Jarosław Aleksander Kaczyński is a Polish politician and lawyer, the current leader of the Law and Justice party, which he co-founded in 2001 with his identical twin brother, the late Polish President Lech Kaczyński. Running for PiS, he served as Prime Minister of Poland from July 2006 to November 2007, while his brother was President of Poland. After PiS's electoral defeat in 2007, Kaczyński was the main leader of the opposition to Civic Platform's governments. Following the death of his brother in a plane crash, Jarosław Kaczyński ran against acting President Bronisław Komorowski in the Polish presidential election on 20 June 2010, but lost. Despite not being the PiS candidate for either President or Prime Minister, Kaczyński is considered a large influence behind the PiS victories in both the 2015 presidential and 2015 parliamentary elections. Though he does not serve as either prime minister or president, is formally just a member of the Sejm, he is considered one of the most influential men in Poland, as well as an influential leader in the European Union.
Kaczyński is the identical twin brother of the late Polish President Lech Kaczyński. Jarosław and Lech were born in Warsaw; the Kaczyński brothers are sons of Jadwiga. As children, Jarosław and Lech Kaczyński starred in the 1962 Polish film The Two Who Stole the Moon, based on a popular children's story by Kornel Makuszyński. Kaczyński resides in Warsaw, he is not married, but there were rumours about a close love relationship with one of his unmarried employees, MP Jolanta Szczypińska. He lived with his ailing mother until her hospitalization. Kaczyński owns no computer and is said to have opened his first bank account only in 2009. In 2006, the Polish newspaper Rzeczpospolita reported on communist-era secret service files which documented a discussion on his sexuality. In the files, a former SB officer speculated on Kaczyński's sexual orientation. Relations between Lech Wałęsa and Kaczyński have for many years been strained drawing from their opposite stances regarding Poland's communist past: Wałęsa preferred to focus on the future and "allow the past to remain the past", while the Kaczyński brothers strived to destroy any remnant of the country's former communist networks.
Kaczyński was a graduate of law and administration of Warsaw University, which in 1976 awarded him a PhD in Law. He was the executive editor of the Tygodnik Solidarność weekly in 1989–91. In 1991, he created the centrist, Christian democratic Centre Agreement party and became its chairman, remaining in the role until 1998. In the years 1991–93 and 1997–2005, Kaczyński was a member of the Polish Parliament. In 1991, he worked under direction of President Lech Wałęsa as the head of his presidential chancellery. President Wałęsa fired Kaczyński, who became the leader of movement against Wałęsa. One of the main means of attack was describing Wałęsa as communist agent. During this time took place the event of setting fire under Walesa's effigy during protest organized by Kaczyński. Kaczyński was the Law and Justice prime ministerial candidate in the September 2005 Polish parliamentary election. However, when the party emerged as winner of the election, he pledged that he would not take the position, expecting that his nomination would reduce the chances of his brother Lech Kaczyński, a candidate for the October presidential election.
Party-member Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz was appointed Prime Minister. In the succeeding months, he was the leader of his party. Many described Kaczyński as Poland's most influential politician, he was said to have enormous influence on the Prime Minister's decision-making process. Kaczyński was the architect of the coalition with the populist Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland and the far-right League of Polish Families party. Critics accuse the first PiS government of splitting the country over religious and cultural issues and picking "needless fights with Germany and the European Union". Following reports of a rift between Kaczyński and Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz, the latter tendered his resignation on 7 July 2006. Kaczyński was appointed prime minister by his brother, Lech Kaczyński, on 10 July, sworn in on 14 July, following the formation of a cabinet and a confidence vote in the Sejm. At the request of his government, Parliament lowered rent tax. Kaczyński controversially initiated a nationwide program which required thousands of public employees and journalists to formally declare whether or not they had collaborated with the security services of the former communist regime.
