Military fiat is a process whereby a decision is made and enforced by military means without the participation of other political elements. The Latin term fiat, translated as "let it be," suggests the autocratic attitude ascribed to such a process. For example, many coups involve the imposition of a new government by military fiat. Military fiat had no relation to particular theories of economics or how to use the power of the state, it was seized by the powerful with some support from empowered citizens - resulting in a monarchy where power was passed on to heirs with no public consultation. Over time, this evolved into consultative systems, e.g. of other nobles holding fiefdoms, e.g. of public in parliaments. In democracies, the political parties who run for office to represent the public will, must agree to certain guarantees to use power for public good - the relation between military and police powers is clearer but not obvious. In all countries, some fundamental decisions are made by the administration "without the participation of other political elements", in general the administration of money has been one of those functions.
Public recourse is limited if the state relies on any other nation for major military support, e.g. then-communist Poland's and East Germany's reliance on the Soviet Union. So "a decision is made and enforced by military means" could be anything done by the administration or bureaucracy as a normal part of its foreign policy. Theories vary on how to measure "participation of other political elements." In economics, fiat is one of three ways to guarantee the value of money, credit money and commodity money being alternatives - but both relying to some degree on the fiat. True fiat money has no trust or product value of its own, but is backed only by trust in the issuing government and its ability to collect taxes or require conversion of some other resource into currency; this view is questioned by some theories of political economy that argue that there is always some intrinsic reliance on trust, or expectation of the delivery of the commodity itself. Critics of these views argue that withholding taxes in domestic trade or defying powerful nations regarding trade in narcotics or arms will rapidly prove dangerous or fatal to some of the participants - and, that at least some of these decisions are unpopular and are not reflective of the public will.
This is a common accusation made by the anti-globalization movement which argues that governments have been elected on a mandate to oppose global free trade and instead pursued it. The use of the military fiat to back economic transactions is what a given theory of political economy justifies, e.g. in the political economy of capitalism, military force is justified by the protection of property rights. Adam Smith defined "defense, justice, education and a stable currency" as the role of government. All defined, in his time, 1776 by a military fiat in most countries, although Britain had a nascent democracy; when the United States broke with the British Empire and its military hegemony in that same year, it was to establish a fiat of its own. Smith wrote against monetarism, where fiat would be exploited to protect favored industries, monopolize precious metals, other goals that were not shared between the state and the more general public; the contributions of David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill led to the first theory of political economy.
Ecoregional Democracy fiat money Goldsmith and his Gaian hierarchy
The Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque known as the Bayezid Mosque and the Great Mosque, is an early 15th-century Ottoman mosque in Didymoteicho, East Macedonia and Thrace, in the far northeast of Greece. The 17th-century Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi records that the mosque was begun under Sultan Bayezid I, but after his death at the Battle of Ankara and the turmoil that followed, it was interrupted. Construction was taken up again under Sultan Mehmed I, the mosque was completed and inaugurated in March 1420, as recorded in the inscription above the main entrance. A second inscription over a side-entrance records the name of the architect Ivaz ibn Bayezid, the builder Dogan ibn Abdullah and the local qadi, Seyid Ali, who supervised construction; the mosque is a square structure 30–32 m on each side, including the walls. The mosque is built with cast stone technique and faced with limestone ashlar blocks, its external walls are ca. 2.2–2.7 m thick. There are two rows of one at floor level and one above.
The main entrance is on the south side, secondary doors are on the eastern and western sides. From its layout, the building was originally designed to be crowned by two large domes on the entrance axis, flanked by two smaller ones, while provision was made for addition of a portico surmounted by three smaller domes; the original design was abandoned and was replaced by a lead-covered wooden roof in the shape of a four-sided pyramid, which survives to this day. An interior roof of veneered wooden planks with a cupola, suspended below the actual roof, was added in the 17th century; the interior space is divided by four square-piers into a central square, which served as the main prayer area, four elongated spaces around it. The mihrab is located with a fresco depicting a heavenly city above it; the other walls are decorated with quotes from the Quran and invocations. The minaret is located on the south-eastern corner, its upper portion was demolished in 1912, during the Bulgarian occupation in the First Balkan War, when it was converted into a church dedicated to Saint George, but rebuilt in 1913 when the Turks recovered the town.
