Peruvian Armed Forces
The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the country's independence and territorial integrity against any threat; as a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks. The National Police of Peru is classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organisation and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land and air capabilities and 140,000 personnel; the Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru report through the Ministry of Interior. The Joint Command of the Armed Forces is tasked with the mission to "plan, prepare and conduct military operations and actions to guarantee independence and territorial integrity and support the national development of Peru".
This branch of the armed forces was developed in the 1950s following World War II, when Peru evaluated operational tactics used and adapted them to their own military. On 1 February 1957, the Joint Command was created following a commission of defense agencies studied its role, with the Joint Command depending directly on the President of Peru while being "the highest step in the planning and coordination of the operations of the Army and Aeronautics Forces". Headquartered in Lima, it has a strength of 76,228 troops divided in four military regions with headquarters in Piura, Lima and Iquitos; every military region is assigned several brigades of which there are different types, including infantry and armored. There are several groups and battalions which operate independently of the army's organization; the equipment of the Peruvian Army includes infantry weapons that include assault rifles and carbines such as the M16A2 and the M4A1 and pistols like the FN Five-seveN and Smith & Wesson M&P9.
Vehicles include several types of tanks, armoured personnel carriers, antiaircraft systems and helicopters. Peru has sought to update their collection of tanks and armored personnel carriers that have not been updated since acquiring vehicles from the Soviet Union. After an initial deal with China fell through, Peru has attempted to make a deal with General Dynamics to purchase new military vehicles; the Peruvian Navy is organized in five naval zones headquartered in Piura, Arequipa and Pucallpa. It has a strength of around 25,988 troops divided between the Pacific Operations and the Amazon Operations General Commands and the Coast Guard; the Pacific fleet flagship is the guided-missile cruiser BAP Almirante Grau, named for the 19th-century Peruvian Admiral who fought in the War of the Pacific. The fleet includes 8 Lupo class frigates, 6 PR-72P class corvettes, 3 Terrebonne Parish class landing ships, 2 Type 209/1100 and 4 Type 209/1200 class German-built diesel submarines, as well as patrol vessels and cargo ships.
The Peruvian Navy has a naval aviation force, several naval infantry battalions and special forces units. The Peruvian Marines date back to 6 November 1821, when the Peruvian Navy requested a battalion of soldiers, its first battle was an attack on the Spanish taking the city of Arica. Into the mid-20th century, the Peruvian Marines modernized their equipment and by the 1980s with the Shining Path emerging as a new threat to Peru, the Marines began to be tasked with counterterrorism operations; as part of the Peruvian Navy, the Peruvian Marines utilize the equipment and logistics of the Navy. Various Marine battalions are based in Ancón, Mollendo, Pucallpa and Tumbes; the Peruvian Marines have a Special Forces composed of the Espíritus Negros and Fuerza Delta, based on the American Delta Force and US Army Rangers. On May 20, 1929, the aviation divisions of the Peruvian army and navy were merged into the Peruvian Aviation Corps. In 1950, the corps became the Peruvian Air Force; the Peruvian Air Force is divided into six wing areas, headquartered in Piura, Lima, Arequipa and Iquitos.
With a strength of 17,969 troops, the FAP counts in its arsenal with MiG-29 and Mirage 2000. It has Su-25 close-support aircraft, Mi-25 attack helicopters, Mi-17 transport helicopters, Aermacchi MB-339, Embraer EMB-312 Tucano subsonic training aircraft, the Cessna A-37B for light attack and COIN missions. In 1995, the FAP took part in the Cenepa War against Ecuador covering operations by the army and navy. After the war, the FAP began acquiring new aircraft MiG-29 fighters and Su-25 close air support aircraft which are, along with the Mirage 2000 fighters, the main combat elements of the FAP. Peruvian Ministry of Defence Official Peruvian Army website Official Peruvian Air Force website Official Peruvian Navy website
Race and ethnicity in Latin America
There is no single system of races or ethnicities that covers all of Latin America, usage of labels may vary substantially. In Mexico, for example, the category mestizo is not defined or applied the same as the corresponding category of mestiço in Brazil. In spite of these differences, the construction of race in Latin America can be contrasted with concepts of race and ethnicity in the United States; the ethno-racial composition of modern-day Latin American nations combines diverse Amerindian populations, with influence from Iberian and other European colonizers, diverse African groups brought to the Americas as slave labor, recent immigrant groups from all over the world. Racial categories in Latin America are linked to both continental ancestry or mixture as inferred from phenotypical traits, but to socio-economic status. Ethnicity is constructed either as an amalgam national identity or as something reserved for the indigenous groups so that ethnic identity is something that members of indigenous groups have in addition to their national identity.