Kaczyński's government was criticized both at home and abroad for poor foreign relationships with Germany and Russia. Despite gaining votes and Justice lost the parliamentary election on 21 October 2007, finishing a distant second behind pro-European Christian-democratic and conservative liberal Civic Platform. Kaczyński was succeeded as prime minister by Donald Tusk. Following the death of his brother, Lech Kaczyński, Jarosław announced that he would run for president against Bronisław Komorowski in the presidential elections held on 20 June 2010; the head of his electoral staff from Joanna Kluzik-Rostkowska, the spokesperson of the staff Paweł Poncyljusz. Kaczyński was seen to have softened his image during the campaign; the campaign's motto was Pola
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland is the larger, more powerful lower house of the Polish parliament. It consists of 460 deputies elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the "Marshal of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland". In the Kingdom of Poland, "Sejm" referred to the entire three-chamber parliament of Poland, comprising the Chamber of Envoys, the Senate and the King, it was thus a three-estate parliament. Since the Second Polish Republic, "Sejm" has referred only to the larger house of the parliament. "Sejm" stems from an Old Slavic word meaning "gathering". Its origin was the King's Councils; the 1180 Sejm in Łęczyca was the most notable of these councils, in that for the first time in Poland's history it established laws constraining the power of the ruler. It forbade arbitrary sequestration of supplies in the countryside and takeover of bishopric lands after the death of a bishop; these early Sejms were not a regular event, they convened at the King's behest.
After the 1493 Sejm in Piotrków, it became a convening body, to which indirect elections were held every two years. The bicameral system was established there; the Sejm now comprised two chambers: the Senat of 81 bishops and other dignitaries. At the time, Poland's nobility, which accounted for around 10% of the state's population, was becoming influential, with the eventual development of the Golden Liberty, the Sejm's powers increased dramatically. Over time, the envoys in the lower chamber grew in number and power as they pressed the king for more privileges; the Sejm became more active in supporting the goals of the privileged classes when the King ordered that the landed nobility and their estates be drafted into military service. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Kingdom of Poland became, through personal union with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, thus the Sejm was supplemented with new envoys from among the Lithuanian nobility; this "Commonwealth of Both Nations" ensured that the state of affairs surrounding the three-estates system continued, with the Sejm and King forming the estates and supreme deliberating body of the state.
In the first few decades of the 16th century, the Senate had established its precedence over the Sejm. Its chambers reserved the final decisions in legislation, taxation and treasury matters, foreign policy, the confirment of nobility; the 1573 Warsaw Confederation saw the nobles of the Sejm sanction and guarantee religious tolerance in Commonwealth territory, ensuring a refuge for those fleeing the ongoing Reformation and Counter-Reformation wars in Europe. Until the end of the 16th century, unanimity was not required, the majority-voting process was the most used system for voting. With the rise of the Polish magnates and their increasing power, the unanimity principle was re-introduced with the institution of the nobility's right of liberum veto. Additionally, if the envoys were unable to reach a unanimous decision within six weeks, deliberations were declared void and all previous acts passed by that Sejm were annulled. From the mid-17th century onward, any objection to a Sejm resolution, by either an envoy or a senator, automatically caused the rejection of other approved resolutions.
This was because all resolutions passed by a given session of the Sejm formed a whole resolution, and, as such, was published as the annual "constituent act" of the Sejm, e.g. the "Anno Domini 1667" act. In the 16th century, no single person or small group dared to hold up proceedings, from the second half of the 17th century, the liberum veto was used to paralyze the Sejm, brought the Commonwealth to the brink of collapse; the liberum veto was abolished with the adoption of Poland's 3rd May Constitution in 1791, a piece of legislation, passed as the "Government Act", for which the Sejm required four years to propagate and adopt. The constitution's acceptance, the possible long-term consequences it may have had, is arguably the reason for which the powers of Austria-Hungary and Prussia decided to partition the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, thus putting an end to over 300 years of Polish parliamentary continuity, it is estimated that between 1493 and 1793, a Sejm was held 240 times, the total debate-time sum of, 44 years.
