Pampanga is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Lying on the northern shore of Manila Bay, Pampanga is bordered by Tarlac to the north, Nueva Ecija to the northeast, Bulacan to the east, the Manila Bay to the central-south, Bataan to the southwest and Zambales to the west, its capital is the City of San Fernando. Angeles City, while geographically within Pampanga, is classified as a first-class urbanized city and is governed independently of the province; the name La Pampanga was given by the Spaniards, who encountered natives living along the banks of the Pampanga River. Its creation in 1571 makes it the first Spanish province on Luzon Island; the town of Villa de Bacolor in the province served as the Spanish colonial capital when Great Britain invaded Manila as part of the Seven Years' War. At the eve of the Philippine Revolution of 1896, Pampanga was one of eight provinces placed under martial law for rebellion against the Spanish Empire. Pampanga is served by Clark International Airport, in Clark Freeport Zone, some 16 kilometres north of the provincial capital.
The province is home to two Philippine Air Force airbases: Basa Air Base in Floridablanca and the former United States Clark Air Base in Angeles City. By 2015, the province has 2,198,110 inhabitants. Ancient Pampanga's Territorial area included portions of the modern provinces of Tarlac, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan. Pampanga was re-organized as a province by the Spaniards on December 11, 1571. For better administration and taxation purposes, the Spanish authorities subdivided Pampanga into pueblos, which were further subdivided into districts and in some cases into royal and private estates. Due to excessive abuses committed by some encomenderos, King Philip II of Spain in 1574 prohibited the further awarding of private estates, but this decree was not enforced until 1620. In a report of Philippine encomiendas on June 20, 1591, Governor-General Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas reported to the Crown that La Pampanga's encomiendas were Bataan, Betis y Lubao, Candaba, Calumpit, Binto, Caluya and Mecabayan.
The encomiendas of La Pampanga at that time had eighteen thousand six hundred and eighty whole tributes. Pampanga, about 850 square miles in area and inhabited by more than 1.5 million people, had its present borders drawn in 1873. During the Spanish regime it was one of the richest Philippine provinces. Manila and its surrounding region were primarily dependent on Kapampangan agricultural and forestry products as well as on the supply of skilled workers; as other Luzon provinces were created due to increases in population, some well-established Pampanga towns were lost to new emerging provinces in Central Luzon. During the 17th century, The Dutch recruited men from Pampanga as mercenaries who served the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, known as Papangers part of the larger Mardijkers community, their legacy can be found in North Jakarta, there are few traces of their descendants, except for a small community in Kampung Tugu. The historic province of Bataan, founded in 1754 under the administration of Spanish Governor-General Pedro Manuel Arandia, absorbed from the province of Pampanga the municipalities of Abucay, Dinalupihan, Llana Hermosa, Orion and Samal.
During the British occupation of Manila, Bacolor became the provisional Spanish colonial capital and military base. The old Pampanga towns of Aliaga, Gapan, San Antonio and San Isidro were ceded to the province of Nueva Ecija in 1848 during the term of Spanish Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua; the municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo of Pampanga was yielded to the province of Bulacan in the same provincial boundary configuration in 1848. In 1860, the northern towns of Bamban, Concepcion, Tarlac, Magalang and Floridablanca were separated from Pampanga and were placed under the jurisdiction of a military command called Comandancia Militar de Tarlac. However, in 1873, the four latter towns were returned to Pampanga and the other five became municipalities of the newly created Province of Tarlac. On December 8, 1941, Japanese planes bombed Clark Air Base marking the beginning of the invasion of Pampanga. Between 1941 and 1942, occupying Japanese forces began entering Pampanga. During the counter-insurgencies under the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1944, Kapampangan guerrilla fighters and the Hukbalahap Communist guerrillas fought side by side in the province of Pampanga and retreating the Japanese Imperial forces for over three years of fighting and invasion.