Racial and ethnic discrimination is common in Latin America where socio-economic status correlates with perceived whiteness, indigenous status and perceived African ancestry is correlated with poverty and lack of opportunity and social status. In Latin American concepts of race, physiological traits is combined with social traits such as socio-economic status, so that a person is categorized not only according to physical phenotype, but according to social standing. Ethnicity on the other hand is a system that classifies groups of people according to cultural and historic criteria. An ethnic group is defined by having a degree of cultural and linguistic similarity and an ideology of shared roots. Another difference between race and ethnicity is that race is conceptualized as a system of categorization where membership is limited to one category, is externally ascribed by other who are not members of that category without regards to the individuals own feeling of membership. Whereas ethnicity is seen as a system of social organization where membership is established through mutual identification between a group and its members.
The construction of race in Latin America is different from, for example, the model found in the United States because race mixing has been a common practice since the early colonial period, whereas in the United States it has been avoided. Blanqueamiento, or whitening, is a social and economic practice used to "improve" the race towards whiteness; the term blanqueamiento is rooted in Latin America and is used more or less synonymous with racial whitening. However, blanqueamiento can be considered in both the symbolic and biological sense Symbolically, blanqueamiento represents an ideology that emerged from legacies of European colonialism, described by Anibal Quijano's theory of coloniality of power, which caters to white dominance in social hierarchies Biologically, blanqueamiento is the process of whitening by marrying a lighter skinned individual in order to produce lighter-skinned offspring. Blanqueamiento was enacted in national policies of many Latin American countries Brazil and Cuba, at the turn of the 20th century.
In most cases, these policies promoted European immigration as a means to whiten the population. An important phenomenon described for some parts of Latin America such as Brazil and Mexico is "Whitening" or "Mestizaje" describing the policy of planned racial mixing with the purpose of minimizing the non-white part of the population; this practice was possible as in these countries one is classified as white with few white phenotypical traits and it has meant that the percentages of people identifying as black or indigenous has increased over the course of the twentieth century as the mixed class expanded. It has meant that the racial categories have been fluid. Unlike the United States where ancestry is used to define race, Latin American scholars came to agree by the 1970s that race in Latin America could not be understood as the “genetic composition of individuals” but instead “based upon a combination of cultural and somatic considerations. In Latin America, a person's ancestry is quite irrelevant to racial classification.
For example, full-blooded siblings can be classified by different races. During the Spanish colonial period, Spaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, used for social control and which determined a person's rights in society. There were four main categories of race: Peninsular - a Spaniard born in Spain, Criollo - a person of Spanish descent born in Mesoamerica, Indio - a person, a native of, or indigenous to, Negro - a person of African slave descent. There were other caste groups like the Mestizos/Mestizas that had one Spanish and one Indian parent; the Castizos which had one Mestizo parent and one Spanish parent, the children of a Castizo were accepted as a Criollo. Mulatto/Mulatta were the ones with one Spanish and one black parent, if a mulatto was born in slavery they were considered slaves as well unless the mother was free they would be free too. Speaking ethno-racial relations can be arranged on an axis between the two extremes of European and Amerindian cultural and biological heritage, this is a remnant of the colonial Spanish caste system which categorized individuals according to their perceived level of biological mixture between the two groups.