After the fall of the Duchy of Warsaw, which existed as a Napoleonic client state between 1807 and 1815, its short-lived Sejm of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Sejm of Congress Poland was established in the Kongresówka of Russia. Overall, during the period from 1795 until the re-establishment of Poland's sovereignty in 1918, little power was held by any Polish legislative body and the occupying powers of Russia and Austria-Hungary propagated legis
The KGB, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD and MGB, the committee was attached to the Council of Ministers, it was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security and secret police. Similar agencies were constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russia, consisted of many ministries, state committees and state commissions; the agency was a military service governed by army laws and regulations, in the same fashion as the Soviet Army or MVD Internal Troops. While most of the KGB archives remain classified, two online documentary sources are available, its main functions were foreign intelligence, counter-intelligence, operative-investigatory activities, guarding the State Border of the USSR, guarding the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government and ensuring of government communications as well as combating nationalism and anti-Soviet activities.
In 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the KGB was split into the Federal Security Service and the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation. After breaking away from Georgia in the early 1990s with Russian help, the self-proclaimed Republic of South Ossetia established its own KGB. A Time magazine article in 1983 reported that the KGB was the world's most effective information-gathering organization, it operated legal and illegal espionage residencies in target countries where a legal resident gathered intelligence while based at the Soviet embassy or consulate, and, if caught, was protected from prosecution by diplomatic immunity. At best, the compromised spy was either returned to the Soviet Union or was declared persona non grata and expelled by the government of the target country; the illegal resident spied, unprotected by diplomatic immunity, worked independently of Soviet diplomatic and trade missions. In its early history, the KGB valued illegal spies more than legal spies, because illegal spies infiltrated their targets with greater ease.
The KGB residency executed four types of espionage: political, military-strategic, disinformation, effected with "active measures", counter-intelligence and security, scientific–technological intelligence. The KGB classified its spies as controllers; the false-identity or legend assumed by a USSR-born illegal spy was elaborate, using the life of either a "live double" or a "dead double". The agent substantiated his or her legend by living it in a foreign country, before emigrating to the target country, thus the sending of US-bound illegal residents via the Soviet embassy in Ottawa, Canada. Tradecraft included stealing and photographing documents, code-names, contacts and dead letter boxes, working as a "friend of the cause" or as agents provocateurs, who would infiltrate the target group to sow dissension, influence policy, arrange kidnappings and assassinations. Mindful of ambitious spy chiefs—and after deposing Premier Nikita Khrushchev—Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and the CPSU knew to manage the next over-ambitious KGB Chairman, Aleksandr Shelepin, who facilitated Brezhnev's palace coup d'état against Khrushchev in 1964.
With political reassignments, Shelepin protégé Vladimir Semichastny was sacked as KGB Chairman, Shelepin himself was demoted from chairman of the Committee of Party and State Control to Trade Union Council chairman. In the 1980s, the glasnost liberalisation of Soviet society provoked KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov to lead the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt to depose President Mikhail Gorbachev; the thwarted coup d'état ended the KGB on 6 November 1991. The KGB's main successors are the FSB and the SVR; the GRU recruited the ideological agent Julian Wadleigh, who became a State Department diplomat in 1936. The NKVD's first US operation was establishing the legal residency of Boris Bazarov and the illegal residency of Iskhak Akhmerov in 1934. Throughout, the Communist Party USA and its General Secretary Earl Browder, helped NKVD recruit Americans, working in government and industry. Other important, low-level and high-level ideological agents were the diplomats Laurence Duggan and Michael Whitney Straight in the State Department, the statistician Harry Dexter White in the Treasury Department, the economist Lauchlin Currie, the "Silvermaster Group", headed by statistician Greg Silvermaster, in the Farm Security Administration and the Board of Economic Warfare.
