A navy or maritime force is a fleet of waterborne military vessels and its associated naval aviation, both sea-based and land-based. It is the branch of an armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare, lake-borne, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations. The strategic offensive role of a navy is projection of force into areas beyond a countrys shores, the strategic defensive purpose of a navy is to frustrate seaborne projection-of-force by enemies. The strategic task of the navy may incorporate nuclear deterrence by use of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. In most nations, the naval, as opposed to navy, is interpreted as encompassing all maritime military forces, e. g. navy, marine / marine corps. First attested in English in the early 14th century, the navy came via Old French navie, fleet of ships, from the Latin navigium, a vessel. The word naval came from Latin navalis, pertaining to ship, cf. Greek ναῦς, ship, ναύτης, the earliest attested form of the word is in the Mycenaean Greek compound word
Project management is the discipline of initiating, executing and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual, in practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to all of the project goals within the given constraints. This information is usually described in a user or project manual, the primary constraints are scope, time and budget. The secondary — and more ambitious — challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs, in the 1950s organizations started to systematically apply project-management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects. As a discipline, project management developed from fields of application including civil construction, engineering. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylors theories of scientific management and his work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure and resource allocation.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad-hoc basis, using mostly Gantt charts and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed, the Critical Path Method was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. PERT and CPM are very similar in their approach but still present some differences, CPM is used for projects that assume deterministic activity times, the times at which each activity will be carried out are known. PERT, on the hand, allows for stochastic activity times. Because of this difference, CPM and PERT are used in different contexts. These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises, AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio and project management.
The International Project Management Association was founded in Europe in 1967, IPMA maintains its federal structure today and now includes member associations on every continent except Antarctica. IPMA offers a Four Level Certification program based on the IPMA Competence Baseline, the ICB covers technical and behavioral competencies. In 1969, the Project Management Institute was formed in the USA, PMI publishes A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, which describes project management practices that are common to most projects, most of the time. There are a number of approaches for managing project activities including lean, incremental, a traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of steps to be completed
A military staff is a group of officers and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative and logistical needs of its unit. It provides bi-directional flow of information between an officer and subordinate military units. A staff provides a function where it filters information needed by the commander or shunts unnecessary information. One of the key purposes of a staff is to provide accurate. A goal is being able to suggest approaches or help produce well-informed decisions that effectively manage. In addition to generating information, the staff manages the flow of communication within the unit, while controlled information flow toward the commander is a priority, those useful or contingent in nature are communicated to lower-level units and/or through their respective staffs. If the information is not pertinent to the unit, it is redirected to the level which can best utilize the condition or information. Staffs are generally the first to know of issues that affect its group, issues that require major decisions affecting the units operational capability are communicated to the commanding officer.
However, not all issues will be handled by the commander, in addition, a staff aims to carefully craft any useful situations and utilize that information. In a generic command staff, more seasoned and senior officers oversee staff sections of groups organized by the needs of the unit, senior Enlisted Personnel task personnel in the maintenance of tactical equipment and vehicles. Senior Analysts are tasked with the finalizing of reports, and their enlisted personnel participate in the acquisition of information from subordinate staffs and this frees up the most senior members of the command at each level for decision making and issuing direction for further research or information gathering. Prior to the late 18th century, there was no organizational support for staff functions such as military intelligence, logistics. Unit commanders handled such functions for their units, with help from subordinates who were usually not trained for or assigned to a specific task. A great deal of mythology surrounds the origin of the modern staff system as a tool of army management.
It was perfected by the Prussians, but despite the claims of many American and British authors, it did not originate in France, especially not with Napoleon, the claims made about Pierre-Joseph Bourcet and his staff college at Grenoble are myths. Staff officers were drawn from units and would return to them. In a battle or when the army had detached corps, a number of staff would be allocated to the column commander as a smaller version of headquarters. The senior man, usually a Major, would be the chief of the column staff, the Archduke set out the position of a modern Chief of Staff, “The Chief of Staff stands at the side of the Commander-in-Chief and is completely at his disposal
Edward R. Dewey
Edward Russel Dewey was an economist who studied cycles in economics and other fields. Dewey first became interested in cycles while Chief Economic Analyst of the Department of Commerce in 1930 or 1931 because President Hoover wanted to know the cause of the Great Depression. Dewey reported that each economist he spoke to him a different answer. He received and took advice to study how business behaviour occurred rather than why, his views are generally regarded as inconsistent with mainstream economics. Dewey devoted his life to the study of cycles, claiming that everything that has been studied has been found to have cycles present and he carried out extensive studies of cyclicity in economic, biological, physical sciences and other disciplines. In 1940, Edward R. Dewey learned of a 1931 Canadian conference on biological cycles held at Matamek, the foundation was set up with a board that included distinguished scientists and industrialists to act as a central clearing house of cycles studies from diverse areas.