Additionally the presence of considerable portions of the population with African and Asian heritage further compl
Military history of Mexico
The military history of Mexico consists of several millennia of armed conflicts within what is now that nation's territory and includes activities of the Mexican military in peacekeeping and combat related affairs worldwide. Wars between prehispanic peoples marked the beginning of Mexico's military history, the most notable of these fought in the form of a flower war. After the Spanish conquest of Mexico in the 16th century, indigenous tribes were defeated by Spain, thus beginning a three century era of Spanish dominance. Mexico's struggle for independence began in the 19th century, was marked by internal conflict of early rulers after defeating the Spanish in 1921; the Mexican–American War in the mid 19th century ended in the defeat of Mexican forces, the loss of two-fifths of the national territory. In the remainder of the 19th century, a series of conflicts began in Mexico, as the War of the Reform and the defeat of the French during their intervention in Mexico marked events in that era.
Key military campaigns in the early 20th century include the Mexican Revolution and the Cristero War. These two conflicts overthrew the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz and challenged the anticlerical nature of the post-Revolutionary governments. Mexico stood among the Allies of World War II and was one of two Latin American nations to send combat troops to serve in the Second World War. Recent developments in the Mexican military include deployment of troops to the United Nations, a cooperation with the United States in terms of patrolling borders, relief sent during Hurricane Katrina. In the 6th century, a series of wars between the Tikal and Calakmul erupted on the Yucatán peninsula; the Mayan conflict included vassal states in the Petén Basin such as Copan, Dos Pilas, Sacul, Quiriguá, Yaxchilan had a role in initiating the first war. Prior to Spanish colonization, in the 15th century, several wars ensued between the Aztecs and several other native tribes. Alliances between the Aztec state and Texcoco had become central to these pre colonial wars.
Several of these conflicts were evolved to an organized warfare, known as the Flower wars. In the Flower wars the primary objective was to injure or capture the enemy, rather than killing as in Western warfare. Prisoners-of-war were ritually sacrificed to Aztec gods. Cannibalism was a center feature to this type of warfare. Historical accounts such as that of Juan Bautista de Pomar state that small pieces of meat were offered as gifts to important people in exchange for presents and slaves, but it was eaten, since they considered it had no value; the most famous of the Native Mexican states is the Aztec Empire. In the 13th and 14th centuries, around Lake Texcoco in the Anahuac Valley, the most powerful of these city states were Culhuacan to the south, Azcapotzalco to the west. Between them, they controlled the whole Lake Texcoco area; the Aztecs hired themselves out as mercenaries in wars between the Nahuas, breaking the balance of power between city states. Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan formed a "Triple Alliance" that came to dominate the Valley of Mexico, extended its power beyond.
Tenochtitlan, the traditional capital of the Aztec Empire became the dominant power in the alliance. The Chichimeca, a wide range of nomadic groups that inhabited the north of modern-day Mexico, were never conquered by the Aztecs. In 1519, the native civilizations of Mexico were invaded by Spain, two years in 1521, the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan was conquered. Francisco Hernández de Córdoba explored the shores of southeast Mexico in 1517, followed by Juan de Grijalva in 1518; the most important of the early Conquistadores was Hernán Cortés, who entered the country in 1519 from a native coastal town which he renamed "Puerto de la Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz". In a series of wars and counter-rebellions over the next two centuries, Spain would expand and consolidate its Mexican territories; the Aztecs, the dominant empire in Mexico, believed "that Quetzalcoatl would return on in'Ce-Acatl' or one-reed year. The Pre-Columbian calendar was divided into cycles; every 52nd year was a Ce-Acatl. On their arrival in the new world, the Aztecs thought the Spanish conquerors had been sent by the gods, so they offered little resistance to the advances of the conquerors.
After a major battle in 1519, during which the Spanish forces were defeated and sent into retreat, the Spaniards regrouped outside the Valley of Mexico. After eight months they were back, this time with an larger contingent of native allies. By Spanish smallpox had ravaged the Aztec population, drastically reducing the Aztec fighting forces; the Spaniards surrounded and laid siege to the inhabitants of Tenochtitlan, bringing about the Aztecs' total defeat in 1521. Despite their metal weapons, dogs and thousands of indigenous allies, the Spanish were unable to subdue the Mexica for seven full months, it was one of the longest continuous sieges in world history. Three major factors contributed to Spanish victory. First, the Spanish had superior military technology, including firearms, the bow and arrows, the crossbow and steel weapons, the dog and the horse; the Spanish were further aided in their conquest by the Old World diseases they brought with them, to which the natives had no immunity, which became pandemic, killing large portions of the native population.
