Kalemegdan Park is the largest park and the most important historical monument in Belgrade. It is located on a 125-metre-high cliff, at the junction of the River Sava and its name is formed from the two Turkish words and archaic word of Turkish origin megdan. Kalemegdan Park, split in two as the Large and Little Parks, was developed in the area once was the town field. It provides places of rest and entertainment, the first works on arranging the town field Kalemegdan started in 1869. The Little and Large Kalemegdan Park are as follows, Mali Kalemegdanski park occupies the area in the eastern section, northern section of Little Kalemegdan Park is occupied by the Belgrade Zoo, opened in 1936. The art pavilion Cvijeta Zuzorić is located here, veliki Kalemegdanski Park occupies the southern corner of the fortress, with geometrical promenades, a military museum, a museum of forestry and hunting, and the Monument of Gratitude to France
A crossbow, known as horizontal bow, is a type of weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a stock. It shoots projectiles called bolts or quarrels, the medieval crossbow was called by many names, most of which were derived from the word ballista, a torsion siege engine resembling a crossbow. Historically, crossbows played a significant role in the warfare of East Asia, the introduction of the crossbow in ancient China caused a major shift in the role of projectile weaponry. The traditional bow and arrow had long been a weapon that required a considerable training, physical strength. A crossbow is a bow mounted on a stick with a mechanism in it that holds the bow string. The earliest designs featured a slot in the stock, down into which the string was placed, to shoot this design, a vertical rod is thrust up through a hole in the bottom of the notch, forcing the string out. This rod is attached perpendicular to a rear-facing lever called a trigger or tickler. A design implemented a rolling cylindrical pawl called a nut to retain the string and this nut has a perpendicular center slot for the bolt, and an intersecting axial slot for the string, along with a lower face or slot against which the internal trigger sits.
They often have some form of strengthening internal sear or trigger face and these roller nuts were either free-floating in their close-fitting hole across the stock, tied in with a binding of sinew or other strong cording, or mounted on a metal axle or pins. Removable or integral plates of wood, ivory, or metal on the sides of the stock kept the nut in place laterally, nuts were made of antler, bone, or metal. Bows could be kept taut and ready to shoot for some time with little effort, the bow of early crossbows was made of a single piece of wood, usually ash or yew. Composite bows are made from layers of different material, often wood and these composite bows made of several layers are much stronger and more efficient in releasing energy than simple wooden bows. As steel became more available in Europe around the 14th century. The crossbow prod is very short compared to ordinary bows, resulting in a draw length. This leads to a draw weight in order to store the same amount of energy. Furthermore, the thick prods are a bit less efficient at releasing energy, the prod was often lashed to the stock with rope, whipcord, or other strong cording.
This cording is called the bridle, the strings for a crossbow are typically made of strong fibers that would not tend to fray. Whipcord was very common, however linen and sinew were used as well, in wet conditions, twisted mulberry root was occasionally used
The Yugoslav Resistance was led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II. Its commander was Marshal Josip Broz Tito, until British supplies began to arrive in appreciable quantities in 1944, the occupiers were the only source of arms. The other objective was to create a federal multi-ethnic communist state in Yugoslavia, to this end, the KPJ attempted to appeal to all the various ethnic groups within Yugoslavia, by preserving the rights of each group. Relations between the two movements were uneasy from the start, but from October 1941 they degenerated into full-scale conflict, to the Chetniks, Titos pan-ethnic policies seemed anti-Serbian, whereas the Chetniks royalism was anathema to the communists. In the early part of the war Partisan forces were composed of Serbs. In that period names of Muslim and Croat commanders of Partisan forces had to be changed to them from their predominantly Serb colleagues. By late 1944, the forces of the Partisans numbered 650,000 men and women organized in four field armies and 52 divisions.
By April 1945, the Partisans numbered over 800,000, the movement was consistently referred to as the Partisans throughout the war. Yugoslav Army – on 1 March 1945, the National Liberation Army was transformed into the armed forces of Yugoslavia. The movement was originally named National Liberation Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia, because of this, their short name became simply the Partisans, and stuck henceforward. Between January 1942 and November 1942, the full official name was briefly National Liberation Partisan. The changes were meant to reflect the character as a volunteer army. In November 1942 the movement was renamed into the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia, the name change reflects the fact that the latter superseded in importance the partisan detachments themselves. Shortly before the end of the war, in March 1945, all forces were reorganized into the regular armed force of Yugoslavia. It would keep this name until 1951, when it was renamed the Yugoslav Peoples Army, on 6 April 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded from all sides by the Axis powers, primarily by German forces, but including Italian and Bulgarian formations.