The establishment of the military general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from 1935 to 1946. The Philippine Constabulary was active from 1935 to 1942 and 1944 to 1946 in the province of Pampanga. During the military engagements of the anti-Japanese Imperial military operations in central Luzon from 1942 to 1945 in the province of Bataan, Northern Tayabas, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Zambales, the local guerrilla resistance fighters and Hukbalahap Communist guerrillas, helped the U. S. military forces fight the Imperial Japanese armed forces. In the 1945 liberation of Pampanga, Kapampangan guerrilla fighters and the Hukbalahap Communist guerrillas supported combat forces from Filipino and American ground t
Cavite City the City of Cavite, is a 4th class city in the province of Cavite, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 102,806 people; the city was the capital of Cavite province from the latter's establishment in 1614 until 1954, when it was transferred to the newly created city of Trece Martires near the center of the province. It started as the small port town of Cavite Puerto that prospered during the early Spanish colonial period when it became the main seaport of Manila hosting the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade and the port used for other heavy and larger sea-bound ships. Thereafter, San Roque and La Caridad, two former independent towns of Cavite province, were added to form one municipality; the present larger Cavite City now includes the communities of San Antonio, the southern districts of Santa Cruz and Dalahican, the outlying islands of the province, including the historic Corregidor Island. There are several names attributed to present-day Cavite City, its early settlers, who were Tagalogs, called it "Tangway," meaning peninsula.
The name "Cavite" evolved from the word Kawit or Cauit meaning "hook" as people from other places refer to it, referring to the hook-shaped land along the coast of Bacoor Bay. It was mispronounced by the Spaniards as "Kawite" or "Cavite" there being no "K" in the Castillan alphabet changing "w" to "v" so as to conform to their accentuation; the Chinese traders or the Sangleys who came to Cavite to do business with the natives called it Keit, a corruption of the word Kawit. The early inhabitants of Cavite City were the Tagalogs ruled by the Kampilan and the bullhorn of a datu, the tribal form of government. According to folklore, the earliest settlers came from Borneo, led by Gat Hinigiw and his wife Dayang Kaliwanag who bore seven children. Archaeological evidences in the coastal areas show prehistoric settlements. On May 16, 1571 the Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi declared the region a royal encomienda, or royal land grant. Spanish colonizers settled in the most populated area of the place, they called it Cavite.
The old Tangway at the tip of the Cavite Peninsula, across Bacoor Bay was referred to as Cavite la Punta meaning "Point of Cavite" or Cavite Point. Upon discovering that because of its deep waters, Cavite la Punta was a suitable place for the repair and construction of Spanish ships and galleon, the Spanish moved their settlement there and called it Cavite Nuevo or plainly Cavite, while the first settlement was renamed "Cavite Viejo". In 1590, the Spaniards fortified Cavite Nuevo with a muralla on its western and eastern side while the side fronting Baccor Bay remained open. Fort Guadalupe on the easternmost tip was built at the same time, the town became the Puerto de Cavite or Cavite Puerto; the Fort of San Felipe Neri and Porta Vaga gate were constructed in 1595 and completed in 1602. Puerta Vaga was the port city's barbican only principal entrance from San Roque, it was flanked by the western wall protected by two bastions at its southern end. The wall and gate were separated from the mainland by a moat, which made the town like an island.
Cavite was founded as a town in 1614 with Tomás Salazar as the earliest known gobernadorcillo recorded. At the same time, the town became the capital of the new politico-military province of Cavite, established in 1614. Like some other provinces during the Spanish era, the province adapted the name of its capital town. San Roque was founded as a separate town in 1614, it was placed under the civil administration of Cavite Puerto until it was granted a right to be a separate and an independent municipality in 1720. La Caridad known as La Estanzuela of San Roque and was founded as town in 1868; the Spanish Governor General Jose de la Gardana granted the petition of the people led by Don Justo Miranda to make barrio La Estanzuela an independent town. As the town was progressing, it became a cosmopolitan town that attracted the different religious orders to set up churches and hospitals within the limited confines of the fortified town; the Franciscan Hospital de San Jose was built for sailors and soldiers in 1591, the San Diego de Alcala convent in 1608, the Porta Vaga, Our Lady of Loreto, San Juan de Dios, Santo Domingo, Santa Monica, San Pedro, the port's parish church.
