Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the design of products and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest, it is not changes or amendments to the work enviornment but encompases theory, methods and principles all applied in the field of ergonomics. The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, engineering, industrial design, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities; the two terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are synonymous. The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics or human factors as follows: Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, the profession that applies theory, principles and methods to design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
Human factors is employed to fulfill the goals of occupational safety and productivity. It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines and equipment. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Human factors and ergonomics is concerned with the "fit" between the user and environment or "fitting a person to a job", it accounts for the user's capabilities and limitations in seeking to ensure that tasks, functions and the environment suit that user. To assess the fit between a person and the used technology, human factors specialists or ergonomists consider the job being done and the demands on the user. Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans and their environments, including anthropometry, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, industrial design, information design, physiology, cognitive psychology and organizational psychology, space psychology.
The term ergonomics first entered the modern lexicon when Polish scientist Wojciech Jastrzębowski used the word in his 1857 article Rys ergonomji czyli nauki o pracy, opartej na prawdach poczerpniętych z Nauki Przyrody. The French scholar Jean-Gustave Courcelle-Seneuil without knowledge of Jastrzębowski's article, used the word with a different meaning in 1858; the introduction of the term to the English lexicon is attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrell, at the 1949 meeting at the UK's Admiralty, which led to the foundation of The Ergonomics Society. He used it to encompass the studies in which he had been engaged during and after World War II; the expression human factors is a predominantly North American term, adopted to emphasize the application of the same methods to non-work-related situations. A "human factor" is a physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior specific to humans that may influence the functioning of technological systems; the terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are synonymous.
Ergonomics comprise three main fields of research: physical and organizational ergonomics. There are many specializations within these broad categories. Specializations in the field of physical ergonomics may include visual ergonomics. Specializations within the field of cognitive ergonomics may include usability, human–computer interaction, user experience engineering; some specializations may cut across these domains: Environmental ergonomics is concerned with human interaction with the environment as characterized by climate, pressure, light. The emerging field of human factors in highway safety uses human factor principles to understand the actions and capabilities of road users – car and truck drivers, cyclists, etc. – and use this knowledge to design roads and streets to reduce traffic collisions. Driver error is listed as a contributing factor in 44% of fatal collisions in the United States, so a topic of particular interest is how road users gather and process information about the road and its environment, how to assist them to make the appropriate decision.
New terms are being generated all the time. For instance, "user trial engineer" may refer to a human factors professional who specializes in user trials. Although the names change, human factors professionals apply an understanding of human factors to the design of equipment and working methods to improve comfort, health and productivity. According to the International Ergonomics Association, within the discipline of ergonomics there exist domains of specialization. Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomy, some of the anthropometric and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. Physical ergonomic principles have been used in the design of both consumer and indu
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, or USD, is a senior civilian official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense. USD is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters concerning Departmental acquisition and sustainment; the Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. Ellen Lord became the first Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment on 1 February 2018, after serving as the final Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics; the Office is the principal staff element for the Department of Defense for acquisitions, advanced technology, logistics. As the Department's chief administrative officer, the Under Secretary oversees installation management, military construction, occupational health management and energy management; the Military Retirement Reform Act of 1986 created the position of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, implemented with the issuance of Department of Defense Directive 5134.1 in February 1987.
As part of this act, the position of Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering was redesignated as the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, a lower-ranking position which reported to the new USD. The title of USD was changed to Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, the position was redesignated as the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000; the USD served as the principal assistant to the Secretary of Defense for research and development, procurement and military construction. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 removed the position of USD, in its place it created the position of USD once again, as well as the new position of USD; these changes took effect on 1 February 2018. As part of the reorganization, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness and Assistant Secretary of Defense for Energy and Environment positions were combined into a new Assistant Secretary of Defense for Sustainment.
Officials reporting to the USD include: Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Industrial Base Policy Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy, Planning and Performance Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Warfare Systems Support Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Information and Integration Portfolio Management Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Defense Procurement Defense Acquisition University Assistant Secretary of Defense for Sustainment Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Material Readiness Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Support and Logistics Policy Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Transportation Policy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Matters Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Chemical and Biological Defense Policy Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Threat Reduction and Arms Control Defense Logistics Agency Defense Contract Management Agency Defense Threat Reduction Agency The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, a unit of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, supervises all Department of Defense acquisitions, including procurement of goods and services and development, developmental testing, contract administration, for all elements of the Department.