The Spanish enlisted the help of various subject peoples in the Aztec Empire who saw the Spanish as a means to free themsel
Slavery in Latin America
Slavery in Latin America was practiced in precolonial times. During the Atlantic slave trade, Latin America was the main destination of millions of African people transported from Africa to French and Spanish colonies. Slavery was a cornerstone of the Spanish Casta system, its legacy is the presence of large Afro-Latino populations. After the gradual emancipation of most black slaves, slavery continued along the Pacific coast of South America throughout the 19th century, as Peruvian slave traders kidnapped Polynesians from the Marquesas Islands and Easter Island and forced them to perform physical labour in mines and in the guano industry of Peru and Chile. Encomienda was a labor system in its empire, it rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. It was first established in Spain during the Roman period, but used following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories, it was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines.
Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch. The Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual. In the conquest era of the sixteenth century, the grants were considered to be a monopoly on the labor of particular groups of Indians, held in perpetuity by the grant holder, called the encomendero, his descendants. With the ouster of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish crown sent a royal governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando, who established the formal encomienda system. In many cases natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted. However, Queen Isabella of Castile forbade Indian slavery and deemed the indigenous to be "free vassals of the crown". Various versions of the Leyes de Indias or Laws of the Indies from 1512 onwards attempted to regulate the interactions between the settlers and natives. Both natives and Spaniards appealed to the Real Audiencias for relief under the encomienda system; the encomienda system brought many indigenous Taíno to work in the fields and mines in exchange for Spanish protection, a seasonal salary.
Under the pretense of searching for gold and other materials, many Spaniards took advantage of the regions now under control of the anaborios and Spanish encomenderos to exploit the native population by seizing their land and wealth. It would take some time before the Taíno revolted against their oppressors — both Indian and Spanish alike — and many military campaigns before Emperor Charles V eradicated the encomienda system as a form of slavery. Raphael Lemkin considers Spain's abuses of the Native population of the Americas to constitute cultural and outright genocide including the abuses of the Encomienda system, he described slavery as "cultural genocide par excellence" noting "it is the most effective and thorough method of destroying culture, of desocializing human beings." He considers colonist guilty due to failing to halt the abuses of the system despite royal orders. Recent research suggests that the spread of old-world disease appears to have been aggravated by the extreme climatic conditions of the time and by the poor living conditions and harsh treatment of the native people under the encomienda system of New Spain.
The African presence in Latin America had an effect on the culture across Latin America. Black slaves arrived in the Americas during the early stages of settlement. By the first decades of the sixteenth century they were participating in Spain's military expeditions. Marriage was allowed in some areas and some slaves were taught to read and write. Colonial Brazil had the highest recorded number of legal marriages among slaves in Latin America. While most slaves were baptized upon arrival to the New World, the Catholic Church did come to the defense of slaves; some brotherhoods raised money to purchase the freedom of some of their slave members. Although the church owned slaves themselves, they never embraced the racist justifications for slavery so common among Protestant denominations in the United States; the impact of slavery in culture is apparent in Latin America. The mixing of cultures and races provides a rich history to be studied. According to the television series, Black in Latin America, The territories that constituted Mexico as part of the New Spain, imported more African slaves than the United States.
Between 1502 and 1866, of the 11.2 million Africans, only 388,000 arrived in the United States, while the rest arrived in Latin America and the Caribbean These slaves were brought as early as the 16th and 17th centuries. The evidence of the African population is not apparent due to the mixing of the indigenous population and European peoples and the early inception of African slaves into the Mexican society. According to Henry Louis Gates, Jr.'s film on the slave trade in Mexico, the integration of African peoples was so pervasive that every Mexican has an "African grandma hiding in their closet." The slaves would be forced to work in plantations. Today, the most African communities live in coastal towns, "Vera Cruz on the Gulf of Mexico, the Costa Chica region on the Pacific". Slaveholders and freed slaves of African descent were the most watched people in the societies of New Spain, the explanations differing but there is repetitive correlation between status and economic stability that women during this time endured.