During the invasion, Belgrade was bombed by the Luftwaffe, the invasion lasted little more than ten days, ending with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on 17 April. Besides being hopelessly ill-equipped when compared to the Wehrmacht, the Army attempted to defend all borders, the terms of the capitulation were extremely severe, as the Axis proceeded to dismember Yugoslavia. Mussolinis Italy occupied the remainder of Slovenia and large chunks of the coastal Dalmatia region and it gained control over the newly created Montenegrin puppet state, and was granted the kingship in the Independent State of Croatia, though wielding little real power within it
A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions. Commonly, this is a bomb that ejects explosive bomblets that are designed to kill personnel. Other cluster munitions are designed to destroy runways or electric transmission lines, disperse chemical or biological weapons. Some submunition-based weapons can disperse non-munitions, such as leaflets, because cluster bombs release many small bomblets over a wide area, they pose risks to civilians both during attacks and afterwards. Unexploded bomblets can kill or maim civilians and/or unintended targets long after a conflict has ended, Cluster munitions are prohibited for those nations that ratify the Convention on Cluster Munitions, adopted in Dublin, Ireland in May 2008. The Convention entered into force and became binding international law upon ratifying states on 1 August 2010, as of 1 October 2015, a total of 118 states have joined the Convention, as 98 States parties and 20 Signatories.
The first cluster bomb used operationally was the German SD-2 or Sprengbombe Dickwandig 2 kg and it was used in World War II to attack both civilian and military targets. The technology was developed independently by the United States, the US used the 20-lb M41 fragmentation bomb wired together in clusters of 6 or 25 with highly sensitive or proximity fuzes. From the 1970s to the 1990s cluster bombs became standard air-dropped munitions for many nations and they have been produced by 34 countries and used in at least 23. Artillery shells that employ similar principles have existed for decades and they are typically referred to as ICM shells. The US military slang terms for them are firecracker or popcorn shells, a basic cluster bomb consists of a hollow shell and two to more than 2,000 submunitions or bomblets contained within it. Some types are dispensers that are designed to be retained by the aircraft after releasing their munitions, the submunitions themselves may be fitted with small parachute retarders or streamers to slow their descent.
Modern cluster bombs and submunition dispensers are often multiple-purpose weapons, containing mixtures of anti-armor, anti-personnel, the submunitions themselves may be multi-purpose, such as combining a shaped charge, to attack armour, with a fragmenting case, to attack infantry and light vehicles. Modern multipurpose munitions may have an incendiary effect, recently submunition-based weapons have been designed that deploy smart submunitions, using thermal and visual sensors to locate and attack particular targets, usually armored vehicles. Weapons of this include the US CBU-97 sensor-fuzed weapon, first used in combat during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Incendiary cluster bombs are intended to start fires, just as conventional incendiary bombs and they are specifically designed for this purpose, with submunitions of white phosphorus or napalm, and they often include anti-personnel and anti-tank submunitions to hamper firefighting efforts. When used in cities they have often preceded by the use of conventional explosive bombs to break open the roofs.
One of the earliest examples is the so-called Molotov bread basket first used by the Soviet Union in the Winter War of 1939-40 and this type of munition was extensively used by both sides in the strategic bombings of World War II
The S-125 Neva/Pechora Soviet surface-to-air missile system was designed by Aleksei Mihailovich Isaev to complement the S-25 and S-75. It is able to engage lower flying targets than the previous systems, the 5V24 missiles reach around Mach 3 to 3.5 in flight, both stages powered by solid fuel rocket motors. The S-125, like the S-75, uses radio command guidance, the naval version of this system has the NATO reporting name SA-N-1 Goa and original designation M-1 Volna. The S-125 was first deployed between 1961 and 1964 around Moscow, augmenting the S-25 and S-75 sites already ringing the city, in 1964, an upgraded version of the system, the S-125M Neva-M and S-125M1 Neva-M1 was developed. The original version was designated SA-3A by the US DoD and the new Neva-M named SA-3B, the Neva-M introduced a redesigned booster and an improved guidance system. The FAPA-DAA acquired a significant number of SA-3s, and these were encountered during the first strike flown by SAAF Mirage F. 1s against targets in Angola ever - in June 1980.
