Military justice is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces. Many nation-states have separate and distinct bodies of law that govern the conduct of members of their armed forces; some states use special judicial and other arrangements to enforce those laws, while others use civilian judicial systems. Legal issues unique to military justice include the preservation of good order and discipline, the legality of orders, appropriate conduct for members of the military; some states enable their military justice systems to deal with civil offenses committed by their armed forces in some circumstances. Military justice is distinct from martial law, the imposition of military authority on a civilian population as a substitute for civil authority, is declared in times of emergency, war, or civil unrest. Most countries restrict when and in what manner martial law may be enforced. All Commands of the Canadian Forces are governed by the National Defence Act. Section 12 of the NDA§ authorizes the governor in council's creation of the Queen's Regulations and Orders.
The QR&Os are subordinate legislation having the force of law. Since the principle of delegatus non-potest delegare has not achieved rigid standing in Canada, the QR&Os authorize other military officials to generate orders having similar, but not equal, status; these instruments can be found in the Canadian Forces Administrative Orders and Defence Administrative Orders and Directives. For example, officer cadets attending military college are organized and subject to regulations more appropriate for their academic success than the enforcement of discipline, as might be expected of trained members. Volume IV, Appendix 6.1 of The Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Military Colleges applies. A judge advocate general has headed the Canadian military legal branch since before the First World War; the branch interprets the Canadian Forces' own internal rules and code of discipline, international and humanitarian laws and codes of war, such as the Geneva Conventions. In Canadian practice, armed combat is a regulated environment and legal officers are a crucial part of the planning that goes into operational decisions.
The Military Law Centre on the grounds of Royal Military College of Canada, staffed with military lawyers, oversees the education of officers and troops in legal matters, trains military lawyers and advises Ottawa on matters of policy and doctrine. Legal education is integrated into the regular training; the Finnish military law concerns the members of the Finnish Defence Forces and the Finnish Border Guard. The military jurisdiction encompasses all military persons: conscripts, students training for a paid military position, females serving voluntarily and paid military personnel. However, military chaplains are outside the criminal military jurisdiction. Reservists belong to the military jurisdiction when activated involuntarily; the military jurisdiction starts from the moment when a person reports to duty or was liable to report to duty and lasts to the moment when the person has been discharged from service and, in case of conscripts and involuntarily activated reservists, has left the military area.
During wartime civilians serving in the Defence Forces or in civilian institutions that have been put under the direction of Defence Forces are under military jurisdiction. Enemy prisoners of war fall under Finnish military jurisdiction during their imprisonment. Like in Germany, persons under military jurisdiction are under the usual civilian criminal law; the military criminal law, the 45th Chapter of the penal code, encompasses only the crimes which only military persons can commit. The most important of these are various types of "service crime" which encompasses all voluntary and negligent disobedience of orders and regulations, "guard crime", encompassing any misdeed during guarding duty, absence without leave, diverse forms of disobedience against superiors, misuses of a position as superior and behaviour unsuitable for military person. Other crimes are subject to usual civilian law; the military has a jurisdiction to investigate all military crimes proper, a number of other crimes that have been listed as belonging to the military jurisdiction.
These include e.g. various types of murder, theft, forgery, computer hacking and illegal divulging of classified information. However, they are only under military jurisdiction if the crime has been committed against another military person or against the Defence Forces. Unlike other crimes, the military crimes have separate sentence ranges for wartime. During wartime, the crimes carry larger sentence ranges and, if the crime causes the danger to the military unit, the sentence range is harsher. For example, desertion carries, in the peacetime, a sentence of disciplinary punishment or up to one year in prison. During wartime, it carries a mandatory prison sentence of not more than four years, and, if the crime caused a immediate danger to the unit, a mandatory minimum of one year, with a maximum sentence of ten years; when the military has jurisdiction over an ordinary crime, the crime carries fine as a punishment, a disciplinary punishment may be given
Ute Dam is a dam at Logan, New Mexico in Quay County, about 20 miles west of the Texas state line. The earthen dam was completed in 1963 by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, without federal funding, with a height of 132 feet and a length of 6,530 feet at its crest, it impounds the Canadian River for municipal water use. The dam is owned and operated by the Commission, authorized under state law to implement projects and negotiate with neighboring states on water issues. Ute Reservoir is the only large state-owned and operated reservoir in New Mexico. Structurally the Ute Dam has the largest labyrinth weir spillway in the United States, it was a 1984 addition to the original structure, designed by the United States Bureau of Reclamation, which raised the height of the lake by 27 feet. The reservoir it creates, Ute Reservoir, has a water surface of 8,200 acres and has a maximum capacity of 403,000 acre feet. Recreation includes fishing for largemouth bass, catfish and walleye, the facilities at the adjacent Ute Lake State Park
Radio Ethiopia is the second studio album by the Patti Smith Group. It released in October 1976 through Arista Records. Radio Ethiopia was the follow-up record to Smith's acclaimed debut Horses. In interviews surrounding the album's release, Smith explained that she chose producer Jack Douglas in hopes of making the album a commercial success; the album was negatively received when it was released and Smith was attacked by critics for what they perceived to be laziness, self-indulgence and selling out. The title track of the album is one of Smith's most notorious songs legendary for appearing to be "10 minutes of noise". Critics described live renditions of the song as negative moments of Smith's concerts. Patti herself spoke of the track and of how the lyrics refer to Arthur Rimbaud's dying wishes. Arguments both for and against the song have been advanced by critics and music listeners over whether the song is an example of the Patti Smith Group's boundary-pushing or self-indulgence. Critics in negative reviews cited that Douglas' production placed more emphasis on creating a heavy sound through numerous guitar parts which smothered Smith's vocals and, at times, lamented that all of the album's songs were originals of the group.
"Ain't It Strange" and "Distant Fingers", the latter co-written with Smith's long-time boyfriend Allen Lanier, had both been staples of the Group's concerts long before the recording of Horses. The album's cover photograph is by Judy Linn, the back of the album features a photo by Lynn Goldsmith; the album was dedicated to Constantin Brâncuși. The back cover of the album bears the legend: "Free Wayne Kramer", who at the time was incarcerated in Kentucky following his conviction for dealing cocaine. "Pissing in a River" was released as a single the same year. It was featured in the 1980 movie Times Square. In 2001, the album listed in Mojo's "Ultimate CD Buyers Guide". In a contemporary review of Radio Ethiopia, Rolling Stone critic Dave Marsh felt that Smith "seems to lack the direction necessary to live up to her own best ideas." In Creem, Richard Meltzer was more enthusiastic and wrote that "there no way I'm gonna be anything but thrilled to my shorthairs by a Patti LP and this one's no exception."
Music critic Robert Christgau stated that the album's sound "delivers the charge of heavy metal without the depressing predictability. "Radio Ethiopia" and "Abyssinia" were recorded live on 9 August 1976. "Chiklets" – 6:23 Patti Smith Group Patti Smith – vocals, design Lenny Kaye – guitar, vocals, mixing Jay Dee Daugherty – drums, mixing, consultant Ivan Kral – bass, guitar Richard Sohl – keyboards, pianoAdditional personnel Jack Douglas - Production Bob Irwin – mastering Brian Sperber – engineering George Marino – mastering Jay Messina – mixing, engineer Lynn Goldsmith – photography Nancy Greenberg – design Rod O'Brien – assistant engineer Sam Ginsberg – assistant engineer Vic Anesini – mastering Radio Ethiopia at AllMusic