Chipped beef is a form of pressed and dried beef, sliced into thin pieces. Some makers smoke the dried beef for more flavor; the modern product consists of small, flexible leaves of dried beef sold compressed together in jars or flat in plastic packets. The processed meat producer Hormel once described it as "an air-dried product, similar to bresaola, but not as tasty." Chipped beef is served in many restaurants in the United States as a breakfast item. It is popular among the veteran community who refer to it as "Shit On a Shingle". Creamed chipped beef is standard fare on many such diner menus in the Mid-Atlantic, but has become harder to find in chain restaurants that serve breakfast. IHOP no longer offers this on their menus, having substituted sausage gravy, the same is true for Cracker Barrel restaurants, it is available from companies such as Stouffer's in a frozen form which can be put on top of separately-prepared toast. For instance, Stouffer's creamed chipped beef contains 590 mg sodium per 5.5 ounces serving.
The mixture was at one point, available from both Freezer Queen and Banquet as "hot sandwich toppers". Both the Esskay Meat Company of Baltimore and Knauss Foods make a refrigerated version of creamed chipped beef which can be microwaved; the meat itself is available for purchase under the Knauss and Carson's Brand names. Chipped beef on toast is a dish comprising a white sauce and rehydrated slivers of dried beef, served on toasted bread. Hormel recommends flavoring the dish with Worcestershire sauce. Chipped beef is often served on bagels, English muffins, home fries, mashed potato and in casserole. In the United States, chipped beef on toast was served to service members of the United States Armed Forces, it was thus considered emblematic of the military experience, much as pea soup is in Finland or Sweden. In American military slang it is referred to by the dysphemism "Shit On a Shingle", or "Stew On a Shingle", "Same Old Stuff", "Something On a Shingle", or "Save Our Stomachs". Wentworth and Flexner cite no origin for the term, but noted "shingle" for slice of toast has had "some use since 1935" in the U.
S. Army in the expression "shit on a shingle", the latter had "wide World War II Army use". Chipped beef on toast is the title of a book of military humor. In his World War II book Band of Brothers, Stephen E. Ambrose evokes the military basics: At the end of May, the men of Easy packed up their barracks bags and … a stop-and-go train ride to Sturgis, Kentucky. At the depot Red Cross girls had coffee and doughnuts for them, the last bit of comfort they would know for a month, they marched out to the countryside and pitched up tents, dug straddle trenches for latrines, ate the Army's favorite meal for troops in the field, creamed chipped beef on toast, universally known as SOS, or Shit on a Shingle. This dish was mentioned many times on the 1970s television show M*A*S*H in the mess tent. While the common S. O. S. base is a white sauce made from a roux, a variety of meats may take the place of the chipped beef. These may include tuna, sausage, or ground beef, may be served over toast, biscuits, or hash browns.
Over the years, chipped beef has been mentioned in numerous movies and television shows. Examples include: In a 1955 Three Stooges short titled "Of Cash and Hash", Larry Fine has an argument with a customer about ordering either fried eggs or creamed chipped beef on toast. In the 1955 The Honeymooners Episode 10 "Hello, Mom", Ralph comes home and looks at what's on the stove, Alice says "It's creamed chipped beef" to which Ralph replies "Creamed chipped beef again?" In M * A * S * H, Col. Potter mentioned. In the episode of Golden Girls titled "Bedtime Story", Rose makes chipped beef that everyone else is reluctant to try. Chipped beef appears in the children's novel Captain Underpants and the Attack of the Talking Toilets, in which it is used by the main protagonists to combat the eponymous Talking Toilets. Biscuits and gravy List of dried foods List of military food topics List of sandwiches List of toast dishes SOS recipe of Bob's Coffee Shop in Fountain Valley, California The Cookbook of the U.
S. Navy, 1945 recipe
Irving David Breger was an American cartoonist who created the syndicated Mister Breger, a gag panel series and Sunday comic strip known earlier as Private Breger and G. I. Joe; the series led to widespread usage of the term "G. I. Joe" during World War II and later. Dave Breger was the byline on his books. During World War II, his cartoons were signed Sgt. Dave Breger. Growing up in Chicago, where he was born of native Russian parents, butcher Benjamin Breger and Sophie Passin Breger, only a few weeks after they arrived in the United States from the Ukraine; as a youth, Breger had encounters with the local gangsters while working at his father's sausage factory. In 1926, he acquired his high school diploma from Crane Technical School, where he drew cartoons signed Irving Breger for the school paper, he studied architectural engineering at the University of Illinois and transferred to Northwestern University, where he edited the campus humor magazine, Purple Parrot, while studying pre-med and psychology.
