Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe is a small nation composed of an archipelago located in the Gulf of Guinea of equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The nation's main islands are São Tomé Príncipe Island, for which the country is named; these are located about 300 and 250 kilometres off the northwest coast of Gabon in Central Africa. The nation's geographic coordinates are a latitude of 1°00′N and a longitude of 7°00′E. São Tomé and Príncipe constitute one of Africa's smallest countries, with 209 km of coastline. Both are part of an extinct volcanic mountain range, which includes the island of Bioko in Equatorial Guinea to the northeast and Mount Cameroon on the mainland coast further northeast. São Tomé is the more mountainous of the two islands, its peaks reach 2,024 m - Pico de São Tomé. Principe is 6 km wide, making it the smaller of the two, its peaks reach 948 m - Pico de Príncipe. This makes the total land area of the country 1,001 km2, about five times the size of Washington, D. C.. Both islands are crossed by swift streams radiating down the mountains through lush forest and cropland to the sea.
Both islands at a distance of 150 km2. The equator lies south of São Tomé Island, passing through an islet Ilhéu das Rolas; the Pico Cão Grande is a landmark volcanic plug peak, located at 0°7′0″N 6°34′00″E in southern São Tomé. It rises over 300 m above the surrounding terrain and the summit is 663 m above sea level. At sea level, the climate is tropical—hot and humid with average yearly temperatures of about 27 °C and little daily variation. At the interior's higher altitudes, the average yearly temperature is 20 °C, nights are cool. Annual rainfall varies from 5,000 mm on the southwestern slopes to 1,000 mm in the northern lowlands; the rainy season runs from October to May. The two islands are oceanic islands which have always been separate from mainland Central Africa and so there is a low diversity of species, restricted to those that have managed to cross the sea to the islands; however the level of endemism is high with many species occurring nowhere else in the world. Maritime claims: Measured from claimed archipelagic baselines Exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi Territorial sea: 12 nmi Climate Tropical.
Northernmost point - unnamed headland on Ilheu Bom Bom Easternmost point - Ponta Capitão, Príncipe Southernmost point - unnamed headland on Ilhéu das Rolas Westernmost point - Ponta Azeitona São Tomé and Príncipe
Response Boat – Medium
The Response Boat – Medium is a 45-foot utility boat used by the United States Coast Guard. It is a replacement for the Coast Guard's retired fleet of 41-foot utility boats, in use by the Coast Guard since the 1970s; the Coast Guard plans to acquire 170 of these RB-Ms over a 6–10 year period. The boats will be built by Vigor Industrial of Kent and Marinette Marine Corporation of Marinette, Wisconsin. In the summer of 2017; the Canadian Coast Guard purchased a used 45 RBM from the United States Coast Guard. It is based in Vancouver British Columbia using the callsign Coast Guard 158. According to the US Coast Guard, "While a search and rescue asset when the 41' UTB was first fielded, the evolution of missions has increased the requirement to perform many missions including recreational boating safety, marine environmental protection, enforcement of laws and treaties, ports and coastal security, defense operations, including those traditional missions associated with Homeland Security." The boat has a double chine hull, which provides a balance of performance and stability.
The vessel is self-righting. Below the pilot house are six compartments: Lazarette Auxiliary machinery compartment Engine room Survivors' Compartment Forepeak Head FLIR navigator thermal imager Furuno scalable integrated navigation system Furuno radios Gentex LVIS digital intercom system Taiyo TD-L1550A VHF Direction Finder Motorola 5000 digital mobile radio Mount for KY-99 makes RB-M ready for secure communications L3 Communications automatic identification system In keeping with standard USCG practice, boats of this size have hull numbers and are not named; this type of boat has a hull number beginning with the length of the boat and a sequential number. In the case of the RB-M boats, the hull numbers begin with 601, thus the first boat will be RB-M 45601. Sources: Equipment of the United States Coast Guard "Response Boat – Medium History". Kvichak Marine Industries
São Tomé Island
São Tomé Island, at 854 km2, is the largest island of São Tomé and Príncipe and is home to about 157,000 or 96% of the nation's population. The island is divided into six districts, it is located 2 km north of the equator. São Tomé Island is about 48 kilometres long by 32 kilometres wide, it rises to 2,024 metres at Pico de São Tomé and includes the capital city, São Tomé, on the northeast coast. The nearest city on mainland Africa is the port city of Port Gentil in Gabon located 240 kilometres to the east; the island is surrounded by a number of small islands, including Ilhéu das Rolas, Ilhéu das Cabras and Ilhéu Gabado. The main language is Portuguese, but there are many speakers of Forro and Angolar, two Portuguese-based creole languages; the entire island of São Tomé is a massive shield volcano that rises from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, over 3,000 m below sea level. It formed along the Cameroon line, a line of volcanoes extending from Cameroon southwest into the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the lava erupted on São Tomé over the last million years has been basalt.