The Foundation made studies of natural and social sciences as well as business and economics, together with author Og Mandino, Dewey published a book entitled Cycles, The Mysterious Forces That Trigger Events. As a result of his research, Dewey asserted that seemingly unrelated time series often had similar cycles periods present and he said that there were many cycles with periods that were related by powers or products of 2 and 3. This is illustrated in the table below, in these reports there is a tendency for certain periods of cycles to be reported more commonly. Dewey further said that, More than 500 different phenomena in 36 different areas of knowledge have been found to fluctuate in rhythmic cycles. In 1947 Edward R. Dewey and Edwin F. Dakin published their book Cycles and its closest analogue is the modern high-power advertisement—here of book length and designed to sell an esoteric and supposedly scientific product. Joseph Schumpeter put forward the idea there were four economic cycles, Juglar, Kuznets.
Murray Rothbard critiques Schumpeter’s and Deweys approach in Man, there is no reality or meaning to the allegedly independent sets of “cycles. ”The market is one interdependent unit, and the more developed it is, the greater the interrelations among market elements. It is therefore impossible for several or numerous independent cycles to coexist as self-contained units and it is precisely the characteristic of a business cycle that it permeates all market activities. To the extent that such varying cycles may exist, what we are trying to explain are general booms and busts in business. The Foundation for the Study of Cycles is an international non-profit research organization for the study of cycles of events and it was incorporated in the state of Connecticut by Edward R Dewey in 1941. It has published Cycles magazine and recorded the work of Dewey, the FSC holds conferences and publishes its proceedings. It publishes two journals aimed at investors and Investment Cycles and Cycles Projections, david Perales is the current Chairman and CEO of the Foundation for the Study of Cycles
Strategic planning is an organizations process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. It may extend to control mechanisms for guiding the implementation of the strategy, Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the 1960s and remains an important aspect of strategic management. It is executed by strategic planners or strategists, who involve many parties and research sources in their analysis of the organization, Strategy has many definitions, but generally involves setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends will be achieved by the means, the senior leadership of an organization is generally tasked with determining strategy. Strategy can be planned or can be observed as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes, Strategy includes processes of formulation and implementation, strategic planning helps coordinate both.
However, strategic planning is analytical in nature, strategy formation itself involves synthesis via strategic thinking, as such, strategic planning occurs around the strategy formation activity. Strategic planning is a process and thus has inputs, activities and this process, like all processes, has constraints. It may be formal or informal and is typically iterative, with feedback loops throughout the process, some elements of the process may be continuous and others may be executed as discrete projects with a definitive start and end during a period. Strategic planning provides inputs for strategic thinking, which guides the actual strategy formation, the first two elements relate to factors internal to the company, while the latter two relate to factors external to the company. These elements are considered throughout the planning process. Data is gathered from a variety of sources, such as interviews with key executives, review of available documents on the competition or market, primary research, industry studies.
This may be part of an intelligence program. Inputs are gathered to support an understanding of the competitive environment and its opportunities. Other inputs include an understanding of the values of key stakeholders, such as the board and these values may be captured in an organizations vision and mission statements. A variety of strategic planning tools may be completed as part of planning activities. The organizations leaders may have a series of questions they want answered in formulating the strategy and gathering inputs, such as, what is considered value to the customer or constituency. Which products and services should be included or excluded from the portfolio of offerings, what is the geographic scope of the organization. What differentiates the organization from its competitors in the eyes of customers, which skills and resources should be developed within the organization
An air force, known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nations armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy, or a marine corps. Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions, Air forces typically consist of a combination of fighters, helicopters, transport planes and other aircraft. Many air forces are responsible for operations of the military space, intercontinental ballistic missiles. Some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as artillery, surface-to-air missiles, or anti-ballistic missile warning networks. In addition to pilots, air forces have ground support staff who support the aircrew, some supporting personnel such as airfield defence troops, weapons engineers and air intelligence staff do not have equivalent roles in civilian organizations.
Balloon or flying corps are not generally regarded as examples of an air force, with the invention of heavier-than-air craft in the early 20th century and navies began to take interest in this new form of aviation as a means to wage war. The first aviation force in the world was the Aviation Militaire of the French Army formed in 1910, in 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War, Italy employed aircraft for the first time ever in the world for reconnaissance and bombing missions against Turkish positions on Libyan Territory. The Italian–Turkish war of 1911–1912 was the first in history that featured air attacks by airplanes, during World War I France, Italy, the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire all possessed significant forces of bombers and fighters. World War I saw the appearance of senior commanders who directed aerial warfare, the British Royal Air Force was the first independent air force in the world. The RAF was founded on 1 April 1918 by amalgamation the British Armys Royal Flying Corps, on establishment the RAF comprised over 20,000 aircraft, was commanded by a Chief of the Air Staff who held the rank of major-general and was governed by its own government ministry.