He had no schooling in art or cartooning, his college cartoons were drawn in a style similar to John Held, Jr. Graduating from Northwestern in 1931 with a degree in abnormal psychology, he spent a year traveling the world, visiting Russia and Africa, he returned to Chicago and the sausage stockyard, rising to the position of office manager of his father's firm, where he devised the company slogan, "Our Wurst Is the Best". His first marriage, with fashion model Evelyn Breger, lasted five years. In 1937, after receiving a $30 check from The Saturday Evening Post, Breger arrived in New York and began freelancing to Collier's, This Week, Esquire and The New Yorker. Early in 1941, he was drafted into the United States Army and sent to Camp Livingston in Louisiana, where he repaired trucks, he drew at night in the bakery or while sitting in a truck with netting overhead to keep the bugs away. The Saturday Evening Post, under the heading Private Breger, began publishing these cartoons as a series starting August 30, 1941.
The Army became aware of his talent and transferred him to the Special Services Division in New York, where he married Brooklyn-born art agent Dorathy Lewis on January 9, 1942. In the early spring of 1942, he was assigned to the New York staff of the Army Weekly. Yank wanted Breger to do cartoons like those in The Saturday Evening Post, but the editors asked him to devise a new title, he came up with the title G. I. Joe from the military term "Government Issue", the character's full name was Joe Trooper, his G. I. Joe cartoon series began in the first issue of Yank; that summer, Breger arrived in the UK in 1942 as one of the first two Yank correspondents, covering the American military in England as a photo-journalist, while producing his weekly G. I. Joe cartoon for Yank. King Features Syndicate took an interest and signed Breger on to do a Private Breger daily panel for domestic distribution, it was launched October 19, 1942 and continued until October 13, 1945. He soon became one of the most famous and read of the World War II cartoonists, the term "G.
I. Joe" was adopted first by soldiers and the homefront as the popular term for the American foot soldier. In 1942, Breger illustrated the sheet music for Irving Berlin's "I Left My Heart at the Stage Door Canteen". Breger produced G. I. Jerry, satirical cartoons about Hitler and others in the Nazi regime. There was a postcard series titled Private Breger; the character remained a private throughout World War II, while Breger himself was promoted through the ranks to corporal and lieutenant. His August 25, 1945 cartoon was signed Lt. Dave Breger. From 1943 to 1946, Private Breger was reprinted in David McKay's Magic Comics. Returning to civilian life after World War II, Breger had his character become a civilian. Private Breger was discharged, on October 22, 1945, the title was altered from Private Breger to Mister Breger; the Mister Breger Sunday strip was added on February 3, 1946. Vacationers could write friends with the set of Mister Breger on Vacation. Recurring themes in the strips and panels included jail and Breger employed as a bank teller.
In one cartoon, Breger predicted that since television showed so many old movies, the day would come when movie theaters would turn to vintage television for product. This prediction came true with the advent of such TV-based films as Mission: Impossible and Star Trek. Mister Breger received comic book reprints in The Katzenjammer Kids, Beetle Bailey and Flint Comix and Entertainment. In 1946, Breger became a founding member of the National Cartoonists Society. Dave and Dorathy Breger settled in West Nyack, New York, where they had three children—Dee and Harry, they were, according to Breger, "all three artistic". In the 1960s, Breger taught a cartooning course at New York University, developing his lesson plans into a book, How to Draw and Sell Cartoons; when Breger died in 1970, he was cremated at Ferncliff Cemetery in New York. Mister Breger continued to run as a daily panel until March 21, 1970; the final Sunday was published two months after his death. Between 1942 and 1951, Breger did five books collecting his Army cartoons.
Private Breger in Britain, published in London by Pilot Press Ltd. included an introductory discussion on Anglo-American humor between Breger and Michael Barsley. Squads, Wri
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The Armed Forces of the Philippines are the military forces of the Philippines. It consists of the three main service branches; the President of the Philippines is the Commander-in-Chief of the AFP and forms military policy with the Department of National Defense, an executive department acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out, while the Chief of Staff is the overall commander and the highest-ranking officer in the AFP. A previous attached branch is the defunct Philippine Constabulary, while the Philippine Coast Guard is a wartime attached service. Military service is voluntary. Commander-in-chief - President Rodrigo Roa Duterte Secretary of National Defense - Sec. Delfin Lorenzana Pre-Hispanic Philippines maintained local militia groups under the barangay system. Reporting to the datu, these groups, aside from maintaining order in their communities served as their defense forces. With the arrival of Islam, the system of defense forces in the Mindanao region's sultanates under Muslim control mirrored those other existing sultanates in the region.