The youngest dated rock on the island is about 100,000 years old, but numerous more recent cinder cones are found on the southeast side of the island. The higher slopes of the island are forested and form part of the Parque Natural Obô de São Tomé, but agriculture is important near the north and east coasts; the chief exports are cocoa, coffee and palm products, while there is a fishing industry. Large reserves of oil are in the ocean between Nigeria and São Tomé; the discovery has been lamented by some as endangering the nation's political stability and natural environment. In response to these concerns the government of São Tomé and Príncipe has drawn up legislation in an attempt to ensure the efficient and equitable use of oil revenues over time; the island has a total of 63 regular bird species, plus an additional 36 vagrant and unconfirmed species. Of these, 19 are endemic and 3 near endemic. Six species are considered vulnerable, two critically endangered. São Tomé is divided into the following six districts: Água Grande Cantagalo Caué Lembá Lobata Mé-Zóchi Villages on the island include: "Sao Tome".
Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. CIA Word Fact Book
The Jeep Wrangler is a series of compact and mid-size four-wheel drive off-road SUVs, manufactured by Jeep since 1986, in its fourth generation. The Wrangler JL, the most recent generation, was unveiled in late 2017 and is produced at Jeep's Toledo Complex; the Wrangler is arguably an indirect progression from the World War II Jeep, through the CJ produced by Willys, Kaiser-Jeep and American Motors Corporation from the mid-1940s through 1980s. Although neither AMC nor Chrysler have claimed that the Wrangler was a direct descendant of the original military model — both the CJ Jeeps and the conceptually consistent Wrangler, with their solid axles and open top, have been called the Jeep model as central to Jeep's brand identity as the rear-engined 911 is to Porsche. Similar to the Willys MB and the CJ Jeeps before it, all Wrangler models continue to use a separate body and frame, rigid live axles both front and rear, a tapering nose design with flared fenders, a fold-flat windshield, can be driven without doors.
With few exceptions, they have part-time four-wheel drive systems, with the choice of high and low gearing, standard are open bodies with removable hard- or soft-tops. However, the Wrangler series was redesigned to be safer and more comfortable on-road, to attract more daily drivers, by upgrading its suspension and interior, compared to the CJ line; the suspension on all Wranglers included trackbars and anti-roll bars, from the 1997 TJ onwards and rear coil springs instead of the previous leaf-springs. From 2004 the Wrangler has been complemented with long-wheelbase versions, called Wrangler Unlimited. 2004-2006 models were longer versions with 2 doors. In 2004 only automatic transmission equipped “Unlimited” versions were sold. In 2005 both an automatic and manual 6-speed were offered. Since 2007, the long-wheelbase Wranglers were four-door models. By mid 2017 the four-door models represented three quarters of all new Wranglers on the market. Outwardly resembling the Jeep CJ-7, the first Wrangler, formally announced in February 1986 at the 1986 Chicago Auto Show, was based on a new set of design parameters.
"The product philosophy behind the two vehicles" François Castaing explained, "is different". Although the 1987 Wrangler YJ continued to use a separate body and frame, with the same wheelbase as the CJ-7, still solid axles both front and rear, it was a new design, that borrowed its suspension and interior from the 1984 Cherokee model; the new car had a wider track less ground clearance, more comfort and improved handling. The YJ still had leaf spring suspension similar to that of the CJ – however the springs were wider, the first Wrangler sported trackbar suspension links and anti-roll bars for improved handling and safety, making it less easy to flip by untrained or unwary drivers; the Wrangler debuted in 1986 as a new model after discontinuance of the famous Jeep CJ series. It was revised in 1996, redesigned in 2006. In addition to the model name Wrangler, each model received a designation corresponding to its generation: YJ, TJ, TJU's, JKU and JK, the latest JL model, introduced for the 2018 model year.