Over the following decades most countries with any military capability established their own independent air forces. The Canadian Air Force was formed at the end of World War I and it became the permanent Royal Canadian Air Force when it received the Royal title by royal proclamation on 1 April 1924. It did not however become independent of the Canadian Army until 1938 when its head was designated as Chief of the Air Staff. Similarly, the Royal New Zealand Air Force was established in 1923 as the New Zealand Permanent Air Force, other British-influenced countries established their own independent air forces. For example, the Royal Egyptian Air Force was created in 1937 when Egyptian military aviation was separated from Army command, outside of the British Empire, the Finnish Air Force was established as a separate service on 4 May 1928 and the Brazilian Air Force was created in 1941. Both the United States Air Force and the Philippine Air Force were formed as a separate branches of their armed forces in 1947.
The Israeli Air Force came into being with the State of Israel on 18 May 1948, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force was not established until 1954, in World War II Japanese military aviation had been carried out by the Army and Navy
Military operations other than war
Military operations other than war focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crises. The phrase and acronym were coined by the United States military during the 1990s, the UK military has crafted an equivalent or alternate term, peace support operations. Both MOOTW and PSO encompass peacekeeping, peace enforcement, MOOTW not involving the use or threat of force include humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. Special agreements exist which facilitate fire support operations within NATO and the ABCA quadripartite working group, cooperation is organized in advance with NATO standardisation agreements and quadripartite standardisation agreements. Many countries which need disaster support relief have no bilateral agreements already in place, MOOTW involves arms control and peacekeeping. The United Nations recognises the vulnerability of civilians in armed conflict, security Council resolution 1674 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict enhances international focused attention on the protection of civilians in UN and other peace operations. MOOTW purposes may include deterring potential aggressors, protecting national interests and conflict represent two states of the range of military operations.
Peacetime is a state in which diplomatic, informational, planners are challenged to find ways to resolve or work around unique arrays of inter-related constraints, e. g. issues related to budgeting and force structure. The uncertainties which are inherent or implied include the political aspects which are likely to affect unanticipated MOOTW. The Australian Defence Forces has turned attention to the study and understanding of a changing geo-strategic environment, MOOTW becomes more important where the options for traditional application of military instruments are growing more limited. Australian participation in UN peacekeeping operations began in 1947,1947 UN Consular Commission to Indonesia 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, Emergency relief and medical assistance. The curriculum of Canadas military training programs includes MOOTW, Canadian peacekeeping is well publicised in Canada. Cyprus, 1960s Congo, 1960s The non-traditional missions of the Chinese armed forces have evolved as an increasingly used tool of statecraft, the Peoples Liberation Army established specialized forces for military operations other than war.
MOOTW have been a subject of study at the National Defence University, the characteristics, rules and methods of equipment utilisation and support in MOOTW were evaluated. Somali pirates,2009, Naval escort missions in waters off Somalia, the military in Japan is affected by Japans pacifist post-war constitution. This affects classification of the Hyūga class helicopter carriers, which are ships of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, the missions of these ships are limited to military operations other than war. The prescience of Sir Julian Corbett and his point of view are reflected in contemporary applications of MOOTW. The evolution of British tactics in the Malayan Emergency illustrates lessons learned the hard way, the British developed a strategy with elements similar to military operations other than warfare
Western Front (World War I)
The Western Front or Western Theater was the main theatre of war during World War I. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, the tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France. This line remained unchanged for most of the war. Between 1915 and 1917 there were several major offensives along this front, the attacks employed massive artillery bombardments and massed infantry advances. However, a combination of entrenchments, machine gun emplacements, barbed wire, as a result, no significant advances were made. In an effort to break the deadlock, this front saw the introduction of new technology, including poison gas, aircraft. But it was only after the adoption of improved tactics that some degree of mobility was restored, the German Armys Spring Offensive of 1918 was made possible by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that marked the end of the conflict on the Eastern Front.
In spite of the stagnant nature of this front, this theatre would prove decisive. The terms of peace were agreed upon with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, belgiums neutrality was guaranteed by Britain under the 1839 Treaty of London, this caused Britain to join the war at the expiration of its ultimatum at 11 pm GMT on 4 August. Armies under German generals Alexander von Kluck and Karl von Bülow attacked Belgium on 4 August 1914, Luxembourg had been occupied without opposition on 2 August. The first battle in Belgium was the Siege of Liège, which lasted from 5–16 August, Liège was well fortified and surprised the German Army under von Bülow with its level of resistance. German heavy artillery was able to demolish the main forts within a few days. Following the fall of Liège, most of the Belgian field army retreated to Antwerp, leaving the garrison of Namur isolated, with the Belgian capital, although the German army bypassed Antwerp, it remained a threat to their flank. Another siege followed at Namur, lasting from about 20–23 August, for their part, the French had five armies deployed on their borders.