Led by the Under Secretary, OUSD oversees logistics and sustainment support for all elements of the Department and establishes policies for the maintenance of the defense industrial base of the United States. The work of OUSD is conducted through its several staff directorates, including: Human Capital Initiatives Directorate - responsible for executing all workforce responsibilities identified by the Secretary of Defense Acquisition Resources and Analyses Directorate - integrates the diverse aspects of Defense acquisition into a balanced and coherent program that supports the National Strategy and makes the most effective use of resources provided International Cooperation Directorate - supports the Under Secretary in all aspects of international cooperation, develops policy for international cooperative armaments programs, provides the Under Secretary a single, integrated picture of international cooperative activities Special Programs Directorate - manages the DoD Special Access Program management and control structures Small Business Programs Directorate - advises the Secretary of Defense on all matters related to small business and is committed to maximizing the contributions of small business in DoD acquisitions Administration Directorate - serves as the central focal point for all OUSD civilian and military personnel programs, organizational management, facilities, supply management, information management, travel and training Defense Procurement & Acquisition Policy Directorate - responsible for all acquisition and procurement policy matters in the Department, including serving as the principal advisor to the Under Secretary on acquisition/procurement strategies for all major weapon systems programs, major automated information syste
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
Risk management is the identification and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project failures, legal liabilities, credit risk, natural causes and disasters, deliberate attack from an adversary, or events of uncertain or unpredictable root-cause. There are two types of events i.e. negative events can be classified as risks while positive events are classified as opportunities. Several risk management standards have been developed including the Project Management Institute, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, actuarial societies, ISO standards. Methods and goals vary according to whether the risk management method is in the context of project management, engineering, industrial processes, financial portfolios, actuarial assessments, or public health and safety.
Strategies to manage threats include avoiding the threat, reducing the negative effect or probability of the threat, transferring all or part of the threat to another party, retaining some or all of the potential or actual consequences of a particular threat, the opposites for opportunities. Certain aspects of many of the risk management standards have come under criticism for having no measurable improvement on risk. For example, one study found. A used vocabulary for risk management is defined by ISO Guide 73:2009, "Risk management. Vocabulary."In ideal risk management, a prioritization process is followed whereby the risks with the greatest loss and the greatest probability of occurring are handled first, risks with lower probability of occurrence and lower loss are handled in descending order. In practice the process of assessing overall risk can be difficult, balancing resources used to mitigate between risks with a high probability of occurrence but lower loss versus a risk with high loss but lower probability of occurrence can be mishandled.
Intangible risk management identifies a new type of a risk that has a 100% probability of occurring but is ignored by the organization due to a lack of identification ability. For example, when deficient knowledge is applied to a situation, a knowledge risk materializes. Relationship risk appears. Process-engagement risk may be an issue; these risks directly reduce the productivity of knowledge workers, decrease cost-effectiveness, service, reputation, brand value, earnings quality. Intangible risk management allows risk management to create immediate value from the identification and reduction of risks that reduce productivity. Risk management faces difficulties in allocating resources; this is the idea of opportunity cost. Resources spent on risk management could have been spent on more profitable activities. Again, ideal risk management minimizes spending and minimizes the negative effects of risks. According to the definition to the risk, the risk is the possibility that an event will occur and adversely affect the achievement of an objective.
Therefore, risk itself has the uncertainty. Risk management such as COSO ERM, can help; each company may have different internal control components. For example, the framework for ERM components includes Internal Environment, Objective Setting, Event Identification, Risk Assessment, Risk Response, Control Activities and Communication, Monitoring. For the most part, these methods consist of the following elements, more or less, in the following order. Identify, characterize threats assess the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats determine the risk identify ways to reduce those risks prioritize risk reduction measures The International Organization for Standardization identifies the following principles of risk management:Risk management should: create value – resources expended to mitigate risk should be less than the consequence of inaction be an integral part of organizational processes be part of decision making process explicitly address uncertainty and assumptions be a systematic and structured process be based on the best available information be tailorable take human factors into account be transparent and inclusive be dynamic and responsive to change be capable of continual improvement and enhancement be continually or periodically re-assessed According to the standard ISO 31000 "Risk management – Principles and guidelines on implementation," the process of risk management consists of several steps as follows: This involves: the social scope of risk management the identity and objectives of stakeholders the basis upon which risks will be evaluated, constraints.