A second balcony was added to the minaret at that time. The mosque is considered by Greek government officials one of the most important Muslim monuments, not only in Greece, but in all of Europe, as being the oldest mosque on European ground, it has been a protected monument since 1946. The early 15th-century oak roof constitutes "one of the most important wooden monuments in the world" according to A. Bakirtzis, author of a study on Ottoman architecture in Greece; the original lead sheathing was removed in the Second World War, was replaced post-war first with sheet-metal covers, again with lead ones. These were removed in 1998 for repairs to the roof, but work stalled, the roof was covered by a protective membrane instead, but this was torn in 2008, when a piece of the minaret fell on it; the structure remained in urgent need of repair, was considered endangered by a possible earthquake. On 23 November 2010, the Central Archaeological Council decided on the resumption of restoration work, to be funded by national sources as well as using EU funding programmes.
In the early hours of 22 March 2017, during the course of restoration work on the roof, the mosque caught fire. The fire was extinguished after a few hours. Repair of the Bayezid Mosque. Didymoteicho: Delta TV. 2011-03-26. Event occurs at 00:00
A childhood secret club is an informal organization created by children. Some common features of a childhood secret club may include: Names. Unlike cliques, these associations have names; these younger groups don't have the social competition that adolescent cliques do, or the level of bad behaviour that street gangs have. However, in rare instances there may be rivalry with other such groups around the same age, which can lead to physical fights between them. Peer leadership. Unlike group activities like Scouting, which are led by adults, these groups are led by children. Pro forma secrecy; the secrecy may be more imaginary than real. For instance the name of the club and its membership are obvious to all. There may be a desire to create secret codes and plans, but they are implemented. A ramshackle den, tree house, fort, or "secret base" may be built in nearby scrub-land or an abandoned building; some children in a secret club may use a part of the grounds of the school they attend together as their "base" during periods of recess.
Single-sex membership. Such clubs are either all boys or all girls but not mixed but exceptions do occur. There may be a sense of competition between the genders, as well as independence from adult authority. Catch-phrase/greetings/secret words. Sometimes the clubs develop one or more secret catch-phrases or and greetings; this is illustrated in the 1982 film P'tang, Kipperbang. Many schools have rules against secret clubs, some jurisdictions have laws prohibiting secret or invitation-only societies in public elementary or secondary schools; the fact that interest in these clubs tends to be a passing phase at a certain age may result from the stages of children's cognitive development. After growing out of the "egocentric", or "preoperational" stage, reaching the "age of reason", one is able to understand other people's intentions; the next step is the ability to understand the desire to belong to a club. Written material about these secret clubs, such as the external links listed below, cites eight- and nine-year-olds most often.
While older children may participate in secret clubs, they would be less expected to use fantasy elements in their activities. Juvenile comics and literature feature such clubs as a plot device with spy or detective themes, far more organized than their real-life counterparts. A more realistic depiction is found in Zilpha Keatley Snyder's novel The Egypt Game, in which six children gather in an abandoned storage yard to enact fantasy adventures and recreate actual ceremonies based on and adapted from their knowledge of ancient Egypt. Movies have featured such clubs, notably the early Ealing comedy-thriller Cry. There are juvenile non-fiction books that serve as "how-to's" for code-making and surveillance, most notably the Usborne Good Spy Guide series. Calvin and Hobbes - have a secret club called G. R. O. S. S. Children's street culture Gossip Paracosm Secret societies in popular culture Secret society The Goonies Enid Blyton - author of numerous novels for children, featuring clubs and fantasy elements Thomson, Ruth.
The Good Spy Guide: Tracking and Trailing. London: Usborne. ISBN 0-86020-168-6. Sobel, David. Children's Special Places: Exploring the Role of Forts and Bush Houses in Middle Childhood. "Child.com: Secret Clubs" – parental advice column "Florida Statute 1006.14: Secret societies prohibited in public K-12 schools" – example of law prohibiting "Headroom: Stages of Emotional Development" – including where secret clubs fit in
James Clifford Timlin is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Scranton from 1984 to 2003. During his tenure as bishop, he reassigned a priest who had raped a girl and arranged for her family to be paid to remain silent on the matter. Timlin was born in Pennsylvania, to James and Helen Timlin, he received his elementary education at St. John the Evangelist Grade School and Holy Rosary Grade School. After graduating from Holy Rosary High School, he attended St. Charles College in Catonsville, Maryland and St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore, before furthering his studies in Rome at the Pontifical North American College and Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. On July 16, 1951, he was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Martin J. O'Connor. After earning his Bachelor of Sacred Theology degree from the Gregorian University, he was appointed as assistant pastor of St. John the Evangelist Parish in Pittston in 1952. Timlin served as assistant pastor of St. Peter's Cathedral from 1953 to 1966, when he was named assistant chancellor of the Diocese and private secretary to Bishop J. Carroll McCormick.