Moreover, when Whittaker Chambers Alger Hiss's courier, approached the Roosevelt Government—to identify the Soviet spies Duggan and others—he was ignored. Hence, during the Second World War —at the Tehran and Potsdam conferences—Big Three Ally Joseph Stalin of the USSR, was better informed about the war affairs of his US and UK allies than they were about his. Soviet espionage was at its most successful in collecting scientific and technological intelligence about advan
Polish Armed Forces
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland are the national armed forces of the Republic of Poland. The name has been used since the early 19th century, but can be applied to earlier periods; the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland are the Wojska Lądowe, Marynarka Wojenna, Siły Powietrzne, Wojska Specjalne and Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej which are under the command of the Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. From 2002 until 2014, Polish military forces were part of the Coalition Forces that participated in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan led by NATO. Poland's contribution to ISAF was the country's largest, since its entrance into NATO. Polish forces took part in the Iraq War. From 2003 to 2008, Polish military forces commanded the Multinational Division located in the South-Central Occupation Zone of Iraq; the division totaled as many as 8,500 soldiers. Pursuant to the national security strategy of Poland, the supreme strategic goal of Poland's military forces is to ensure favourable and secure conditions for the realization of national interests by eliminating external and internal threats, reducing risks, rightly assessing undertaken challenges, ably using existing opportunities.
The Republic of Poland's main strategic goals in the area of defence include: ensuring the independence and sovereignty of the Republic of Poland, as well as its integrality and the inviolability of its borders. The List of Polish wars chronicles Polish military involvements since the year 972; the present armed forces trace their roots to the early 20th century, yet the history of Polish armed forces in their broadest sense stretches back much further. After the partitions of Poland, during the period from 1795 until 1918, Polish military was recreated several times during national insurrections that included the November Uprising of 1830, the January Uprising in 1863, the Napoleonic Wars that saw the formation of the Polish Legions in Italy; the Kingdom of Poland, being part of the Russian Empire with a certain degree of autonomy, had a separate Polish army in the years 1815–1830, disbanded after the unsuccessful November Uprising. Large numbers of Poles served in the armies of the partitioning powers, Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary and Germany.
However, these powers took care to spread Polish soldiers all over their armies and as a rule did not form predominantly Polish units. During World War I, the Polish Legions were set up in Galicia, the southern part of Poland under Austrian occupation, they were both disbanded after the Central Powers failed to provide guarantees of Polish independence after the war. General Józef Haller, the commander of the Second Brigade of the Polish Legion, switched sides in late 1917, via Murmansk took part of his troops to France, where he created the Blue Army, it was joined by several thousand Polish volunteers from the United States. It fought on the French front in 1917 and 1918; the Polish Army was recreated in 1918 from elements of the three separate Russian, Austro-Hungarian, Prussian armies, armed with equipment left following World War I. The force expanded during the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1922 to nearly 800,000 men, but was reduced when peace was reestablished. At the onset of World War II, on 1 September 1939 Nazi Germany invaded Poland.
Polish forces were overwhelmed by the German attack in September 1939, followed on 17 September 1939 by an invasion by the Soviet Union. Some Polish forces escaped from their occupied, divided country, joined Allied forces fighting in other theatres while those that remained in Poland splintered into guerilla units of the Armia Krajowa and other partisan groups which fought in clandestine ways against the foreign occupiers of Poland, thus there were three threads to Polish armed forces from 1939. The Polish Armed Forces in the West comprised army and air force units, were loyal to the Polish government-in-exile. Army formations and units included the Polish Army in France, the Polish I Corps in the West, the Polish II Corps, the rump Command in the Middle East, designated the III Corps. Amongst their most notable operations were the actions of the 1st Armoured Division at Mont Ormel, during the Normandy campaign, the Battle of Monte Cassino scaling of the mountain by elements of II Polish Corps, actions during the Battle of Arnhem by
Counterintelligence is an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service. It refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, document, or communications security programs. Modern tactics of espionage and dedicated government intelligence agencies were developed over the course of the late 19th century. A key background to this development was The Great Game, a period denoting the strategic rivalry and conflict that existed between the British Empire and the Russian Empire throughout Central Asia. To counter Russian ambitions in the region and the potential threat it posed to the British position in India, a system of surveillance and counterintelligence was built up in the Indian Civil Service; the existence of this shadowy conflict was popularised in Rudyard Kipling's famous spy book, where he portrayed the Great Game as an espionage and intelligence conflict that "never ceases, day or night".