African slaves were still prominent in Spanish colonies, however, a rise to societal class was forming: free wealthy African-descent women, who owned slaves themselves. As status and elegance was a major definer in the Spanish culture, it became apparent what was setting these African- descent people apart was
Military history of Cuba
The Military history of Cuba begins with the island's conquest by the Spanish and its battles afterward to gain its independence. Since the Communist takeover by Fidel Castro in 1959, Cuba has been involved with many major conflicts of the Cold War in Africa and Latin America where it had supported Marxist governments and rebels from liberation movements who were opposed to their colonial masters and/or allies of the United States; the Ten Years' War was the first of three wars. The Ten Years' War began when Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers of patriots from his sugar mill La Demajagua began an uprising; the war ended with the signing of the Pact of Zanjón. The Cuban War of Independence was the last major uprising by Cuban Nationalists against the Spanish Colonial Government; the conflict culminated with American intervention during the Spanish–American War. The Spanish–American War was a major war fought by the United States and the Kingdom of Spain in the Spanish territories of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines.
The war was triggered with the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor. Cuban rebels fought alongside American troops throughout the war on the Cuban island; the war lasted for 10 weeks. Cuba was occupied by US military troops on July 17, 1898. In the Treaty of Paris, Spain renounced its sovereignty over Cuba without naming a receiving country. Cuba established its own civil government, recognized by the United States as the legal government of Cuba upon the announcement of the termination of United States Military Government jurisdiction over the island on May 20, 1902; this date is celebrated as Independence day for the Republic of Cuba. Cuba entered World War II in December 1941; the Cuban Navy performed convoy escort duties and antisubmarine patrols during the Battle of the Caribbean. The most notable success of Cuban forces was the sinking of German submarine U-176 by a Cuban submarine chaser squadron. Six Cuban merchant vessels were sunk by German submarines in the conflict and 79 Cuban sailors were killed.
Military strongman Fulgencio Batista staged a coup on March 10, 1952, removing Carlos Prío Socarrás from power. Cubans in general were stunned, but remembering the bloodshed of the Batista's rule in the 1930s, they were reluctant to fight. Batista created a consultative council from pliable political personalities of all parties who appointed him President months before elections were to be held. Batista’s past democratic and pro-labor tendencies and the fear of another episode of bloody violence gained him tenuous support from the bankers, the leader of the major labor confederation; the Cuban Revolution started as an uprising that resulted in the overthrow of the Fulgencio Batista government on January 1, 1959 by Fidel Castro and other revolutionary elements in the country. The Revolution began on July 26, 1953, when a group of armed guerrillas attacked the Moncada Barracks. From 1956 through the middle of 1958, Castro and his forces staged successful attacks on Batista garrisons in the Sierra Maestra mountains.
Che Guevara and Raúl Castro helped to consolidate rebel political control in the mountains through executions of Batista Loyalists and potential rivals to Castro. The irregular and poorly armed rebels harassed the Batista forces in the foot hills and the plains of Oriente Province; the final blow to Batista government came during the Battle of Yaguajay. Castro’s forces were able to capture the garrisons at Santa Clara along with the second largest city; as a result, Batista fled Castro came into power. The Bay of Pigs Invasion, was an unsuccessful attempt by a U. S.-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from U. S. armed forces to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States; the Cuban armed forces and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days. Bad Cuban-American relations were exacerbated the following year by the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over nuclear missiles that were deployed in Cuba and Turkey. The Russian missiles were placed both to protect Cuba from further attacks by the United States after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, in response to the U. S. deploying Thor missiles with nuclear warheads on the Soviet border in Turkey. The situation reached the crisis point when U. S. reconnaissance imagery revealed Soviet nuclear missile installations on the island, ended fourteen days when the Americans and Soviets each agreed to dismantle their installations, the Americans agreed not to invade Cuba again. The Congo Crisis was a period of turmoil in the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph Mobutu. During the Congo Crisis, Cuban Expedition led by Che Guevara trained Marxist Rebels to fight against the weak central government of Joseph Kasa-Vubu along with the forces of Mobutu Sese Seko.