These local warriors who were in the service of the Sultan were responsible to qualified male citizens appointed by him. During the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish Army was responsible for the defense and general order of the archipelago in the land, while the Spanish Navy conducts maritime policing in the seas as well as providing naval logistics to the Army; the Guardia Civil took police duties and maintaining public order in villages and towns. In the early years of Spanish colonial era, most of the formations of the army were composed of conquistadors backed with native auxiliaries. By the 18th and 19th Centuries, line infantry and cavalry formations were created composed of mixed Spanish and Filipino personnel, as well as volunteer battalions composed of all-Filipino volunteers during the half of the 19th Century. Units from other colonies were levied to augment the existing formations in the Philippines. All of the formations of the Spanish Army in the archipelago participated in the local religious uprisings between 17th and 19th Centuries, in the Philippine Revolution in 1896 fighting against the revolutionary forces.
At the peak of the revolution, some Filipinos and a few Spaniards in the Spanish Army, Guardia Civil, Navy defected to the Revolutionary Army. The Spanish cession of the Philippines in the 1898 Treaty of Paris put the independence of the newly declared Southeast Asian republic in grave danger; the revolutionaries were fighting as the American forces landed in other islands and had taken over towns and villages. The Americans established the Philippine Constabulary in 1901 manned by Filipino fighters and used against Gen. Aguinaldo, captured. On April 9, 2002, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo proclaimed that the Philippine–American War had ended on April 16, 1902 with the surrender of General Miguel Malvar. Since the beginning of American rule in the Philippines, the United States Army had taken the responsibility for the defense of the country in the land, the United States Navy in the seas until the passage of the National Defense Act of 1935 which called for a separate defense force for the Philippines.
In accordance with the National Defense Act of 1935, the Armed Forces of the Philippines was established on December 21, 1935, when the act entered into force. Retired U. S. General Douglas MacArthur was asked to supervise its training. MacArthur accepted the offer and became a Field Marshal of the Philippines, a rank no other person has since held. Jean MacArthur, his wife, found the situation amusing and remarked that her husband had gone from holding the highest rank in the United States Army to holding the highest rank in a non-existent army. President Quezon conferred the title of Field Marshal on MacArthur in a ceremony at Malacañan Palace on August 24, 1936 when he appeared with a gold marshal's baton and a unique uniform; the Army of the Philippines included naval and air assets directly reporting to Army headquarters, the Philippine Constabulary part of the ground forces proper as a division. In 1938 the Constabulary Division was separated from the army and reorganized into a national police force.
MacArthur expanded the Army of the Philippines with the revival of the Navy in 1940 and the formation of the Philippine Army Air Corps, but they were not ready for combat at the start of the Pacific War in December 1941 and unable to defeat the 1941–42 Japanese invasion of the Philippines. In 1940-41, most soldiers of the Philippine military were incorporated in the U. S. Army Forces Far East, with MacArthur appointed as its commander. USAFFE made its last stand on Corregidor Island, after which Japanese forces were able to force all remaining Filipino and American troops to surrender; the establishment of the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army are military station went to the province during occupation. Those who survived the invasion but escaped from the Japanese formed the basis of recognized guerrilla units and ongoing local military force of the Philippine Commonwealth Army that continued the fighting against the enemy all over the islands; the Philippine Constabulary went on active service under the Armed Forces of the Philippines during liberation.
After Japan was defeated in World War II, the Philippines gained its independence in 1946. (This was its second independence after the Philippine Declaration of Independence i
United States Seventh Fleet
The Seventh Fleet is a numbered fleet of the United States Navy. It is headquartered at U. S. Fleet Activities Yokosuka, in Yokosuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, it is part of the United States Pacific Fleet. At present, it is the largest of the forward-deployed U. S. fleets, with 60 to 70 ships, 300 aircraft and 40,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel. Its principal responsibilities are to provide joint command in natural disaster or military operations and operational command of all naval forces in the region; the Seventh Fleet was formed on 15 March 1943 in Brisbane, during the World War II, under the command of Admiral Arthur S. "Chips" Carpender. It served in the South West Pacific Area under General Douglas MacArthur; the Seventh Fleet commander served as commander of Allied naval forces in the SWPA. Most of the ships of the Royal Australian Navy were part of the fleet from 1943 to 1945 as part of Task Force 74; the Seventh Fleet—under Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid—formed a large part of the Allied forces at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, in October 1944.
