click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Military ordinariate

A military ordinariate is an ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church, of the Latin or an Eastern church, responsible for the pastoral care of Catholics serving in the armed forces of a nation. Until 1986, they were called "military vicariates" and had a status similar to that of apostolic vicariates, which are headed by a bishop who receives his authority by delegation from the Pope; the apostolic constitution Spirituali militum curae of 21 April 1986 raised their status, declaring that the bishop who heads one of them is an "ordinary", holding authority by virtue of his office, not by delegation from another person in authority. It likened the military vicariates to dioceses; each of them is headed by a bishop. If the bishop is a diocesan rather than a titular bishop, he is to delegate the daily functions to an auxiliary bishop or a lower cleric; some nations have military ordinariates of the Anglican Communion and Eastern Orthodoxy. The personal ordinariates for Anglicans entering the Catholic Church announced on 20 October 2009 are similar in some ways to the existing military ordinariates.

But the jurisdiction of military ordinariates is cumulative to that of the diocesan bishops. Military Ordinariates in the world by GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy.org

Backup camera

A backup camera is a special type of video camera, produced for the purpose of being attached to the rear of a vehicle to aid in backing up, to alleviate the rear blind spot. It is designed to avoid a backup collision; the area directly behind vehicles has been described as a "killing zone" due to associated accidents. Backup cameras are connected to the vehicle head unit display; the design of a backup camera is distinct from other cameras in that the image is horizontally flipped so that the output is a mirror image. This is necessary because the camera and the driver face opposite directions, without it, the camera's right would be on the driver's left and vice versa. A mirrored image makes the orientation of the display consistent with the physical mirrors installed on the vehicle. A backup camera sports a wide-angle or fisheye lens. While such a lens spoils the camera's ability to see faraway objects, it allows the camera to see an uninterrupted horizontal path from one rear corner to the other.

The camera is pointed on a downward angle, to view potential obstacles on the ground as well as the position of approaching walls and docks, rather than straight back. Backup cameras are common on vehicles, such as motorhomes. With the rise in popularity of in-dash DVD players and GPS navigation systems which aid in justifying the expense of adding a color LCD to the driver's seat, they have become much more common available as optional factory accessories on standard passenger trucks and sport utility vehicles, as well as aftermarket accessories. Inside the vehicle, the display is wired to automatically sense when the transmission is set in reverse, showing the backup view while in reverse and or providing grid guidelines by detecting the parking lot markings to aid the driver; the display will show the map on the screen at all other times in other gear modes in most parking systems. Backup cameras are produced in different varieties depending on the application. Backup or Reversing Cameras can be added as aftermarket additions to vehicles that do not come with factory-fitted systems.

They are available in wireless versions. For large vehicles such as motorhomes, camera systems with built-in servomechanisms allow the driver to remotely pan and tilt the camera. Wireless Backup Cameras come with a wireless camera and receiver, which make it easier and cheaper to install them. Built-in audio intercoms are used in addition to the camera system for communicating with a spotter outside the vehicle - common when backing large trailers or launching boats. Night vision cameras use a series of infrared lights for backing in the dark, when the positioning or the intensity of the vehicle's white reverse lights are insufficient for this purpose. Portable or semi-permanent all-in-one camera systems are sold for vehicles that don't have displays permanently installed in the dash; such systems consist of a small portable screen that can be affixed on the dashboard or on rearview mirror, a length of wire to reach the cameras, including a backup camera. So, some backup and rear cameras are connected to displays on the rearview mirror and are used in vehicles to detect activity behind the car to "avoid the tooling, software and testing costs associated with integrating the display/feature in other areas of the vehicle."

License-plate-frame versions permit permanent installation without any permanent vehicle modifications. Custom cameras: brake light cameras are combination devices that contain a camera, while still illuminating as a brake light; some backup cameras use a combination of LEDs surrounding the camera lens to illuminate the surroundings while in use. The first backup camera was used in the 1956 Buick Centurion concept car, presented in January 1956 at the General Motors Motorama; the vehicle had a rear-mounted television camera that sent images to a TV screen in the dashboard in place of the rear-view mirror. The 1972 Volvo Experimental Safety Car had a backup camera. However, the camera element did not make it into the following Volvo 240 model; the first production automobile to incorporate a backup camera was the 1991 Toyota Soarer Limited, only available in Japan and not on its U. S. counterpart, the Lexus SC. The Toyota system used a color EMV screen, with a rear-spoiler-mounted CCD camera; the system was discontinued in 1997.