The establishment of dedicated intelligence and counterintelligence organizations was directly linked to the colonial rivalries between the major European powers and the accelerating development of military technology. As espionage became more used, it became imperative to expand the role of existing police and internal security forces into a role of detecting and countering foreign spies; the Austro-Hungarian Evidenzbureau was entrusted with the role from the late 19th century to counter the actions of the Pan-Slavist movement operating out of Serbia. As mentioned above, after the fallout from the Dreyfus Affair in France, responsibility for military counter-espionage was passed in 1899 to the Sûreté générale—an agency responsible for order enforcement and public safety—and overseen by the Ministry of the Interior; the Okhrana was formed in 1880 to combat political terrorism and left-wing revolutionary activity throughout the Russian Empire, but was tasked with countering enemy espionage.
Its main concern was the activities of revolutionaries, who worked and plotted subversive actions from abroad. It created an antenna in Paris run by Pyotr Rachkovsky to monitor their activities; the agency used many methods to achieve its goals, including covert operations, undercover agents, "perlustration"—the interception and reading of private correspondence. The Okhrana became notorious for its use of agents provocateurs who succeeded in penetrating the activities of revolutionary groups including the Bolsheviks. Integrated counterintelligence agencies run directly by governments were established; the British Secret Service Bureau was founded in 1909 as the first independent and interdepartmental agency in control over all government counterintelligence activities. Due to intense lobbying from William Melville and after he obtained German mobilization plans and proof of their financial support to the Boers, the government authorized the creation of a new intelligence section in the War Office, MO3 headed by Melville, in 1903.
Working under cover from a flat in London, Melville ran both counterintelligence and foreign intelligence operations, capitalizing on the knowledge and foreign contacts he had accumulated during his years running Special Branch. Due to its success, the Government Committee on Intelligence, with support from Richard Haldane and Winston Churchill, established the Secret Service Bureau in 1909 as a joint initiative of the Admiralty, the War Office and the Foreign Office to control secret intelligence operations in the UK and overseas concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German Government, its first director was Captain Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming alias "C". The Secret Service Bureau was split into a foreign and counter intelligence domestic service in 1910; the latter was headed by Sir Vernon Kell and was aimed at calming public fears of large scale German espionage. As the Service was not authorized with police powers, Kell liaised extensively with the Special Branch of Scotland Yard, succeeded in disrupting the work of Indian revolutionaries collaborating with the Germans during the war.
Instead of a system whereby rival departments and military services would work on their own priorities with little to no consultation or cooperation with each other, the newly established Secret Intelligence Service was interdepartmental, submitted its intelligence reports to all relevant government departments. For the first time, governments had access to peacetime, centralized independent intelligence and counterintelligence bureaucracy with indexed registries and defined procedures, as opposed to the more ad hoc methods used previously. Collective counterintelligence is gaining information about an opponent's intelligence collection capabilities whose aim is at an entity. Defensive counterintelligence is thwarting efforts by hostile intelligence services to penetrate the service. Offensive counterintelligence is having identified an opponent's efforts against the system, trying to manipulate these attacks by either "turning" the opponent's agents into double agents or feeding them false information to report.
Many governments organize counterintelligence agencies separate and distinct from their intelligence collection services for specialized purposes. In most countries the counterintelligence mission is spread over multiple organizations, though one predominates. There is a domestic counterintelligence service part of a larger law enforcement organization such as the
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven Eastern Bloc satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe; the Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954, but it is considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power or counterweight to NATO. Instead, the conflict was fought in proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs, its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968, which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later.