The Seventh Fleet fought in two of the Battle Leyte Gulf′s main actions, the Battle of Surigao Strait and the Battle off Samar. After the end of the war, the 7th Fleet moved its headquarters to China; as laid out in Operation Plan 13–45 of 26 August 1945, Kinkaid established five major task forces to manage operations in the Western Pacific: Task Force 71, the North China Force with 75 ships. After the war, on 1 January 1947, the Fleet's name was changed to Naval Forces Western Pacific. In late 1948, the Fleet moved its principal base of operations to the Philippines, where the Navy, following the war, had developed new facilities at Subic Bay and an airfield at Sangley Point. Peacetime operations of the Seventh Fleet were under the control of Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, Admiral Arthur W. Radford, but standing orders provided that, when operating in Japanese waters or in the event of an emergency, control would pass to Commander, Naval Forces Far East, a component of General Douglas MacArthur's occupation force.
On 19 August 1949 the force was designated as United States Seventh Task Fleet. On 11 February 1950, just prior to the outbreak of the Korean War, the force assumed the name United States Seventh Fleet, which it holds today. Seventh Fleet units participated in all major operations of the Vietnamese Wars; the first Navy jet aircraft used in combat was launched from a Task Force 77 aircraft carrier on 3 July 1950. The landings at Inchon, Korea were conducted by Seventh Fleet amphibious ships; the battleships Iowa, New Jersey and Wisconsin all served as flagships for Commander, U. S. Seventh Fleet during the Korean War. During the Korean War, the Seventh Fleet consisted of Task Force 70, a maritime patrol force provided by Fleet Air Wing One and Fleet Air Wing Six, Task Force 72, the Formosa Patrol, Task Force 77, Task Force 79, a service support squadron. Over the next decade the Seventh Fleet responded to numerous crisis situations including contingency operations conducted in Laos in 1959 and Thailand in 1962.
During September 1959, in the autumn of 1960, again in January 1961, the Seventh Fleet deployed multiship carrier task forces into the South China Sea. Although the Pathet Lao and North Vietnamese supporting forces withdrew in each crisis, in the spring of 1961 their offensive appeared on the verge of overwhelming the pro-American Royal Lao Army. Once again the fleet moved into Southeast Asian waters. By the end of April 1961, most of the Seventh Fleet was deployed off the Indochinese Peninsula preparing to initiate operations into Laos; the force consisted of the Coral Sea and Midway carrier battle groups, antisubmarine support carrier Kearsarge, one helicopter carrier, three groups of amphibious ships, two submarines, three Marine battalion landing teams. At the same time, shorebased air patrol squadrons and another three Marine battalion landing teams stood ready in Okinawa and the Philippines to support the afloat force. Although the administration of President John F. Kennedy had decided against American intervention to rescue the Laotian government, Communist forces halted their advance and agreed to negotiations.
The contending Laotian factions concluded a cease-fire on 8 May 1961. In June 1963 the Seventh Fleet held'Flagpole'63,' a joint naval exercise with the Republic of Korea. Seventh Fleet represented the first official entrance of the United States into the Vietnam War, with the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Between 1950 and 1970, the U. S. Seventh Fleet was known by the tongue-in-cheek nickname "Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club" since most of the fleet's operations were conducted from the Tonkin Gulf at the time. On 12 February 1965, USS Salisbury Sound became the first U. S. Navy ship to conduct operations inside Vietnam coastal waters. Salisbury Sound set up a seadrome in Da Nang Bay and conducted seaplane patrols in support of Operation Flaming Dart, the bombing of North Vietnamese army camps. Operating from Yankee Station off the north coast of Vietnam and the aptly-named Dixie Station off the south coast of Vietnam in the South China Sea,Seventh Fleet was organized into a series of task forces, often
A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone causing the victim to experience embarrassment, confusion, or discomfort. A person who performs a practical joke is called a "practical joker". Other terms for practical jokes include jape, or shenanigan. Practical jokes differ from confidence tricks or hoaxes in that the victim finds out, or is let in on the joke, rather than being talked into handing over money or other valuables. Practical jokes are lighthearted and without lasting impact, thus most practical jokes designed to encourage laughter. However, practical jokes performed with cruelty can constitute bullying, whose intent is to harass or exclude rather than reinforce social bonds through ritual humbling; some countries in Western culture traditionally emphasize the carrying out of practical jokes on April Fools' Day. A practical joke is "practical" because it consists of someone doing something physical, in contrast to a verbal or written joke. For example, the joker, setting up and conducting the practical joke might hang a bucket of water above a doorway and rig the bucket using pulleys so when the door opens the bucket dumps the water.
