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Military of Chad

The military of Chad consists of the National Army, Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force and National and Nomadic Guard. The main task of the Chadian military is to combat the various rebel forces inside the country. From independence through the period of the presidency of Félix Malloum, the official national army was known as the Chadian Armed Forces. Composed of soldiers from southern Chad, FAT had its roots in the army recruited by France and had military traditions dating back to World War I. FAT lost its status as the legal state army when Malloum's civil and military administration disintegrated in 1979. Although it remained a distinct military body for several years, FAT was reduced to the status of a regional army representing the south. After Habré consolidated his authority and assumed the presidency in 1982, his victorious army, the Armed Forces of the North, became the nucleus of a new national army; the force was constituted in January 1983, when the various pro-Habré contingents were merged and renamed the Chadian National Armed Forces.

The Military of Chad was dominated by members of Toubou, Kanembou and Massa ethnic groups during the presidency of Hissène Habré. Current Chadian president Idriss Déby, revolted and fled to the Sudan, taking with him many Zaghawa and Hadjerai soldiers in 1989. Chad's armed forces numbered about 36,000 at the end of the Habré regime, but swelled to an estimated 50,000 in the early days of Déby's rule. With French support, a reorganization of the armed forces was initiated early in 1991 with the goal of reducing its numbers and making its ethnic composition reflective of the country as a whole. Neither of these goals was achieved, the military is still dominated by the Zaghawa. In 2004, the government discovered that many of the soldiers it was paying did not exist and that there were only about 19,000 soldiers in the army, as opposed to the 24,000, believed. Government crackdowns against the practice are thought to have been a factor in a failed military mutiny in May 2004; the current conflict, in which the Chadian military is involved, is the civil war against Sudanese-backed rebels.

Chad manages to repel the rebel movements, but with some losses. The army uses its artillery systems and tanks, but well-equipped insurgents have managed to destroy over 20 of Chad's 60 t-55 tanks, shot down a Mi-24 Hind gunship, which bombed enemy positions near the border with Sudan. In November 2006 Libya supplied Chad with four Aermacchi SF.260W light attack planes. They are used to strike enemy positions by the Chadian Air Force. During the last battle of N'Djamena gunships and tanks have been put to good use, pushing armed militia forces back from the Presidential palace; the battle impacted the highest levels of the army leadership, as Daoud Soumain, its Chief of Staff, was killed. The CIA World Factbook estimates the military budget of Chad to be 4.2% of GDP as of 2006.. Given the GDP of the country, military spending was estimated to be about $300 million; this estimate however dropped after the end of the Civil war in Chad to 2.0% as estimated by the World Bank for the year 2011. There aren't any more recent estimates available for 2012, 2013.

UN missions non UN missionsChad participated in a peace mission under the authority of African Union in the neighboring Central African Republic to try to pacify the recent conflict, but has chosen to withdraw after its soldiers were accused of shooting into a marketplace, according to BBC. Brigade Chado-Cameroonian"Currently, Cameroon has an ongoing military-military relationship with Chad, which includes associates training for Chadian military in Cameroon. There are four brigade Chado-Cameroonian in January 2012. Cameroon and Chad are developing excellent relations". Chad Air Force Chadian Armed Forces Chadian National Armed Forces Nomad and National Guard This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website John Keegan "World Armies" ISBN 0-333-17236-1 R. Hure "L'Armee d' Afrique 1830-1962"

Kris Foucault

Kristopher Foucault is a Canadian professional ice hockey player. He is playing with ERC Ingolstadt of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Foucault was selected by the Minnesota Wild in the 4th round of the 2009 NHL Entry Draft; as a youth, Foucault played in the 2003 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with the Calgary Junior Flames minor ice hockey team. Foucault played major junior hockey in the Western Hockey League from 2006–07 to 2010–11, collecting 56 goals and 55 assists for 111 points in 195 games. Before his WHL career he spent a season with the Canmore Eagles in the AJHL. On May 27, 2011, the Minnesota Wild signed Foucault to a three-year entry level deal. On February 14, 2012, Foucault made his NHL debut, to become the 13th rookie to see ice time with the Wild during their 2011–12 season. In the 2013 -- 14 season, Foucault was assigned to the Iowa Wild. With no opportunity of a recall with Minnesota he recorded 11 goals and 22 points in 58 games with Iowa. Foucault was not tendered a qualifying offer with the Wild and was released as a free agent in the offseason.