The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland and its electoral success in June 1989. East Germany withdrew from the Pact following the reunification of Germany in 1990. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in the Hungarian People's Republic, the Pact was declared at an end by the defence and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states; the USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO, as did the three Baltic states, part of the Soviet Union. In the Western Bloc, the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship and Mutual Assistance is called the Warsaw Pact military alliance—abbreviated WAPA, Warpac and WP. Elsewhere, in the former member states, the Warsaw Treaty is known as: Albanian: Pakti i miqësisë, bashkëpunimit dhe i ndihmës së përbashkët Armenian: Բարեկամության, համագործակցության եւ փոխադարձ օգնության պայմանագիր Romanized Armenian: Barekamut’yan, hamagortsakts’ut’yan yev p’vokhadardz ognut’yan paymanagir Azerbaijani: Dostluq, Əməkdaşlıq və qarşılıqlı yardım müqaviləsi Belarusian: Дагавор аб дружбе, супрацоўніцтве і ўзаемнай дапамозе Romanized Belarusian: Dagavor ab druzhe, supratsoŭnitstve i ŭzaemnaŭ dapamoze Bulgarian: Договор за дружба, сътрудничество и взаимопомощ Romanized Bulgarian: Dogovor za druzhba, satrudnichestvo i vzaimopomosht Czech: Smlouva o přátelství, spolupráci a vzájemné pomoci Slovak: Zmluva o priateľstve, spolupráci a vzájomnej pomoci Estonian: Sõprus, koostöö ja vastastikune abi Georgian: მეგობრობის, თანამშრომლობისა და ურთიერთდახმარების ხელშეკრულება Romanized Georgian: megobrobis, tanamshromlobisa da urtiertdakhmarebis khelshek’ruleba German: Vertrag über Freundschaft, Zusammenarbeit und gegenseitigen Beistand Hungarian: Barátsági, együttműködési és kölcsönös segítségnyújtási szerződés Kazakh: Достық, ынтымақтастық және өзара көмек туралы келісім Romanized Kazakh: Dostıq, ıntımaqtastıq jäne özara kömek twralı kelisim Kyrgyz: Достук, кызматташтык жана өз ара жардам көрсөтүү жөнүндө келишим Romanized Kyrgyz: Dostuk, kızmattaştık jana öz ara jardam körsötüü jönündö kelişim Latvian: Līgums par draudzību, sadarbību un savstarpēju palīdzību Lithuanian: Draugystės, bendradarbiavimo ir savitarpio pagalbos sutartis Polish: Układ o przyjaźni, współpracy i pomocy wzajemnej Romanian: Tratatul de prietenie, cooperare și asistență mutuală Russian: Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи Romanized Russian: Dogovor o druzhbe, sotrudnichestve i vzaimnoy pomoshchi Tajik: Шартномаи дӯстӣ, ҳамкорӣ ва кӯмаки мутахассис Romanized Tajik: Şartnomai dūstī, hamkorī va kūmaki mutaxassis Turkish: Dostluk Antlaşması, İşbirliği ve Karşılıklı Yardımlaşma Ukrainian: Договір про дружбу, співробітництво і взаємну допомогу Romanized Ukrainian: Dogovir pro druzhbu, spivrobitnitstvo i vzaêmnu dopomogu Uzbek: Do'stlik, hamkorlik va o'zaro yordam shartnomasi The Warsaw Treaty's organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the assigned multi-national forces, with headquarters in Warsaw, Poland.
Furthermore, the Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization which commanded and controlled all the military forces of the member countries was a First Deputy Minister of Defence of the USSR, the Chief of Combined Staff of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization was a First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw Treaty armed forces; the strategy behind the formation of the Warsaw Pact was driven by the desire of the Soviet Union to dominate Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviets wanted to keep their part of Europe and not let the Americans take it from them; this policy was driven by geostrategic reasons. Ideologically, the Soviet Union arrogated the right to define socialism and communism and act as the leader of the global socialist movement. A corollary to this idea was the necessity of intervention if a country appeared to be violating core s