This in Africa. During the 1960s, the National Liberation Army began a Communist insurgency in Bolivia; the National Liberation Army was led by Che Guevara. The National Liberation Army was defeated and Che Guevara was captured by the Bolivia government aided by the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency. Bolivian Special Forces were informed of the location of Guevara's guerrilla encampment. On October 8, the encampment was encircled, Guevara was c
Canada–Latin America relations
Canada–Latin America relations are relations between Canada and the countries of Latin America. This includes the bilateral ties between Canada and the individual Latin American states, plurilateral ties between Canada and any group of those states, or multilateral relations through groups like the Organization of American States. Canada and Latin America share ties of geography as part of the Western Hemisphere and history through the shared experience of European colonization. Culturally, Canada shares with the other societies in the Americas a mixture of European and immigrant influences. For both Canadians and Latin Americans, the importance of relations with the United States may overshadow relations with each other; however Canada's importance in the region has risen since joining the OAS in 1990. In the decades following Canadian Confederation in 1867 Canada had limited political involvement, but after 1898 had significant economic ties in the Caribbean and Brazil and Canadians went as businessmen and missionaries to a number of other countries.
As Canadian foreign policy was constrained by Canada's ties to the British Empire and economic relations remained tethered and controlled. After Canada gained political autonomy in foreign relations with the Statute of Westminster relations with Latin America remained weak due to domestic economic turmoil. Following increased solidarity between regions in Latin America throughout the 1800s came the birth of the Pan-American Union in 1910. Between 1909 and 1941 Latin American states appealed for Canadian involvement in union. In accordance with the Monroe Doctrine the United States opposed Canadian involvement as Canada's foreign relations were subject to the interests of a European power, Britain. Canada remained outside of the union for reasons of economic disinterest. By the early 1940s Canada had become a important industrial producer, in desperate need of integration in additional foreign markets. Devastation in Europe due to World War II made Latin America a logical alternative. For Canadian interests, the period following the Second World War marked an important shift in the world political and economic order that saw the growth and spread of communism.
The onset of the Cold War had important implications for Canadian foreign policy. Canadian officials saw Latin America as a region vulnerable to the spread of communism because of vast underdevelopment and socio-economic disparities. More for Canada, was the immense propagation of American economic and political dominance and Americanization throughout the world. While Canada, like the United States during the early cold war years, could be viewed as a liberal-democracy devoted to the spread of capitalism and free market ideals, the Canadian form of the ideology was inherently more accepting of socialist facets. Canada grew closer to many Latin American states and acted as a mediator between the United States and Latin America; the early years of Pierre Trudeau's time in office as Prime Minister of Canada marked an important shift in Canada's role in international politics. During this time Canada, under Trudeau's realist and pragmatist ideals, began to view relations with untapped global regions such as Latin America as vital to Canada's future political and economic interests.
Trudeau illuminates these ideas: "We have to take greater account of the ties which bind us to other nations in this hemisphere – in the Caribbean, Latin America – and of their economic needs. We have to explore relations with Latin America, where more than 400 million people will live by the turn of the century and where we have substantial interests" – Pierre Elliot Trudeau Between October and November 1968, Canada sent a delegate of various ministers to tour nine Latin American states as a stage in Canada's foreign policy review. From the excursion Canada aimed to a) evaluate potential benefits from increased relations, b) explore global policy congruence with individual Latin American states, c) improve overall relations in South America; the mission garnered results on several fronts related to issues of economic cooperation and growth, security and nuclear non-proliferation, as well as general information gathering. The 1968 mission had two profound institutional effects. First, the mission directly led to the creation of a Latin American task force in 1969.