At the most, the fortified town enclosed eight churches, the Jesuit college of San Ildefonso, public buildings and residences, which served the needs of its population of natives and workers at the port and passengers on board the galleons. It was during those times when it was called "Tierra de Maria Santisima" because of the popularity of the Marian devotion in this place. Plazas and parks were evidence of importance, Plaza de Armas across from San Felipe Fort, Plaza de San Pedro across from the church and Plaza Soledad across from Porta Vaga, Plaza del Reparo was at the bayside; the Port of Cavite was linked to the history of world trade. Spanish galleons sailed every July to Acapulco. Galleons and other heavy ocean-going ships were not able to enter the Port of
Tuguegarao Tuguegarao City and referred to by locals as Tugue, is a 3rd class component city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Cagayan and the regional and institutional center of Cagayan Valley. With a population of 153,502, according to the 2015 census, it is a major urban center in the Northeastern Luzon, a primary growth center and one of the fastest growing cities in the Philippines. Dubbed as the “Gateway to the Ilocandia and the Cordilleras,” the city, on the southern border of the province, is located where the Pinacanauan River empties into the Cagayan River and is surrounded by the Sierra Madre Mountains to the east, Cordillera Mountains to the west, the Caraballo Mountains to the south; the highest temperature recorded in the Philippines—42.2 °C —hit Tuguegarao on August 19, 1912 and May 11, 1969. There are several legends about the origin of the name. One is a species of palm tree called taraw in the area; the most accepted version is the Ibanags' reply to the Spaniards when the latter asked for the name of the place — Tuggi gari yaw.
On the other hand, historical evidence that might provide clues to the origin of the city's name comes from the fact that in 1591, the place was listed as a Spanish encomienda, a pre-colonial settlement called Tubigarao. Tuguegarao was occupied by American troops on December 12, 1899. Drastic improvements in Tuguegarao were discerned over the course of provincial administrations—the first Provincial Capitol was completed in 1909. A town hall and public market were built, the provincial high school was founded in a former private residence, the Cagayan State University was founded by American educator Claude Andrews. Cagayan National High School was built in 1923. During World War II, the city and its airfield of some significance was captured by the Japanese Imperial Army on December 12, 1941 as part of the Japanese invasion of Aparri; the General Headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL units was activated on 1942 to 1946 and stationed in Tuguegarao.
Sitio Capatan was elevated into a barrio of Tuguegarao on April 1959, by Republic Act no. 2107. In 1975, Tuguegarao was declared as the capital and seat of the regional government of Cagayan Valley being the region's geographic center with adequate facilities and amenities needed by such. Multistory buildings were constructed in the poblacion changing Tuguegarao's skyline in the 1980s and 1990s; the Hotel Delfino siege was a bloody coup attempt that happened on March 4, 1990, when suspended Cagayan governor Rodolfo "Agi" Aguinaldo and his armed men of 200 seized Hotel Delfino in Tuguegarao. Brigader General Oscar Florendo, his driver, four members of the civilian staff, several other people were held hostage for several hours. A gunfight was launched to kill Aguinaldo and his men but one of the suspended governor's men was found dead in a checkpoint shootout, Brig. Gen. Florendo and 12 others were dead and 10 more wounded. Aguinaldo was wounded in a car gunfight but escaped and hid in the mountains.
Tuguegarao became a component city after a plebiscite held on December 18, 1999. Randolph Sera Ting was the first mayor of the new city. On July 2, 2007, Delfin Telan Ting was elected as the second mayor. After the 25-year political domination of the Tings, former police general Jefferson Soriano won over re-electionist Delfin Ting in the 2013 local elections. Tuguegarao's location is in the southern portion of the province; the city is bordered by Iguig to the north. The city is encapsulated by the Cagayan River in the western and southern side, which explains for its northward expansion, the Pinacanauan River, a tributary of Cagayan River, in the eastern part. Small bodies of waters are found in the city, such as the Balzain Creek which spans the barangays of Caritan Sur and Balzain; the creek is continuously drying up due to eutrophication and the uncontrollable growth of water lilies. The town was inhabited by Irayas and Itawes who lived and relied on fishing, farming and livestock raising.