The pre-war French offensive plan, Plan XVII, was intended to capture Alsace-Lorraine following the outbreak of hostilities, on 7 August the VII Corps attacked Alsace with its objectives being to capture Mulhouse and Colmar. The main offensive was launched on 14 August with 1st and 2nd Armies attacking toward Sarrebourg-Morhange in Lorraine, in keeping with the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans withdrew slowly while inflicting severe losses upon the French. The French advanced the 3rd and 4th Armies toward the Saar River and attempted to capture Saarburg, attacking Briey and Neufchateau, before being driven back
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals. Derived from the Greek word strategos, the strategy, when it appeared in use during the 18th century, was seen in its narrow sense as the art of the general. Military strategy deals with the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of forces, the father of Western modern strategic studies, Carl von Clausewitz, defined military strategy as the employment of battles to gain the end of war. B. H. Liddell Harts definition put less emphasis on battles, both gave the pre-eminence to political aims over military goals. Sun Tzu is often considered as the father of Eastern military strategy and greatly influenced Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese historical, the Art of War by Sun Tzu grew in popularity and saw practical use in Western society as well. It continues to influence many competitive endeavors in Asia and America including culture, the Eastern military strategy differs from the Western by focusing more on asymmetric warfare and deception.
Military strategy is the planning and execution of the contest between groups of armed adversaries, which is a subdiscipline of warfare and of foreign policy, is a principal tool to secure national interests. NATOs definition of strategy is presenting the manner in which military power should be developed and applied to achieve national objectives or those of a group of nations. Strategy may be divided into Grand Strategy, geopolitical in scope and military strategy that converts the geopolitical policy objectives into militarily achievable goals and campaigns. Field-Marshal Montgomery summed it up thus Strategy is the art of distributing and applying military means, such as armed forces and supplies, tactics means the dispositions for, and control of, military forces and techniques in actual fighting. Put more shortly, strategy is the art of the conduct of war, during the French Revolutionary Wars thought it simply involved concentration of troops. Strategy and tactics are closely related and exist on the same continuum, originally strategy was understood to govern the prelude to a battle while tactics controlled its execution.
However, in the wars of the 20th century, the distinction between maneuver and battle and tactics, expanded with the capacity of technology and transit. Tactics that were once the province of a company of cavalry would be applied to a panzer army and it is often said that the art of strategies defines the goals to achieve in a military campaign, while tactics defines the methods to achieve these goals. Strategic goals could be We want to conquer area X, or We want to stop country Ys expansion in trade in commodity Z. Were going to do this by an invasion of the North of country X, Were going to blockade the ports of country Y. In its purest form, strategy dealt solely with military issues, in earlier societies, a king or political leader was often the same person as the military leader. If not, the distance of communication between the political and the leader was small
A swamp is a wetland that is forested. Many swamps occur along rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations. Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes, some swamps have hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation. The two main types of swamp are true or swamp forests and transitional or shrub swamps, in the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more correctly termed a bog or muskeg. The water of a swamp may be water, brackish water or seawater. Some of the worlds largest swamps are found along rivers such as the Amazon, the Mississippi. Swamps are characterized by slow-moving to stagnant waters and they are usually associated with adjacent rivers or lakes. Swamps are features of areas with very low topographic relief, humans have drained swamps to provide additional land for agriculture and to reduce the threat of diseases borne by swamp insects and similar animals.
Many swamps have undergone intensive logging, requiring the construction of drainage ditches and these ditches and canals contributed to drainage and, along the coast, allowed salt water to intrude, converting swamps to marsh or even to open water. Large areas of swamp were therefore lost or degraded, louisiana provides a classic example of wetland loss from these combined factors. Europe has probably lost nearly half its wetlands, New Zealand lost 90 percent of its wetlands over a period of 150 years. Ecologists recognise that swamps provide valuable ecological services including flood control, fish production, water purification, carbon storage, in many parts of the world authorities protect swamps. In parts of Europe and North America, swamp restoration projects are becoming widespread, often the simplest steps to restoring swamps involve plugging drainage ditches and removing levees. Swamps and other wetlands have traditionally held a very low property value compared to fields and they have a reputation for being unproductive land that cannot easily be utilized for human activities, other than perhaps hunting and trapping.
Farmers, for example, typically drained swamps next to their fields so as to more land usable for planting crops. Many societies now realize that swamps are important to providing fresh water and oxygen to all life. Indeed, floodplain swamps are important in fish production. Government environmental agencies are taking steps to protect and preserve swamps, in Europe, major effort is being invested in the restoration of swamp forests along rivers