On July 3, 2014, he signed his first European contract, on a one-year deal with Austrian club, Vienna Capitals of the EBEL. He completed the season ranked 13th in the league in scoring and moved to Switzerland for the 2015–16 campaign: He split the season between the ZSC Lions of the top-flight National League A and second-tier team GC Küsnacht Lions; as a member of Team Canada, Foucault won the Spengler Cup in December 2015. In May 2016, Foucault penned a two-year deal with the Grizzlys Wolfsburg of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga in Germany. After concluding his third season with the Grizzlys in 2018–19, Foucault opted to leave the club as a free agent on March 8, 2019. Foucault agreed to continue in the DEL, signing a one-year deal with ERC Ingolstadt on April 15, 2019. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Fort de Leveau

The Fort de Leveau known as Fort Schouller, is located in the commune of Feignies, France. It is part of the fortifications of Maubeuge, located to the northwest of the city, overlooking the railroad to Mons; the Séré de Rivières system fort was built one of six forts built at the time. It is maintained as a museum by the town of Feignies; the fort is a typical example of a Séré de Rivières system, with a low wall, surrounded by a ditch, in turn defended by caponiers. The roof of the barracks supports an artillery platform, or cavalier; the ditch was traversed by no longer extant. The position was bombarded in 1914. In 1893, four 120mm guns were mounted on the cavalier, while additional armament including 90mm guns were added in casemates. A 1914 project added a turret for two 75mm guns. However, the turret was not armed and equipped at the outbreak of World War I. In the 1930s the fort was chosen as a site for fortifications associated with the Maginot Line extension around Maubeuge, part of the "New Fronts" program.

An observation post, a casemate and a blockhouse were built on the fort. The casemate was furnished with a 25mm anti-tank gun, a machine gun port and an automatic rifle port. In 1870, France was occupied by the Prussian army; as a result of this defeat, the Séré de Rivières system of fortifications was planned and constructed to defend the nation. Maubeuge, located close by the border between France and Belgium, received a complete ring of forts. Construction started in 1882; the armament was improved in 1893, the fort was renovated again in 1914. In the opening stages of World War I the German army laid siege to Maubeuge, beginning 29 August 1914. On 7 September, the Fort de Leveau was bombarded by 25 42 cm projectiles and a number of 30.5 cm rounds damaging the fort, with one shot hitting the barracks and killing up to 120. At 1400 on the 7th, French forces evacuated the fort, shortly before the general surrender of the Maubeuge fortress. After occupying the fort, the Germans blew up the caponiers, the unfinished 75mm gun turret and other portions of the fort.

In the 1930s, France invested in the construction of the Maginot Line, which covered the eastern frontiers of France. The frontier with Belgium was regarded as a lesser priority because France's war plan called for the French Army to advance into Belgium and conduct an offensive there. Belatedly, France began construction of a limited series of defenses around Maubeuge in the mid-1930s; these fortifications were individually assaulted and captured in the opening phases of World War II. The Leveau fortifications were attacked on 18 May 1940 and were subdued that afternoon, with one defender dead. In 1944 the fort saw fighting between Resistance and German forces; the site was acquired by the town of Feignies in 1993 and is administered as a museum by the Association de Sauvegrade du Fort de Leveau. In 1998, excavations recovered the remains of nine soldiers killed in the 1914 siege, who were re-interred at the Assevent cemetery. Official site Fort de Leveau at Chemins de mémoire The Fort de Leveau on the website "Remembrance Trails of the Great War in Northern France"

Nicola Sanders

Nicola Clare Sanders is a British former track and field sprinter. She began her career as a 400 metres hurdles specialist before concentrating on the 400 metres from 2006 onwards, her 400 metres personal best is 49.65 seconds. She holds the British indoor record with 50.02 seconds, which ranks her as the fifth fastest woman of all-time indoors. Sanders career peaked in 2007 when she won the 400 metres at the 2007 European Indoor Championships, ran a personal best to win the silver medal at the 2007 World Championships behind compatriot Christine Ohuruogu. In the 4×400 metres relay, she won a bronze medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics and a gold medal at the 2012 World Indoor Championships, she won World Championship relay bronzes in 2005 and 2007. After two years of struggling with injury, she announced her retirement from athletics in October 2014. Sanders won a bronze medal in the 1999 European Athletics Junior Championships in Riga at 400 m hurdles; that same year she was 4th in the 400 m hurdles at the World Youth Championships.

In 2000, she was 5th in the 2000 World Junior Championships in Athletics, but won gold in the Commonwealth Youth Championships. She went to Amersham School. In 2005, she finished 6th at the World Student Games. In the 2005 Helsinki World Championships Sanders reached the semi finals. Together with Lee McConnell, Donna Fraser and Christine Ohuruogu she won a bronze medal in the 4 × 400 m relay, she was 4th in the Commonwealth Games of 2006 in the 400 m hurdles and was part of the team that won the 4 × 400 m relay, but they were subsequently disqualified. Since she has focused on 400 m and participates in hurdles races, she finished 6th in the 400 m final at the 2006 European Athletics Championships in Gothenburg. In 2007, she took gold in the 400 m competition in the 2007 European Athletics Indoor Championships in Birmingham, with a personal best and national record of 50.02 seconds. This was the 5th fastest indoor 400 m time in history, she won a bronze in the 4 × 400 m relay. In 2007, she had suffered knee and Achilles tendon problems, but on 27 August 2007 Nicola broke 50 seconds for the first time in her career, recording 49.77 seconds in the semi final of the 400 m at the World Athletics Championships in Osaka, Japan to move to #3 on the British all-time list.