Foreign military versions of the Wrangler have carried the J8 designation, dubbed TJL when first produced at Arab American Vehicle's Egyptian plant. Jeep YJ models were manufactured between 1986 and 1995 at Brampton Assembly, subsequently at the Toledo South Assembly plant. A major difference in the 1987–1995 models were the rectangular headlights, which reverted to rounded ones in the TJ and JK versions. In 2006, Wrangler production was moved to Toledo Complex. Post-2006 Wranglers were set apart from their predecessors by the angle of the grille. In all previous models, the grille was flat and with the front fenders; the newer Wrangler was constructed with a grille which angled out from the top, continued in a straight line from the midway point, toward the bottom. This decreased the hood length, while increasing the length of the fenders. In more recent models, this angle has been lowered more toward the bottom of the grille. In Egypt, the YJ was produced as well as a long wheel-base version, dubbed LJ, which has retained the 2-door design.
The YJL is considered as the first predecessor of the JK's long wheel-base by continuing as TJL which has directly inspired the JK's 4-door. There is a Jeep Wrangler pickup coming into production in 2019 called the Gladiator. Although introduced in 1986, by 1987 under new ownership of Chrysler, the first-generation Wrangler had still been developed by American Motors Corporation, it featured rectangular headlamps, differing from the round ones on the CJ Jeeps. Although continuing many essentials, such as an open body on a separate frame, with the same wheelbase, part-time 4WD and live rigid axles on leaf-springs, both front and rear, just like the CJ-7 – it was a new design with a wider track less ground clearance, more comfort and improved safety and handling. Israeli military carmaker Automotive Industries Ltd. introduced its first generation of the AIL Storm, the workhorse off-road vehicle of the Israeli Security Forces, as a variant of the 1991 Wrangler YJ, but on the 103.5 in CJ-6 / CJ-8 wheelbase
PPS submachine gun
The PPS is a family of Soviet submachine guns chambered in 7.62×25mm Tokarev, developed by Alexei Sudayev as a low-cost personal defense weapon for reconnaissance units, vehicle crews and support service personnel. The PPS and its variants were used extensively by the Red Army during World War II and were adopted by the armed forces of several countries of the former Warsaw Pact as well as its many African and Asian allies; the PPS was created in response to a Red Army requirement for a compact and lightweight weapon with similar accuracy and projectile energy to the Soviet PPSh-41 submachine gun deployed at the time, with reduced rate of fire, produced at lower material cost and requiring fewer man-hours skilled labour. Sudayev was ordered by the State Commission for Armaments to perfect for large-scale production the sub-machine gun design of Lieutenant I. K. Bezruchko-Vysotsky from the Dzerzhinsky Artillery Academy, who had created two prototypes in 1942. During design, emphasis was placed on simplifying production and eliminating most machining operations.
These measures reduced the number of machined components to a bare minimum, cutting down machining time by more than half, to 2.7 hours of machining instead of 7.3 hours for the PPSh-41. There were savings of over 50% in raw steel usage, down to 6.2 kg instead of 13.9 kg, fewer workers were required to manufacture and assemble the parts. Thanks to the improvements in production efficiency, the Soviet planners estimated that the new gun would have allowed an increase in monthly submachine gun output from 135,000 units to 350,000 weapons. Prototypes were field tested between 26 April and 12 May 1942. By July, Shpagin had finished his own improved model, it was pitted in field trials against the PPS, found superior in most respects: accuracy, maneuverability. (This was a large scale contest, in which 20 designs participated. On July 28, 1942 GAU head N. D. Yakovlev and his aide Ivan Novikov presented Sudayev's gun to the State Defense Committee for approval; the firearm was accepted into service as the PPS-42.
The weapon was put into small-scale production during the Siege of Leningrad. The factory in charge for the pilot production starting in December 1942 was the Sestroretsk Tool Factory The first series guns were presented for personal inspection to Andrei Zhdanov and Leonid Govorov in the same month; the full-scale production began in 1943, the official count of PPS-42 guns produced was 46,572. Most were used during the military trials by the soldiers of the Leningrad Front; the military trials took place between January and April 1943. Due to the massive investment made in machinery for PPSh-41 production, being produced in more than a million pieces per year, it turned out it would have been uneconomical to abandon its production in favor of the PPS. By end of the war some two million PPS-43 submachine guns were made. Due to the oversupply of the Soviet army with submachine guns after the war, production of the PPS in the Soviet Union ceased in 1946. In the last two years of the war, Sudayev continued to experiment with improvements for his submachine gun.