Defining a framework for the activity and an agenda for identification developing an analysis of risks involved in the process mitigation or solution of risks using available technological and organizational resources After establishing the context, the next step in the
Lancaster House Treaties
The Lancaster House Treaties of 2010 are two treaties between the United Kingdom and France for defence and security cooperation. They were signed at 10 Downing Street on 2 November 2010 by British prime minister David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy; the 2 November 2010 Downing Street declaration by Prime Minister Cameron. The elements of this declaration are as follows. Defence and Security Cooperation Treaty: The purpose of this is to develop co-operation between British and French Armed Forces, the sharing and pooling of materials and equipment including through mutual interdependence, the building of joint facilities, mutual access to each other's defence markets, industrial and technological co-operation. Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship: Collaboration on the technology associated with nuclear stockpile stewardship in support of both countries' independent nuclear deterrent capabilities, including a new joint facility at Valduc in France that will model performance of nuclear warheads and materials to ensure long-term viability and safety – this will be supported by a joint Technology Development Centre at Aldermaston in the UK.
Operational Matters: It was decided to sign a Letter of Intent, creating a new framework for exchanges between UK and French Armed Forces on operational matters. Industry and Armaments: It was decided to direct the UK-France High Level Working Group to strengthen its work on industrial and armament cooperation, it was decided to develop a Combined Joint Expeditionary Force suitable for a wide range of scenarios, up to and including high intensity operations. It will involve all three armed Services: there will be a land component composed of formations at national brigade level and air components with their associated Headquarters, logistics and support functions, it will not involve standing forces but will be available at notice for bilateral, NATO, European Union, United Nations or other operations. It will begin with combined air and land exercises during 2011 and will develop the concept before the next UK-France Summit and progress towards full capability in subsequent years; the Force is intended to stimulate greater interoperability and coherence in military doctrine and equipment requirements.
The UK had earlier announced its decision to install catapults and arresting gear on its new aircraft carriers which French aircraft would be capable of using, creating opportunities for UK and French aircraft to operate off carriers from both countries. Building on maritime task group co-operation around the French carrier Charles de Gaulle, the UK and France would have aimed to have, by the early 2020s, the ability to deploy a UK-French integrated carrier strike group incorporating assets owned by both countries; this was to ensure that the French Navy would work in the closest co-ordination. The decision to install the catapults and arresting gear was reversed, they agreed cooperation in the following areas. A400M support and training. Submarine technologies and systems Maritime mine countermeasures Satellite communications Air to air refuelling and passenger air transport Unmanned air systems A 10-year strategic plan for the British and French Complex Weapons sector. Research and technology To continue with their significant R&T co-operation, devoting an annual budget of €50m each to shared research and development, with the aim of increasing this where possible.
To focus on a set of 10 priority areas that will include time critical research support to satellite communications, unmanned systems, naval systems and complex weapons. Including new areas of critical industrial importance such as sensors, electronic warfare technologies, materials, as well as novel areas such as simulation and a jointly funded PhD programme. Cyber security. France and the UK agreed a framework which will govern their enhanced co-operation in this area, leading to strengthened individual and common resilience. To develop co-operation in the following areas: The early detection of terrorist activities and terrorist recruitment; the sharing of information on changes in the national threat level. The prevention of terrorism through nuclear, biological and explosive devices, including through the Cyclamen programme for screening traffic passing through the Channel Tunnel; the security of commercial aviation. Support in building the capacity of countries outside Europe for the fight against terrorism.
France and UK agreed that they would pursue closer co-operation across the board between NATO and the EU, a lasting partnership between NATO and Russia based on practical co-operation and reciprocity. A follow up meeting occurred on 3 March 2016, with further pledges on counter terrorism, military defence, civil nuclear work and migration. Several lines of the treaties allude to the European Union's Common Defence Policy. Through the treaties, the parties agree that they are "reaffirming their commitment to supporting the role of the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy"; the parties agree to deploy together in theatres agreed under the auspices of EU Common Defence and Security Policy. The parties agree that the treaties "ensure their support for action in the European Union under the Common Security and Defence Policy"; however the treaties are bilateral between the UK and France and do not have a formal link with the European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy. Although the treaties mention close defence industrial cooperation, they do not directly mention the European Defence Agency or EU defence industrial programmes and directives which are included under the auspices of the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy beca
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters. The fifth-generation combat aircraft is designed to perform ground-attack and air-superiority missions, it has three main models: the F-35A conventional takeoff and landing variant, the F-35B short take-off and vertical-landing variant, the F-35C carrier-based catapult-assisted take-off but arrested recovery variant. The F-35 descends from the Lockheed Martin X-35, the winning design of the Joint Strike Fighter program, it is built by Lockheed Martin and many subcontractors, including Northrop Grumman, Pratt & Whitney, BAE Systems. The United States principally funds F-35 development, with additional funding from other NATO members and close U. S. allies, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Norway, the Netherlands, Turkey. These funders receive subcontracts to manufacture components for the aircraft. Several other countries are considering ordering, the aircraft; as the largest and most expensive military program, the F-35 is the subject of much scrutiny and criticism in the U.