While the SAAF reported two aircraft were damaged by SAMs during this action, Angola claimed to have shot down four. On 7 June 1980, while attacking SWAPOs Tobias Haneko Training Camp during Operation Sceptic, SAAF Major Frans Pretorius and Captain IC du Plessis, pretoriuss aircraft was hit in a fuel line and he had to perform a deadstick landing at AFB Ondangwa. Du Plessiss aircraft sustained damage and had to divert to Ruacana forward airstrip. Both aircraft were repaired and returned to service, the Soviets supplied several SA-3s to the Arab states in the late 1960s and 1970s, most notably Egypt and Syria. The SA-3 saw extensive action during the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War, during the latter, the SA-3, along with the SA-2 and SA-6, formed the backbone of the Egyptian air defence network. In Egypt, March–July 1970 Soviet battalions of S-12517 Shooting shot down 9 Israeli, israel recognized the 5 in 1970 and in 1973 another 6 Syria deployed it for the first time during the 1973 Yom Kippur War and during the 1982 Lebanon war.
A USAF F-16 was shot down on January 19,1991, the aircraft was struck by an SA-3 just south of Baghdad. The pilot, Major Jeffrey Scott Tice, ejected safely but became a POW as the took place over Iraq. It was the 8th combat loss and the first daylight raid over Baghdad, on the opening night of Desert Storm, on 17 January 1991, a B-52G was damaged by a missile. Different versions of this engagement are told and it could have been a S-125 or a 2K12 Kub while other versions report a MiG-29 allegedly fired a Vympel R-27R missile and damaged the B-52G. It was used to shoot down a NATO F-16 fighter on May 2, during the war, different Yugoslav SAM sites and possibly the SA-3 shot down some NATO UAVs. On 17 March 2015, a US MQ-1 Predator drone was shot down by a Syrian Air Defense Force S-125 missile while on intelligence flight near the town of Latakia
The first part of the period, from 1804 to 1815, was marked by a violent struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire with two armed uprisings taking place, ending with a ceasefire. The adoption of the first written Constitution in 1835 abolished feudalism and serfdom, the term Serbian Revolution was coined by a German academic historiographer, Leopold von Ranke, in his book Die Serbische Revolution, published in 1829. These events marked the foundation of modern Serbia and it called for national unity, drawing on Serbian history to demand the freedom of religion and formal, written rule of law, both of which the Ottoman Empire had failed to provide. It called on Serbs to stop paying taxes to the Porte, in 1830 and again in 1833, Serbia was recognized as an autonomous principality, with hereditary princes paying annual tribute to the Porte. Finally, de facto independence came in 1868, with the withdrawal of Ottoman garrisons from the principality, during the Austrian occupation of Serbia, many Serbs served as soldiers and officers in Habsburg armies, where they acquired knowledge about military tactics and weapons.
Others were employed in administrative offices in Hungary or in the occupied zone and they began to travel in search of trade and education, and were exposed to European ideas about secular society, politics and philosophy, including both rationalism and Romanticism. There they met with the values of the French Revolution, which affect a lot of Serbian merchants. There was an active Serbian community in southern Habsburg Empire, from where ideas made their way southwards, another role model was the Russian Empire, the only independent Slavic and Orthodox country, which had recently reformed itself and was now a serious menace to the Turks. The Russian experience implied hope for Serbia, other Serbian thinkers found strengths in the Serbian nation itself. Two top Serbian scholars were influenced by Western learning to turn their attention to Serbias own language, one was Dositej Obradović, a former priest who left for Western Europe. Shocked that his people had no modern secular literature, he assembled grammars and dictionaries to create a modern Serbian language, wrote some books himself, others followed his lead and revived tales of Serbias medieval glory.
He became the first Minister of Education of modern Serbia, the second figure was Vuk Karadžić. Vuk was less influenced by Enlightenment rationalism like Dositej Obradović and more by Romanticism which romanticized rural, Vuk collected and published Serbian epic poetry, work that helped to build Serbian awareness of a common identity based in shared customs and shared history. This kind of linguistic and cultural self-awareness was a feature of German nationalism in this period. During almost 5-10 years of the First Serbian Uprising, Serbia perceived itself as an independent state for the first time after 300 years of Ottoman, encouraged by the Russian Empire, the demands for self-government within Ottoman Empire in 1804 evolved into a war for independence by 1807. Combining patriarchal peasant democracy with modern national goals the Serbian revolution was attracting thousands of volunteers among the Serbs from across the Balkans, the Serbian Revolution ultimately became a symbol of the nation-building process in the Balkans, provoking peasant unrests among the Christians in both Greece and Bulgaria.