In addition, ancient natives have ventured on weaving cloth and making of household and farm implements. Cagayan is divided into three congressional districts, wherein the city is included in the Third District together with the other 6 southern municipalities; the city is 483 kilometres north of the country's capital, an hour by plane and ten hours of land travel. Tuguegarao experiences a tropical climate, with only a slight difference between summer and winter temperatures, high year-round humidity; the average temperature during March and April is one of the highest in the country. On August 19, 1912 and May 11, 1969, the highest temperature in the Philippines was recorded in Tuguegarao at 42.2 °C. Thus, the city was tagged as the "Hottest City in the Philippines". Unusually, in months—usually lasts from December to February—where the cool northeast monsoon or locally as amihan surges, temperatures in the city drop to as low as 15 °C —in 2017—especially in early mornings. Locals parallel the chills felt with that in Baguio.
In the 2015 census, the population of Tuguegarao was 153,502 people with a density of 1,100 inhabitants per square kilometre or 2,800 inhabitants per square mile. It is the most densest city in the Cagayan Valley region. Most of the inhabitants ar
George Catlett Marshall Jr. was an American statesman and soldier. He rose through the United States Army to become Chief of Staff under presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman. Winston Churchill lauded Marshall as the "organizer of victory" for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, although Marshall declined a final field leadership position that went to his protege U. S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the war, as Secretary of State, Marshall advocated a significant U. S. economic and political commitment to post-war European recovery, including the Marshall Plan that bore his name. In recognition of this work, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. Born in Uniontown, Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1901. After serving as commandant of students at the Danville Military Academy in Danville, Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February, 1902.
In the years after the Spanish–American War, he served in the United States and overseas in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, including platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class. In 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J. Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department. After the United States entered World War I, Marshall served with Bell while Bell commanded the Department of the East, he was assigned to the staff of the 1st Division, assisted with the organization's mobilization and training in the United States, as well as planning of its combat operations in France. Subsequently, assigned to the staff of the American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, he was a key planner of American operations including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. After the war, Marshall became an aide-de-camp to John J. Pershing, the Army's Chief of Staff.
Marshall served on the Army staff, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, was an instructor at the Army War College. In 1927, he became assistant commandant of the Army's Infantry School, where he modernized command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. In 1932 and 1933 he commanded Georgia. Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938, received promotion to brigadier general. During this command, Marshall was responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps camps in Oregon and southern Washington. In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff, became the Army's Deputy Chief of Staff; when Chief of Staff Malin Craig retired in 1939, Marshall became acting Chief of Staff, Chief of Staff, a position he held until the war's end in 1945. As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U. S. history, received promotion to five-star rank as General of the Army.
Marshall coordinated Allied operations in the Pacific until the end of the war. In addition to accolades from Churchill and other Allied leaders, Time magazine named Marshall its Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, as required for holders of five-star rank. From December 15, 1945 to January 1947 Marshall served as a special envoy to China in an unsuccessful effort to negotiate a coalition government between the Nationalists of Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong; as Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, Marshall advocated rebuilding Europe, a program that became known as the Marshall Plan, which led to his being awarded the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. After resigning as Secretary of State, Marshall served as chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission and president of the American National Red Cross; as Secretary of Defense at the start of the Korean War, Marshall worked to restore the military's confidence and morale at the end of its post-World War II demobilization and its initial buildup for combat in Korea and operations during the Cold War.
After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia. He was buried with honors at Arlington National Cemetery. George Catlett Marshall Jr. was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, the son of George Catlett Marshall Sr. and Laura Emily Marshall. Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall; when asked about his political allegiances, Marshall joked that his father had been a Democrat and his mother a Republican, whereas he was an Episcopalian. Following his graduation from VMI, Marshall sat for a competitive examination for a commission in the United States Army. While awaiting the results, Marshall had accepted the position of Commandant of Students at the Danville Military Institute in Danville, Virginia. Marshall passed the exam and was commissioned a second lieutenant in February, 1902. Prior to World War I, Marshall received various postings in the United States and the Philippines, including serving as an infantry platoon leader and company commander during the Philippine–American War and other guerrilla uprisings.