Six of his prototype models, made in 1944 and 1945, are found in the Military Historical Museum of Artillery and Signal Corps. These have variations in bolt shape and weight, as well as more obvious outward differences like a wooden, non-folding stock or a folding bayonet; the PPS remained in service with some Soviet forces until the mid-1950s. Among the last to relinquish it were crews of armored vehicles and the Naval Infantry; some World War II-era weapons found their way to the Chinese People's Liberation Army and were subsequently captured by UN forces in the Korean War. The PPS is an automatic blowback-operated weapon; the bolt is cylindrical in shape and contains a spring-loaded claw extractor, which pulls the empty case out of the chamber to be ejected. The ejector is mounted at the head of the recoil spring guide rod, which runs through a hole in the bolt; the charging handle is located on the right side. Early versions of the PPS had a fixed but replaceable firing pin, held in place by the extractor spring.
Pulling the trigger releases the bolt, which moves forward, stripping a round from the magazine, chambering it and striking the primer in one motion. The PPS has a trigger mechanism that allows only automatic fire and a manual safety that secured them against accidental discharges; when in the "safe" position, both the bolt and trigger are disabled. The weapon is fed from curved 35-round box magazines, they are not interchangeable with magazines used in the PPSh-41, nor can the gun use drum magazines. It is chambered for the 7.62×25mm Tokarev M1930 pistol cartridge. The submachine gun's rifled barrel is mounted in a perforated sheet metal heat guard and is equipped with a crude muzzle brake, consisting of a strip of steel bent into a U-shape that deflects exiting muzzle gases to th
The AK-47 known as the Avtomat Kalashnikova, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is the originating firearm of the Kalashnikov rifle family. Design work on the AK-47 began in 1945. In 1946, the AK-47 was presented for official military trials, in 1948, the fixed-stock version was introduced into active service with selected units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS, equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In early 1949, the AK-47 was accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact. After seven decades, the model and its variants remain the most popular and used assault rifles in the world because of their substantial reliability under harsh conditions, low production costs compared to contemporary Western weapons, availability in every geographic region and ease of use; the AK-47 has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces and insurgencies worldwide, was the basis for developing many other types of individual, crew-served and specialised firearms.
As of 2004, "Of the estimated 500 million firearms worldwide 100 million belong to the Kalashnikov family, three-quarters of which are AK-47s". During World War II, the Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle used by German forces made a deep impression on their Soviet counterparts; the select-fire rifle was chambered for a new intermediate cartridge, the 7.92×33mm Kurz, combined the firepower of a submachine gun with the range and accuracy of a rifle. On 15 July 1943, an earlier model of the Sturmgewehr was demonstrated before the People's Commissariat of Arms of the USSR; the Soviets were impressed with the weapon and set about developing an intermediate caliber automatic rifle of their own, to replace the PPSh-41 submachine guns and outdated Mosin–Nagant bolt-action rifles that armed most of the Soviet Army. The Soviets soon developed the 7.62×39mm M43 cartridge, the semi-automatic SKS carbine and the RPD light machine gun. Shortly after World War II, the Soviets developed the AK-47 assault rifle, which would replace the SKS in Soviet service.
Introduced in 1959, the AKM is a lighter stamped steel version and the most ubiquitous variant of the entire AK series of firearms. In the 1960s, the Soviets introduced the RPK light machine gun, an AK type weapon with a stronger receiver, a longer heavy barrel, a bipod, that would replace the RPD light machine gun. Mikhail Kalashnikov began his career as a weapon designer in 1941, while recuperating from a shoulder wound which he received during the Battle of Bryansk. Kalashnikov himself stated..."I was in the hospital, a soldier in the bed beside me asked:'Why do our soldiers have only one rifle for two or three of our men, when the Germans have automatics?' So I designed one. I was a soldier, I created a machine gun for a soldier, it was called an Avtomat Kalashnikova, the automatic weapon of Kalashnikov—AK—and it carried the year of its first manufacture, 1947."The AK-47 is best described as a hybrid of previous rifle technology innovations. "Kalashnikov decided to design an automatic rifle combining the best features of the American M1 and the German StG44."
Kalashnikov's team had access to these weapons and had no need to "reinvent the wheel". Kalashnikov himself observed: "A lot of Russian Army soldiers ask me how one can become a constructor, how new weaponry is designed; these are difficult questions. Each designer seems to have his own successes and failures, but one thing is clear: before attempting to create something new, it is vital to have a good appreciation of everything that exists in this field. I myself have had many experiences confirming this to be so."There are claims about Kalashnikov copying other designs, like Bulkin's TKB-415 or Simonov's AVS-31. Kalashnikov started work on a submachine gun design in 1942 and with a light machine gun in 1943. "Early in 1944, Kalashnikov was given some 7.62×39mm M43 cartridges and informed that there were several designers working on weapons for this new Soviet small-arms cartridge. It was suggested to him that this new weapon might well lead to greater things, he undertook work on the new rifle."