This task force was at the forefront of issues involving Canada's role/potential role in joining the Organization of American States. Second, the mission was elemental in establishing the founding principles of the Latin American section of Trudeau's complete revision of foreign policy – a series of documents entitled "Foreign Policy for Canadians" released in 1970; this series of documents considered massive changes in global power dynamics, the role of non-state actors, the absolute necessity of preserving Canadian independence. In the years following these diplomatic advancements came several key initiatives and institutions. In 1971, to deal with issues of Latin American integration, Trudeau founded the Bureau of Western-Hemispheric Affairs. In 1972, Canada entered the OAS under observer status and joined the Inter-American Development Bank to aid developmental initiatives in Latin America. Further, by 1972, Canada had seen an increase of 40% in exports to the region in only 4
Ethnic groups in Latin America
The inhabitants of Latin America are from a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition of the group varies from country to country. Many have a predominance of Mestizo population. According to Jon Aske: Before Hispanics became such a'noticeable' group in the U. S. the distinction between black and white was the major racial division and according to the one-drop rule adhered to by the culture at large, one drop of African ancestry meant that the person was Black.... The notion of racial continuum and a separation of race and ethnicity, on the other hand, is the norm in most of Latin America. In the Spanish and Portuguese empires, racial mixing or miscegenation was the norm and something that the Spanish and Portuguese had grown rather accustomed to during the hundreds of years of contact with Arabs and North Africans in the Iberian peninsula. But, demographics may have made this inevitable as well. Thus, for example, of the 13.5 million people who lived in the Spanish colonies in 1800 before independence only about one fifth were white.
This contrasts with the U. S. where more than four fifths were whites.... The fact of the recognition of a racial continuum in Hispanic American does not mean that there wasn't discrimination, which there was, or that there wasn't an obsession with race, or'castes', as they were sometimes called.... In areas with large indigenous Amerindian populations, a racial mixture resulted, known in Spanish as mestizos... who are a majority in Mexico, Central America and most of South America. When African slaves were brought to the Caribbean region and Brazil, where there was little indigenous presence left, unions between them and Spanish produced a population of mixed mulatos... who are a majority of the population in many of those Spanish-speaking Caribbean basin countries. Aske has written that: Spanish colonization was rather different from English, or British, colonization of North America, they had different methods of subjugation. While the English were interested in grabbing land, the Spanish in addition had a mandate to incorporate the land's inhabitants into their society, something, achieved by religious conversion and sexual unions which produced a new'race' of mestizos, a mixture of Europeans and indigenous peoples.
Mestizos form the majority of the population in Mexico, Central America, much of South America. Racial mixing or miscegenation, after all, was something that the Spanish and Portuguese had been accustomed to during the hundreds of years of contact with Arabs and North Africans. On, when African slaves were introduced into the Caribbean basin region, unions between them and Spaniards produced a population of mulatos, who are a majority of the population in the Caribbean islands, as well as other areas of the Caribbean region. Mestizos and mulatos may not have always have been first class citizens in their countries, but they were never disowned in the way the outcomes of unions of Europeans and Native Americans were in the British colonies, where interracial marriages were taboo and one drop of Black or Amerindian blood was enough to make the person'impure'. In his famous 1963 book The Rise of the West, William Hardy McNeill wrote that: Racially mixed societies arose in most of Spanish and Portuguese America, compounded in varying proportions from European and Negro strands.
Frequent resort to manumission mitigated the hardships of slavery in those areas. However, in the southern English colonies and in most of the Caribbean islands, the importation of Negro slaves created a much more polarized biracial society. Strong race feeling and the servile status of nearly all Negroes interdicted intermarriage if not legally; such discrimination did not prevent interbreeding. Mulattoes and Indian half-breeds were thereby excluded from the white community. In Spanish territories a more elaborate and less oppressive principle of racial discrimination established itself; the handful of persons, born in the homelands claimed topmost social prestige. Thomas C. Wright, has written that: The demographic makeup of colonial Latin America became more complex when, as the native population declined, the Portuguese and the French in Haiti turned to Africa for labor, as did the British in North America; the tricontinental heritage that characterizes Latin America is shared by the United States, but a casual examination reveals that the outcome of the complex interaction of different peoples has varied.
While miscegenation among the three races occurred in North America, it appears to have been