He was schooled in modern warfare, including a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class. After another tour of duty in the Philippines, Marshall returned to
Philippine resistance against Japan
During the Japanese occupation of the islands in World War II, there was an extensive Philippine resistance movement, which opposed the Japanese and their collaborators with active underground and guerrilla activity that increased over the years. Fighting the guerrillas – apart from the Japanese regular forces – were a Japanese-formed Bureau of Constabulary, the Kenpeitai, the Makapili. Postwar studies estimate that around 260,000 persons were organized under guerrilla groups and that members of anti-Japanese underground organizations were more numerous; such was their effectiveness that by the end of World War II, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. Select units of the resistance would go on to be reorganized and equipped as units of the Philippine Army and Constabulary; the United States Government granted payments and benefits to various ethnicites who have fought with the Allies by the war's end. However, only the Filipinos were excluded from such benefits, since these veterans have made efforts in being acknowledged by the United States.
Some 277 separate guerrilla units made up of 260,715 individuals were recognized as having fought in the resistance movement. The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941; the attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U. S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against the overseas territories of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese operations to invade the Commonwealth of the Philippines began. Forty-three planes bombed Baguio in the first preemptive strike in Luzon; the Japanese forces quickly conducted a landing at Batan Island, by December 17, General Masaharu Homma gave his estimate that the main component of the United States Air Force in the archipelago was destroyed. By January 2, Manila was under Japanese control and by January 9, Homma had cornered the remaining forces in Bataan.
By April 9, the remaining of the combined American-Filipino force was forced to retire from Bataan to Corregidor. Meanwhile, Japanese invasions of Cebu and Panay were successful. By May 7, after the last of the Japanese attacks on Corregidor, General Jonathan M. Wainwright announced through a radio broadcast in Manila the surrender of the Philippines. Following Wainwright was General William F. Sharp, who surrendered Visayas and Mindanao on May 10. Afterwards came the Bataan Death March, the forcible transfer, by the Imperial Japanese Army, of 60,000 Filipino and 15,000 American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II; the death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards, it is not known how many died in the fighting, taking place concurrently. All told 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 300–650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell. After Bataan and Corregidor, many who escaped the Japanese reorganized in the mountains as guerrillas still loyal to the U.
S. Army Forces Far East. One example would be the unit of Ramon Magsaysay in Zambales, which first served as a supply and intelligence unit. After the surrender in May 1942, Magsaysay and his unit formed a guerrilla force which grew to a 10,000-man force by the end of the war. Another was the Hunters ROTC which operated in the Southern Luzon area near Manila, it was created upon dissolution of the Philippine Military Academy in the beginning days of the war. Cadet Terry Adivoso, refused to go home as cadets were ordered to do, began recruiting fighters willing to undertake guerrilla action against the Japanese; this force would be instrumental, providing intelligence to the liberating forces led by General Douglas MacArthur, took an active role in numerous battles, such as the Raid at Los Baños. When war broke out in the Philippines, some 300 Philippine Military Academy and ROTC cadets, unable to join the USAFFE units because of their youth, banded together in a common desire to contribute to the war effort throughout the Bataan campaign.
The Hunters conducted operations with another guerrilla group called Marking's Guerrillas, with whom they went about liquidating Japanese spies. Led by Miguel Ver, a PMA cadet, the Hunters raided the enemy-occupied Union College in Manila and seized 130 Enfield rifles. Before being proven false in 1985 by the United States Military, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos claimed that he had commanded a 9,000-strong guerrilla force known as the Maharlika Unit. Marcos used maharlika as his personal pseudonym. Marcos told exaggerated tales and exploits of himself fighting the Japanese in his self-published autobiography Marcos of the Philippines, proven to be fiction, his father, Mariano Marcos, did however, collaborate with the Japanese and was executed by Filipino guerillas in April 1945 under the command of Colonel George Barnett, Ferdinand himself was accused of being a collaborator as well. In July 1942, South West Pacific Area became aware of the resistance movem
Fort Stotsenburg, during the World War II era, was the location of the Philippine Department's 26th Cavalry Regiment, 86th Field Artillery Regiment, 88th Field Artillery Regiment. Based here were the 12th Ordnance Company and a platoon of the 12th Quartermaster Regiment. Fort Stotsenburg is situated at Barrio Sapang Bato in Angeles City and is 80 km north of Manila; this was one of the locations where, under the National Defense Act of 1935, field artillery training was conducted. It was named after Colonel John M. Stotsenburg, a Captain of the Sixth U. S. Cavalry, a Colonel of the First Nebraska Volunteers, killed while leading his regiment in action near Quingua, the Philippines on April 23, 1899. C.1917, Fort Stotsenburg was home to the 1st Philippine Artillery Regiment. By October 1902, American forces had established more or less permanent quarters near the Angeles railroad station in an area of the town known as Talimundoc; the rumor is that cavalry foragers had come across a fertile plain further to the north and that sweet grass was abundant in this area.