Following the successful siege with 25,000 men, on 8 January 1807 the charismatic leader of the revolt Karađorđe Petrović proclaimed Belgrade the capital of Serbia. Serbs responded to the Ottoman brutalities by establishing its separate institutions, Governing Council, the Great Academy, Karađorđe and other revolutionary leaders sent their children to the Great Academy, which had among its students Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, the famous reformer of the Serbian alphabet
Soviet forces and local militias launched separate but loosely cooperative operations that undermined German control of Belgrade and ultimately forced a retreat. Martial planning was coordinated evenly among command leaders, and the operation was largely enabled through tactical cooperation between Josip Tito and Joseph Stalin that began in September 1944. These martial provisions allowed Bulgarian forces to engage in operations throughout Yugoslav territory, the spearhead of the offensive was executed by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front in coordination with the Yugoslav 1st Army Group and XIV Army Corps. There were additional skirmishes between Bulgarian forces and German anti-partisan regiments in Macedonia that represented the campaigns southernmost combat operations. By the summer of 1944, the Germans had not only lost control of all the mountainous area of Yugoslavia but were no longer able to protect their own essential lines of communication. Another general offensive on their front was unthinkable, and by September it was clear that Belgrade, in August 1943, the German Wehrmacht had two army formations deployed in the Balkans, Army Group E in Greece and the 2nd Panzer Army in Yugoslavia and Albania.
Army Group F headquarters in Belgrade acted as a joint high command for these formations, as well as for Bulgarian, after the collapse of the uprising in December 1941, anti-Axis activity in Serbia decreased significantly, and the focus of resistance moved to other, less populated areas. Consequently, although Serbia had great significance to the Germans, very few troops remained there. In the following years, Tito repeatedly tried to reinforce the forces in Serbia with experienced units from Bosnia. From the spring of 1944, the Allied command had assisted in these efforts, in July 1944, German defenses began to fail. After the failure of Operation Rübezahl in Montenegro in August 1944, Army Group F command responded by deploying additional forces, the 1st Mountain Division arrived in Serbia in early August, followed by the 4th SS Panzergrenadier Division from the Thessaloniki area. The Allied command, and the NOVJ supreme command, predicted this scenario, on 1 September 1944, a general attack from the ground and from the air on the German transport lines and installations began.
These attacks largely hindered German troop movements, with units disassembled and tied to the ground, in the meantime, the 1st Proletarian Corps, the main partisan formation in Serbia, continued with reinforcing and developing its forces and with seizing positions for the assault on Belgrade. On 18 September Valjevo was taken, and on 20 September Aranđelovac, Partisans achieved control of a large area south and southwest of Belgrade, thus forming the basis for the future advance towards Belgrade. But the combined actions of Yugoslav partisans and Allied air forces impeded German movements with Ratweek, as a result of the Bulgarian coup détat of 1944, the monarchist-fascist regime in Bulgaria was overthrown and replaced with a government of the Fatherland Front led by Kimon Georgiev. Once the new government came to power, Bulgaria declared war on Germany, under the new pro-Soviet government, four Bulgarian armies,455,000 strong were mobilized and reorganized. In early October 1944, three Bulgarian armies, consisting of around 340,000 men, were located on the Yugoslav – Bulgarian border.
By the end of September, the Red Army 3rd Ukrainian Front troops under the command of Marshal Fyodor Tolbukhin were concentrated at the Bulgarian-Yugoslav border
In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the gun and the mortar. Howitzers, like other artillery equipment, are organized in groups called batteries. The English word howitzer comes from the Czech word houfnice, from houf, haufen, sometimes in the compound Gewalthaufen, designated a pike square formation in German. This is particularly true in the forces of the United States. Because of this practice, the howitzer is used in some armies as a generic term for any kind of artillery piece that is designed to attack targets using indirect fire. Thus, artillery pieces that bear resemblance to howitzers of earlier eras are now described as howitzers. Most other armies in the reserve the word howitzer for guns with barrel lengths 15 to 25 times their caliber. The British had a method of nomenclature. In the 18th century, they adopted projectile weight for guns replacing the old naming system of culverin, mortars had been categorized by calibre in inches in the 17th century and this was inherited by howitzers.