He was raised to the rank of Chaplain to His Holiness on August 3, 1967, became chancellor of the Diocese on December 15, 1971 and a Prelate of Honor of His Holiness on April 23, 1972. He served as chairman of the Diocesan Liturgical Commission and the Priests' Education Committee, as well as librarian and secretary of St. Pius X Seminary in Dalton, he became a member of the Diocesan Board of Consultors in 1972, President of the Board of Directors of The Catholic Light in 1975. On July 26, 1976, Timlin was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Scranton and Titular Bishop of Gunugus by Pope Paul VI, he received his episcopal consecration on the following September 21 from Bishop McCormick, with Archbishop John R. Quinn and Bishop Stanley J. Ott serving as co-consecrators, at St. Peter's Cathedral. Serving a five-year term as Episcopal Moderator of the National Association of Holy Name Societies, he became vicar general of the Scranton Diocese in 1976 and pastor of the Church of the Nativity of Our Lord in 1979.
In 1983, he was named chairman of the Board of Advisors of St. Pius X Seminary and of the Preparatory Commission for the Diocesan Synod. Following the promotion of Bishop John J. O'Connor to Archbishop of New York, Pope John Paul II appointed Timlin to succeed him as the eighth Bishop of Scranton on April 24, 1984. Installed on June 7 of that year, he was the first native son of Scranton to become its diocesan bishop. During his tenure, he held the Second Diocesan Synod, established the "Bishop's Annual Appeal", presided over a major restructuring of parishes due to the priest shortage, introduced a new policy for Catholic schools consisting of regional mergers, construction of modern facilities, new fund-raising efforts, a more equitable sharing of operational costs between parents and the Diocese. In 2003, Timlin refused to attend the commencement ceremonies for the University of Scranton, because of the pro-choice views of honorary degree-recipient Chris Matthews, he has been accused of ignoring allegations of homosexual and pedophilic tendencies among the diocesan clergy.
After reaching the mandatory retirement age of 75, Timlin resigned as Bishop on July 25, 2003, after a nearly 20-year-long tenure. He served as administrator of St. Joseph's Church in Wilkes-Barre from February to July 2004, when he became rector of Villa St. Joseph in Dunmore, the diocesan residence for retired priests. On August 14, 2018, a grand jury investigation into child sex abuse in the Pennsylvania Catholic Church revealed Timlin paid a family $75,000 to remain silent about a priest, Thomas Skotek, who raped a teenage girl, got her pregnant and arranged for her to get an abortion. Skotek resigned as Pastor of Hazleton. Timlin wrote to the rapist on October 9, 1986: "This is a difficult time in your life, I realize how upset you are. I share your grief. With the help of God, who never abandons us and, always near, when we need him, this too will pass away, all will be able to pick up and go on living. Please be assured that I am most willing to do whatever I can do to help." After a stay in a Catholic center for psychological evaluation, Skotek was assigned to another parish.
He continued his ministry until 2002. The report indicated that Timlin had made a request to the judge sentencing Robert Caparelli to send him to a church treatment center instead of prison. In light of his failure to protect children, the name of Timlin House at the University of Scranton was removed, its plaza was renamed Romero Plaza, after Óscar Romero. On August 31, 2018, Scranton Bishop Joseph Bambera forbade Timlin from representing the diocese at all public events, liturgical or otherwise, given Timlin's failure to protect children from abusers; this was the most. Bambera himself had served as the Vicar for Priests for the Diocese of Scranton from 1995 to 1998, he admitted that during that time he had helped then-Bishop Timlin reassign a priest who had abused a minor, although the decision was made by Timlin. Roman Catholic Diocese of Scranton Official Site
Yuchi Chifan or Yuchi Fanchi Buddhist nun name Huashou, was a concubine of Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou, an emperor of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou. Yuchi Chifan's grandfather Yuchi Jiong the Duke of Shu was a renowned general of Northern Zhou and a nephew of Yuwen Tai, Emperor Xuan's grandfather, making her and Emperor Xuan cousins, she married Yuwen Wen the Duke of Xiyang—a son of Emperor Xuan's cousin Yuwen Liang the Duke of Qi. She was said to be exceedingly beautiful. Sometime in or before 580, on an occasion when the wives of imperial clan members were, pursuant to the customs of the time, in the palace to greet the Emperor Xuan, Emperor Xuan was so infatuated by her beauty that he forced her to drink, raped her after she fell drunk. In spring 580, Yuwen Liang and fearful over the incident, was one of the generals commanding troops against rival Chen dynasty; as the army withdrew from the borders after having captured the territory between the Yangtze and the Huai River in winter 579, Yuwen Liang made the plan to ambush the commander of the entire operation, Wei Xiaokuan, seize the entire army and support an uncle of Emperor Xuan to be emperor.