The U. S. cavalry forces had encountered problems caused by the fact that their horses became sick and died after eating Philippine "sawgrass." By the latter part of 1902, plans were under consideration to relocate the American military reservation to this area near the barrio of Sapang Bato. The preliminary survey dates from 1902. In the following year, President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order, establishing Fort Stotsenburg in the location occupied by Clark Air Base; the entrance pillars to Fort Stotsenburg were located on what is now known as Dau Highway. During the Japanese occupation of Clark Air Base from 1942 to 1945, Imperial forces used these pillars for fill material during their repairs to the base runway, they were unearthed intact in the vicinity of the old Base Operations Building in 1965. Following their discovery, the original pillars were relocated near the Consolidated Base Personnel Office, which at that time served as the on-base American Legion Post. In 1984, as part of an overall plan to highlight the base's long history, the 13th Air Force History Office received permission to move the gateposts once again.
Because putting them at their original site would have placed them in an area which possessed low visibility, it was decided to install them on the southern boundary of the parade ground instead. Special crews and a giant crane rented from a company in Manila moved the posts in what turned out to be an all-day affair. Quite a number of onlookers viewed the move and cheered as the last post was dropped into its new position; the post flagpole has always been in its present location in front of Building 2122 with the original flagstaff constructed on September 16, 1906 at a cost of $220. It was the location for reveille at 6 a.m.. In accordance with the provisions of the Military Bases Agreement as revised in 1979, the flagpole became the only one upon which the American flag could be displayed. In March 1984, at Major General Kenneth D. Burn's request, the Government of the Philippines amended this provision to allow another U. S. flag to be flown at the site of the joint US/Philippine Cemetery, near the Main Gate of Clark Air Base.
The camp gymnasium was completed in 1912 and this building has been used for many purposes over the years, including Post Exchange and "Charlie Corn's Canteen." It last housed the offices of the Thirteenth Air Force Chief of Staff for Operations and Intelligence and the 6200th Tactical Fighter Training Group. This building, which last housed the Thirteenth Air Force's Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Intelligence and the 6200th Tactical Fighter Training Group, responsible for Cope Thunder Exercises was completed in 1913. In the early decades of Fort Stotsenburg's history, it housed Charlie Corn's canteen and restaurant in the basement, the post exchange on the first floor and the post theater on the second floor. Following the American recapture of Clark in February 1945, it served as the Fifth Air Force Headquarters building. Years of renovation and modification have all but disguised the original structure, which possessed an open portico; the first building on this site was served as post headquarters.
In 1906, it was roofed with tarpaper. It was reconstructed of concrete in 1912 and, for a time, housed a bowling alley. Throughout most of its history, this building served as the office of post commanders and their executive officers during the Japanese occupation. Constructed between 1912 and 1913, Building 2127 served as barracks for enlisted personnel from cavalry and field artillery units, its most famous occupants were the Philippine Scouts of the 26th Cavalry, who lived there at the time of the outbreak of World War II. This massive structure last housed the Air Force Office of Special Investigation on the first floor, the Central Civilian Personnel Office on the second floor, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics along with the Pacific Air Forces Contracting Center on the third floor. A similar barracks, constructed at the same time, preserves more of the original character of these buildings, it is located just down Austin Street and housed the Base Social Actions function and the offices of the general educational institutions.
Directly across Weston Avenue from the old 26th Cavalry barracks stands this small structure, constructed in November 1914 at a cost of only $260. During its long history, Building 2425 sometimes served as a post office facility
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
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