The modern howitzers were invented in Sweden towards the end of the 17th century, originally intended for use in siege warfare, they were particularly useful for delivering cast-iron shells filled with gunpowder or incendiary materials into the interior of fortifications. In the middle of the 18th century, a number of European armies began to introduce howitzers that were enough to accompany armies in the field. Though usually fired at the high angles of fire used by contemporary siege howitzers. Rather, as the guns of the day were usually restricted to inert projectiles. Many, for the sake of simplicity and rapidity of fire, the Abus gun was an early form of howitzer in the Ottoman Empire. In 1758 the Russian Empire introduced a type of howitzer, with a conical chamber, called a licorne. The most famous of these gun-howitzers was the Napoleon 12-pounder, a weapon of French design that saw service in the American Civil War. The longest-serving artillery piece of the 19th century was the mountain howitzer, in 1859, the armies of Europe began to rearm field batteries with rifled field guns.
These new field pieces used cylindrical projectiles that, while smaller in caliber than the spherical shells of smoothbore field howitzers, their greater range let them create many of the same effects that previously required the sharply curved trajectories of smoothbore field howitzers
Operation Retribution (1941)
Operation Retribution known as Operation Punishment, was the April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade, the capital of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It occurred in the first days of the World War II German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, the British Royal Air Force carried out two bombing raids on Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, in retaliation for the attacks on Yugoslavia. The invasion resulted in the surrender of Yugoslav forces on 17 April, in April 1939, Yugoslavia gained a second frontier with the Kingdom of Italy when that country invaded Albania. Between September and November 1940, Hungary joined the Tripartite Pact, Italy invaded Greece, from that time, Yugoslavia was almost surrounded by Axis powers or their client states, and her neutral stance toward the war was under tremendous pressure. Two weeks later, Bulgaria joined the Pact, the next day, German troops entered Bulgaria from Romania, closing the ring around Yugoslavia. Further pressure was applied by Hitler on 4 March 1941, when the Yugoslav Regent, Prince Paul, visited Berchtesgaden, but Prince Paul delayed a decision.
On 6 March, the Royal Yugoslav Air Force was secretly mobilised, the VVKJ began dispersing to auxiliary airfields on 12 March, and this dispersal was completed by 20 March. Hitler, wanting to secure the flank of his impending invasion of the Soviet Union, demanded that Yugoslavia sign the Pact. Two days a military coup détat was carried out by a group of VVKJ and Yugoslav Royal Guard officers, Prince Paul was deposed and replaced by the 17-year-old King Peter II who was declared to be of age. On the same day as the Yugoslav coup détat, Hitler issued Directive 25 and he ordered that even if Yugoslavia at first should give declarations of loyalty, she must be considered as a foe and therefore must be destroyed as quickly as possible. After the coup, German reconnaissance aircraft frequently violated Yugoslav airspace, the German incursions showed that the Yugoslav ground observation post network and supporting radio communications were inadequate. Hitler decided that Belgrade would be bombed as punishment for the coup against the government that had signed the Pact, on 27 and 28 March 1941 Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring transferred about 500 fighter and bomber aircraft from France and northern Germany to airfields near the Yugoslavian border.
The commander of Luftflotte IV, Generaloberst Alexander Löhr, allocated these aircraft to attack the Yugoslav capital in waves by day, Löhr issued his orders for the bombing on 31 March, but the decision to bomb Belgrade was not confirmed by Hitler until 5 April. Although Hitler ordered the destruction of Belgrade, Löhr replaced these general directions with specific military objectives within the city at the last minute. On the afternoon of 5 April, a British colonel visited Mirković at the VVKJ base in Zemun and confirmed that the attack on Belgrade would commence at 06,30 the following morning. German ground forces crossed the border at 05,15 on 6 April, the VVKJs 51st Fighter Group at Zemun had been alerted before dawn, and when reports began to be received about Luftwaffe attacks on VVKJ airfields, the first patrol was sent into the air. At first, no aircraft could be seen approaching Belgrade. The first wave closed on Belgrade at 06,45, and consisted of 74 Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers,160 Heinkel He 111 medium bombers and Dornier Do 17 light bombers between 8, 000–10,000 feet
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100.