She went on to finish 2nd in the final, behind fellow Briton, Christine Ohuruogu. Sanders set another personal best of 49.65, which puts her as the fourth fastest British athlete over 400 m, after Kathy Cook, Katharine Merry and Ohuruogu, who set a personal best in the World Championship final. During the final day of the championships on 2 September, Sanders anchored the British 4 × 400 m team to a bronze medal. In so doing she became the first female UK runner to break 49 seconds for a 400 metres relay leg, with a time of 48.76 seconds, beating Sally Gunnell's previous record of 49.46 seconds. Sanders went out of the 400 m at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the third semi-final in a time of 50.71 seconds. With a tough lane draw, lane 9, lacking the fitness that comes from an injury free run in to the season, Michael Johnson added,'she's got a little bit more 800 metres look to me this year than she did last year, there's just not the power, the arm drive that we saw in 2007.' She was part of the 4 × 400 m relay team which finished fifth in the final although the team was upgraded to bronze medal position following disqualification for doping offences of the teams finishing in second and fourth place.

In December 2011, Sanders was one of 12 British female sporting celebrities who posed for Clara Maidment a charity calendar in aid of Wellbeing of Women, in the lingerie of Nichole de Carle, wearing jewellery by Salima Hughes and Coster Diamonds. 400 meters - 49.65 Outdoors, 50.02 Indoors 400 meters hurdles - 55.32 Nicola Sanders at World Athletics Nicola Sanders interview profile thepowerof10

Duel in Dakar

Duel in Dakar is a 1951 French film directed by Georges Combret and Claude Orval and starring Maurice Régamey, Pierre Cressoy and Lysiane Rey. Maurice Régamey as Robert Vernier Pierre Cressoy as M. Pascal Lysiane Rey as Monique Gambier François Patrice as Julien Gambier Irène de Trebert as Irène Alexandre Rignault as Martinzal René Blancard as Doirel, chef du S. R. Raoul Marco as Vaminy Jean Gaven as Fred Jacques Dynam as Reinard Michel Flamme as Martin Paul Azaïs as Marco Maria Aranda Paul Bonifas as Le commandant Jean Clarieux as L'agent Fransined as Jimmy Robert Le Béal as Max René Lebrun Raymond Raynal as Bertrand Émile Riandreys as Le barman Jean Thielment as Charley André Wasley Philippe Rège. Encyclopedia of French Film Directors, Volume 1. Scarecrow Press, 2009. Duel in Dakar on IMDb

List of artillery Victoria Cross recipients

The Victoria Cross is a military decoration that may be bestowed upon members of the British or Commonwealth armed forces for acts of valour or gallantry performed in the face of the enemy. Within the British honours system and those of many Commonwealth nations it is the highest award a soldier can receive for actions in combat, it was established in 1856 and since has been awarded 1,356 times. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War; the traditional explanation of the source of the gunmetal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the siege of Sevastopol. Recent research has thrown suggesting a variety of origins; the original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived.

In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men; the Victoria Cross warrant was not amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920 but one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous. Due to its rarity, the VC is prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction. A number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross; the private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded. Following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museum's Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. Since 1990, three Commonwealth countries that retain the Queen as head of state have instituted their own versions of the VC; as a result, the original Victoria Cross is sometimes referred to as the "Commonwealth Victoria Cross" or the "Imperial Victoria Cross", to distinguish it from the newer awards.

The British Royal Regiment of Artillery was formed at Woolwich in 1716. Being present at every battle the British Army has been involved in, several of its batteries are now named after Victoria Cross actions. J Battery Royal Horse Artillery is one of these units, is named after the Battle of Sidi Rezegh during which Second Lieutenant George Gunn performed the deeds for which he was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross. Since its introduction there have been sixty-five awards of the Victoria Cross to artillerymen, awarded for bravery in eight different wars; the first award was during the last for the Second World War. The recipients include an Indian serving in the Indian Artillery, a member of the Royal Australian Artillery, sixteen members of the Bengal or Bombay Armies; the remainder have been from the three branches of the British Royal Artillery: the Royal Horse Artillery, the Royal Field Artillery, the Royal Garrison Artillery. Two artillerymen received the award for actions performed while they were serving with other formations, one in the First World War with the Royal Flying Corps, one in the Second World War with the British Commandos.

Footnotes Citations Crook, M. J.. The Evolution of the Victoria Cross. Midas Books. ISBN 0-85936-041-5