman of the Scientific and Technical Council Natalya Borisova – Head of Bookkeeping and Fiscal Accounting Yury Koptev – Chairman of the Science and Engineering Board, Doctor of Technical Sciences Vladimir Verba – General Director, General Director of JSC Concern Vega, Doctor of Technical Sciences Valery Gheykin –