In 1944, he entered a design competition with this new 7.62×39mm, semi-automatic, gas-operated, long stroke piston, carbine influenced by the American M1 Garand. "The rifle that Kalashnikov designed was in the same class as the familiar SKS-45 Simonov with fixed magazine and gas tube above the barrel." However, this new Kalashnikov design lost out to a Simonov design. In 1946, a new design competition was initiated to develop a new assault rifle. Kalashnikov submitted an entry, it was gas-operated rifle with a short-stroke gas piston above the barrel, a breech-block mechanism similar to his 1944 carbine, a curved 30-round magazine. Kalashnikov's rifles AK-1 and AK-2 proved to be reliable weapons and were accepted to a second round of competition along with other designs; these prototypes had a rotary bolt, a two-part receiver with separate trigger unit housing, dual controls and a non-reciprocating charging handle located on the left side of the weapon. This design had many similarities to the STG 44.
In late 1946, as the rifles were being tested, one of Kalashnikov's assistants, Aleksandr Zaitsev, suggested a major redesign to improve reliability. At first, Kalashnikov wa
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 140 kilometres apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Gabon, respectively; the islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Colonised and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade; the rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. Cycles of social unrest and economic instability throughout the 19th and 20th centuries culminated in peaceful independence in 1975. São Tomé and Príncipe has since remained one of Africa's most democratic countries. With a population of 199,910, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African sovereign state after Seychelles, as well as the smallest Portuguese-speaking country.
Its people are predominantly with most practising Roman Catholicism. The legacy of Portuguese rule is visible in the country's culture and music, which fuse European and African influences. São Tomé and Príncipe is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived sometime around 1470. The islands were discovered by João de Pêro Escobar. Portuguese navigators explored the islands and decided that they would be good locations for bases to trade with the mainland; the dates of discovery are sometimes given as 21 December 1471, for São Tomé. Príncipe was named Santo Antão, changing its name in 1502 to Ilha do Príncipe, in reference to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid; the first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement.
Attracting settlers proved difficult and most of the earliest inhabitants were "undesirables" sent from Portugal Jews. In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture the growing of sugar. By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina; the cultivation of sugar was a labour-intensive process and the Portuguese began to enslave large numbers of Africans from the mainland. By the mid-16th century the Portuguese settlers had turned the islands into Africa's foremost exporter of sugar. São Tomé and Príncipe were taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown in 1522 and 1573, respectively. However, competition from sugar-producing colonies in the Western Hemisphere began to hurt the islands; the large enslaved population proved difficult to control, with Portugal unable to invest many resources in the effort. Sugar cultivation thus declined over the next 100 years, by the mid-17th century, the economy of São Tomé had changed.
It was now a transit point for ships engaged in the slave trade between the West and continental Africa. In the early 19th century, two new cash crops and cocoa, were introduced; the rich volcanic soils proved well suited to the new cash crop industry, soon extensive plantations, owned by Portuguese companies or absentee landlords, occupied all of the good farmland. By 1908, São Tomé had become the world's largest producer of cocoa, which remains the country's most important crop; the roças system, which gave the plantation managers a high degree of authority, led to abuses against the African farm workers. Although Portugal abolished slavery in 1876, the practice of forced paid labour continued. Scientific American magazine documented in words and pictures the continued use of slaves in São Tomé in its 13 March 1897 issue. In the early 20th century, an internationally publicized controversy arose over charges that Angolan contract workers were being subjected to forced labour and unsatisfactory working conditions.
Sporadic labor unrest and dissatisfaction continued well into the 20th century, culminating in an outbreak of riots in 1953 in which several hundred African laborers were killed in a clash with their Portuguese rulers. This "Batepá Massacre" remains a major event in the colonial history of the islands, its anniversary is observed by the government. By the late 1950s, when other emerging nations across the African Continent demanded their independence, a small group of São Toméans had formed the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe, which established its base in nearby Gabon. Picking up momentum in the 1960s, events moved after the overthrow of the Caetano dictatorship in Portugal in April 1974; the new Portuguese regime was committed to the dissolution of its overseas colonies. In November 1974, their representatives met with the MLSTP in Algiers and worked out an agreement for the transfer of sovereignty. After a period of transitional government, São Tomé and Príncipe achieved independence on 12 July 1975, choosing as the first president the MLSTP Secretary General