The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived.
Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, and tracks providing good battlefield maneuverability. The first tanks were designed to overcome the deadlock of trench warfare, now they are a mainstay of ground forces. Modern tanks are versatile mobile land weapon platforms, mounting a large-calibre cannon in a rotating gun turret. In both offensive and defensive roles, they are units that are capable of performing tasks which are required of armoured units on the battlefield. As a result of advances, tanks underwent tremendous shifts in capability in the years since their first appearance. Tanks in World War I were developed separately and simultaneously by Great Britain and this was a prototype of a new design that would become the British Armys Mark I tank, the first tank used in combat in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. The name tank was adopted by the British during the stages of their development. While the British and French built thousands of tanks in World War I, Germany was unconvinced of the tanks potential, Tanks of the interwar period evolved into the much larger and more powerful designs of World War II.
Tanks in the Cold War were designed with these weapons in mind, improved engines and suspensions allowed tanks of this period to grow larger. Aspects of gun technology changed significantly as well, with advances in shell design, during the Cold War, the main battle tank concept arose and became a key component of modern armies. Modern tanks seldom operate alone, as they are organized into combined arms units which involve the support of infantry and they are usually supported by reconnaissance or ground-attack aircraft. The tank is the 20th century realization of an ancient concept, the internal combustion engine, armour plate, and continuous track were key innovations leading to the invention of the modern tank. Many sources imply that Leonardo da Vinci and H. G. Wells in some way foresaw or invented the tank, leonardos late 15th century drawings of what some describe as a tank show a man-powered, wheeled vehicle with cannons all around it. However the human crew would not have power to move it over larger distance.
In the 15th century, Jan Žižka built armoured wagons containing cannons, the caterpillar track arose from attempts to improve the mobility of wheeled vehicles by spreading their weight, reducing ground pressure, and increasing their traction. Experiments can be traced back as far as the 17th century and it is frequently claimed that Richard Lovell Edgeworth created a caterpillar track. It is true that in 1770 he patented a machine, that should carry and lay down its own road and his own account in his autobiography is of a horse-drawn wooden carriage on eight retractable legs, capable of lifting itself over high walls. The description bears no similarity to a caterpillar track, armoured trains appeared in the mid-19th century, and various armoured steam and petrol-engined vehicles were proposed
The M3 Stuart, formally Light Tank M3, is an American light tank of World War II. It was supplied to British and Commonwealth forces under lend-lease prior to the entry of the U. S. into the war, thereafter, it was used by U. S. and Allied forces until the end of the war. The name General Stuart or Stuart given by the British comes from the American Civil War Confederate General J. E. B, Stuart and was used for both the M3 and the derivative M5 Light Tank. In British service, it had the nickname of Honey after a tank driver remarked Shes a honey. To the United States Army, the tanks were known only as Light Tank M3. Stuarts were the first American-crewed tanks in World War II to engage the enemy in tank versus tank combat, observing events in Europe, American tank designers realized that the Light Tank M2 was becoming obsolete and set about improving it. The upgraded design, with armor, modified suspension and new gun recoil system was called Light Tank M3. Production of the started in March 1941 and continued until October 1943.
Later, the gun was replaced with the slightly longer M6, for a light tank, the Stuart was fairly heavily armored. Internally, the engine was at the rear and the transmission at the front. The prop shaft connecting the two ran through the middle of the fighting compartment, the radial engine, having its crankshaft high off the hull bottom, contributed to the tanks high silhouette. When a revolving turret floor was introduced in the M3 hybrid and M3A1, in contrast to the M2A4, all M3/M5 series tanks had a trailing rear idler wheel for increased ground contact). This variation was quieter and roomier, owing to its automatic transmission, it simplified crew training. The new model featured a redesigned hull with sloped glacis plate. Although the main criticism from the using it was that the Stuarts lacked firepower. The M5 gradually replaced the M3 in production from 1942 and, the British Army was the first to use the Light Tank M3 as the General Stuart in combat. From mid-November 1941 to the end of the year, about 170 Stuarts took part in Operation Crusader during the North Africa Campaign and this is despite the fact that the M3 was superior or comparable in most regards to most of the tanks used by the Axis forces.
The most numerous German tank, the Panzer III Ausf G, had nearly identical armor and speed to the M3, mentioned in the British complaints were the 37 mm M5 gun and poor internal layout