S. and in other countries. In 2013 and 2014, critics argued that the plane was "plagued with design flaws", with many blaming the procurement process in which Lockheed was allowed "to design and produce the F-35 all at the same time," instead of identifying and fixing "defects before firing up its production line". By 2014, the program was "$163 billion over budget seven years behind schedule". Critics contend that the program's high sunk costs and political momentum make it "too big to kill"; the F-35 first flew on 15 December 2006. In July 2015, the United States Marines declared its first squadron of F-35B fighters ready for deployment. However, the DOD-based durability testing indicated the service life of early-production F-35B aircraft is well under the expected 8,000 flight hours, may be as low as 2,100 flight hours. Lot 9 and aircraft include design changes but service life testing has yet to occur; the U. S. Air Force declared its first squadron of F-35As ready for deployment in August 2016.
The U. S. Navy declared its first F-35Cs ready in February 2019. In 2018, the F-35 made its combat debut with the Israeli Air Force; the U. S. plans to buy 2,663 F-35s, which will provide the bulk of the crewed tactical airpower of the U. S. Air Force and Marine Corps in coming decades. Deliveries of the F-35 for the U. S. military are scheduled until 2037 with a projected service life up to 2070. F-35 development started in 1992 with the origins of the Joint Strike Fighter program and is to culminate in full production in 2018; the X-35 first flew on 24 October 2000 and the F-35A on 15 December 2006. The F-35 was developed to replace most US fighter jets with variants of one design common to all branches of the military, it was developed in co-operation with a number of foreign partners, unlike the F-22 Raptor, intended to be available for export. Three variants were designed: the F-35A, the F-35B, the F-35C. Despite being intended to share most of their parts to reduce costs and improve maintenance logistics, by 2017, the design commonality was only 20%.
The program received considerable criticism for cost overruns during development and for the total projected cost of the program over the lifetime of the jets. By 2017, the program was expected over its lifetime to cost $406.5 billion for acquisition of the jets and $1.1 trillion for operations and maintenance. A number of design deficiencies were alleged, such as carrying a small internal payload, inferior performance to the aircraft being replaced the F-16, the lack of safety in relying on a single engine, flaws were noted such as vulnerability of the fuel tank to fire and the propensity for transonic roll-off; the possible obsolescence of stealth technology was criticized. The single-engined F-35 resembles the larger twin-engined Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, drawing design elements from its sibling; the exhaust duct design was inspired by the General Dynamics Model 200, proposed for a 1972 supersonic VTOL fighter requirement for the Sea Control Ship. Although several experimental designs have been developed since the 1960s, such as the unsuccessful Rockwell XFV-12, the F-35B is to be the first operational supersonic STOVL stealth fighter.
Acquisition deputy to the assistant secretary of the Air Force, Lt. Gen. Mark D. "Shack" Shackelford, has said that the F-35 is designed to be America's "premier surface-to-air missile killer and is uniquely equipped for this mission with cutting-edge processing power, synthetic aperture radar integration techniques, advanced target recognition". Lockheed Martin states the F-35 is intended to have close- and long-range air-to-air capability second only to that of the F-22 Raptor. Lockheed Martin has said that the F-35 has the advantage over the F-22 in basing flexibility and "advanced sensors and information fusion". Lockheed Martin has suggested that the F-35 could replace the USAF's F-15C/D fighters in the air-superiority role and the F-15E Strike Eagle in the ground-attack role; some improvements over current-generation fighter aircraft include: Durable, low-maintenance stealth technology, using structural fiber mat instead of the high-maintenance coatings of legacy stealth platforms Integrated avionics and sensor fusion that combine information from off- and on-board sensors to increase the pilot's situational awareness and improve target identification and weapon delivery, to relay information to other command and control nodes High-speed data networking including IEEE 1394b and Fibre Channel (Fibre Ch