The joker would wait for the victim to walk through the doorway and be drenched by the bucket of water. Objects can feature in practical jokes, like fake vomit, chewing-gum bugs, exploding cigars, stink bombs and whoopee cushions. Practical jokes occur in offices to surprise co-workers. Examples include covering computer accessories with Jell-O, wrapping a desk with Christmas paper or aluminium foil or filling it with balloons. Practical jokes commonly occur during sleepovers, when teens play pranks on their friends as they come into the home, enter a room or as they sleep. American humorist H. Allen Smith wrote a 320-page book in 1953 called The Compleat Practical Joker that contains numerous examples of practical jokes; the book became a best seller - not only in the United States but in Japan. Moira Marsh has written an entire volume about practical jokes. - she found that in the USA males perpetrate such gags more than females. A practical joke recalled as his favorite by the playwright Charles MacArthur, concerns the American painter and bohemian character Waldo Peirce.
While living in Paris in the 1920s, Peirce "made a gift of a big turtle to the woman, the concierge of his building". The woman doted on the lavished care on it. A few days Peirce substituted a somewhat larger turtle for the original one; this continued for some time, with larger and larger turtles being surreptitiously introduced into the woman's apartment. The concierge was beside herself with happiness and displayed her miraculous turtle to the entire neighborhood. Peirce began to sneak in and replace the turtle with smaller and smaller ones, to her bewildered distress; this was the storyline behind Esio Trot, by Roald Dahl. Modern and successful pranks take advantage of the modernization of tools and techniques. In Canada, engineering students have a reputation for annual pranks. A similar prank was undertaken by engineering students at Cambridge University, where an Austin 7 car was put on top of the Senate House building. Pranks can adapt to the political context of the era. Students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are known for their "hacks".
Not unlike the Stone Louse of Germany, in the American West the jackalope has become an institutionalized practical joke perennially perpetrated by ruralites on tourists, most of whom have never heard of the decades-old myth. The 2003 TV movie Windy City Heat, consists of an elaborate practical joke on the film's star, Perry Caravallo, led to believe that he is starring in a faux action film, Windy City Heat, where the filming, ostensibly for the film's DVD extras documents the long chain of pranks and jokes performed at Caravallo's expense
A parody. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, animation and film; the writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche and burlesque. Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. According to Aristotle, Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody.
In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects". Indeed, the components of the Greek word are παρά para "beside, against" and ᾠδή oide "song". Thus, the original Greek word παρῳδία parodia has sometimes been taken to mean "counter-song", an imitation, set against the original; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect". Because par- has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule." Old Comedy contained parody the gods could be made fun of. The Frogs portrays the hero-turned-god Heracles as a glutton and the God of Drama Dionysus as cowardly and unintelligent; the traditional trip to the Underworld story is parodied as Dionysus dresses as Heracles to go to the Underworld, in an attempt to bring back a Poet to save Athens. In the 2nd century AD, Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-language writer in Syria, created a parody of travel/geography texts like Indica and The Odyssey.
He described the authors of such accounts as liars who had never traveled, nor talked to any credible person who had. In his named book True History Lucian delivers a story which exaggerates the hyperbole and improbable claims of those stories. Sometimes described as the first Science Fiction, along the lines of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the characters travel to the moon, engage in interplanetary war with the help of aliens they meet there, return to the earth to experience civilization inside a 200 mile long creature interpreted as being a whale; this is a parody of Ctesias' claims that India has a one-legged race of humans with a single foot so huge it can be used as an umbrella, Homer's stories of one-eyed giants, so on. Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neoclassical literature, parody was a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another to produce a humorous effect; the Ancient Greeks created satyr plays which parodied tragic plays with performers dressed like satyrs.
In classical music, as a technical term, parody refers to a reworking of one kind of composition into another. More a parody mass or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; the term is sometimes applied to procedures common in the Baroque period, such as when Bach reworks music from cantatas in his Christmas Oratorio. The musicological definition of the term parody has now been supplanted by a more general meaning of the word. In its more contemporary usage, musical parody has humorous satirical intent, in which familiar musical ideas or lyrics are lifted into a different incongruous, context. Musical parodies may imitate or refer to the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or a general style of music. For example, The Ritz Roll and Rock, a song and dance number performed by Fred Astaire in the movie Silk Stockings, parodies the Rock and Roll genre. Conversely, while the best-known work of Weird Al Yankovic is based on particular popular songs, it often utilises wildly incongruous elements of pop culture for comedic effect.
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was in common use, meaning to make fun of or re-create what you are doing. In the 20th century, parody has been heightened as the central and most representative artistic device, the catalysing agent of artistic creation and innovation; this most prom
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S