The plot, was revealed by his staff member Ru Kuan to Wei, when Yuwen Liang attacked Wei, Wei was prepared and defeated him. Yuwen Liang was killed in battle, Emperor Xuan carrying the atypical title "Emperor Tianyuan" as retired emperor executed Yuwen Wen, he summoned Yuchi Chifan to the palace and made her an imperial consort with the title Zhangguifei. He soon further elevated her to the title of empress with the title Tianzuo Da Huanghou. Emperor Xuan died in summer 580, Empress Yang's father Yang Jian became regent to Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing. Empress Yuchi became a Buddhist nun with the name of Huashou, her grandfather Yuchi Jiong subsequently rose against Yang Jian, but was defeated and committed suicide. His sons, some other members of the Yuchi clan were executed, although Empress Yuchi was not harmed. Yang Jian subsequently seized the throne and established Sui dynasty, she died in 595, during Emperor Wen's reign
The Spyker Squadron was the factory racing team from Dutch sportscar manufacturer Spyker Cars. The team raced in various endurance championships and non-championship races from 2002 to 2010. Daily operations were managed by Peter van Erp, the Spyker Cars COO. Reiter Engineering developed the Spyker C8 Double-12R to compete in the 2002 24 Hours of Le Mans GT class; the team debuted the car at the 2002 12 Hours of Sebring with Derek Hill, Peter Kox and Hans Hugenholtz. The team retired after four hours due to accident damage. At the 24 Hours of Le Mans the team retired over halfway through the race. A valve problem in the BMW engine caused the retirement; the C8 Double-12R was again raced in 2003. Engine trouble again hampered their 12 Hours of Sebring effort; the team retired just past the half way mark. Sponsored by telecom provider Orange S. A. the team presented Hans Hugenholtz and Norman Simon. Gearbox trouble prevented a strong finish, the team finished the race but was not classified as it was to far behind.
The team entered the lone race of the 2003 Le Mans Series, the 1000km of Le Mans. Norman Simon, joined by Belgian Patrick van der Schoote, finished the race in 25th place overall. In 2004 the team focused on developing a new variant on the C8, the C8 Spyder GT2-R; the car debuted at the 2005 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Audi powered car failed to finish the race due to an engine fire seven hours into the race; the team returned at the 1000 km of the fourth round of the 2005 Le Mans Series season. Drivers Jeroen Bleekemolen and Donny Crevels finished eighteenth overall, second in the GT2 class; the team finished in the same lap as the class winning Porsche 996 GT3. Near the end of the year the team made its debut in the FIA GT Championship. Racing at Zhuhai and Dubai the team scored two top five class finishes. At Dubai the team finished third in class. For 2006 the Spyder was fitted with a roof; the team entered the full 2006 Le Mans Series. The teams best result was a sixteenth place overall, third at the 1000 km of Jarama.
Both Spykers entered the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans. In the 2006 Spa 24 Hours the team fought for a fourth place in class most of the race, before having to settle for tenth; the team scaled down to a single car for the 2007 season. In the Le Mans Series, drivers Mike Hezemans and Peter Dumbreck scored a third place in class finish at the 1000km of Silverstone. At the 24 Hours of Le Mans the team did not finish the race. An engine problem seven hours into the race stopped the car at Tetre Rouge. In 2008 the car won its final race, the 1000 kilometrų lenktynės with Jonas Gelžinis, Ralf Kelleners, Peter Dumbreck and Alexey Vasilyev. Introducing the C8 Laviolette GT2-R in 2008 the team did not finish the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Three fourth-place finishes in the 2008 Le Mans Series placed the team third in the constructors championship. Despite the main company moving to Coventry, the racing team remained in Zeewolde; the team repeated its performance feat in 2009. The team scored to second in class finishes at the 1000km of Nürburgring and the 1000km of Silverstone.
At the 24 Hours of Le Mans the team finished the race. Drivers Tom Coronel, Jeroen Bleekemolen and Jaroslav Janiš finished the Snoras sponsored car in fifth place in class. Snoras became a major stakeholder in the Spyker Cars company. In 2010 the team again entered the Le Mans Series as well as the 24 Hours of Le Mans; the team again finished the prestigious sports car race, as the last classified car. The team finished in 117 laps behind the overall winning car. In 2011 the team took a sabbatical to develop the C8 Aileron to race in 2012, but as the major shareholder Snoras filed for bankruptcy and a deal with its owner Vladimir Antonov fell through, the team folded