In April 2000, Nissan's Infiniti luxury division introduced the RearView Monitor on the 2002 Q45 flagship sedan at the 2000 New York International Auto Show. Introducing coloured onscreen guide lines as a parking distance parameter, the RearView Monitor operated from a license-plate-mounted camera in the trunk that transmitted a mirrored image to an in-dash LCD screen, it was available as optional equipment upon North American market launch in March 2001. The 2002 Nissan Primera introduced the RearView Monitor backup camera system to territories outside Japan and North America. Aftermarket options for cars have been available for some time. Electronics manufacturers have made multiple car upgrades available that can be installed by professionals without replacing the car's center console. Other types of camera systems can give a more comprehensive view. In 2007 Nissan introduced their "Around View Monitor" on the 2008 Infiniti EX35, which uses four cameras to give a bird's eye view of the vehicle.

BMW introduced their competing system called Surround View in 2009 on the F10 5 Series. Other automobile manufacturers have since offered similar systems and 2011 Toyota Introduced Panoramic View Monitor in a

Minamoto no Yoshitsune (TV series)

Mina Moto no Yoshitsune is a 1966 Japanese television series. It is the 4th NHK taiga drama. Taikōki deals with the Kamakura period. Based on Genzō Murakami's novels "Minamoto no Yoshitsune"; the story chronicles the life of Minamoto no Yoshitsune. Onoe Kikunosuke VII as Minamoto no Yoshitsune Ken Ogata as Benkei Junko Fuji as Shizuka Gozen Isuzu Yamada as Tokiwa Gozen Hiroshi Akutagawa as Minamoto no Yoritomo Michiko Otsuka as Hojo Masako Jun Tazaki Shin Kishida Kazuo Kitamura Isao Hashizume Ryutaro Tashumi as Taira no Kityomori Chiyonosuke Azuma as Taira no Munemori Kazuo Funaki as Taira no Atsumori Takashi Yamaguchi as Taira no Noritsune Takeshi Katō as Taira no Kagekiyo Osamu Takizawa as Fujiwara no Hidehira Mayumi Ogawa as Shinobu Masakazu Tamura as Fujiwara no Tadahira Daisuke Katō as Kaneuri Kichiji Misako Watanabe as Akane Fumio Watanabe Ryūtarō Ōtomo as Togashi Yasuie

David N. Kelley

David N. Kelley is an American attorney and a former interim United States Attorney and Deputy U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, he was a co-chair of the United States Justice Department’s nationwide investigation into the September 11 attacks. Kelley, who served as chief of the organized crime and terrorism unit in the U. S. Attorney's Office for the SDNY, is noted for leading the investigations of the 2000 millennium attack plots and the October 2000 attack on the USS Cole in Yemen, for prosecuting Ramzi Yousef for his role in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, he was named Special Assistant United States Attorney in the Eastern District of Virginia acting as co-lead prosecutor of John Walker Lindh. Kelley is noted for obtaining convictions of WorldCom CEO Bernie Ebbers in his prosecution for accounting fraud and Martha Stewart in the ImClone stock trading case. Kelley was raised in East Hampton, New York, has lived in the New York metropolitan area for most of his life.

He earned his undergraduate degree from The College of William & Mary and his J. D. degree in 1986 from New York Law School. Kelley was a fireman while attending law school. After leaving the U. S. Attorney's office in 2005, Kelley joined Wall Street law firm Cahill Gordon & Reindel as a partner in its litigation and corporate investigations practice, he is a partner and co-leader in the White Collar and Securities Litigation practice group at Dechert

Gregory of Nyssa

Gregory of Nyssa known as Gregory Nyssen, was bishop of Nyssa from 372 to 376 and from 378 until his death. He is venerated as a saint in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism. Gregory, his elder brother Basil of Caesarea, their friend Gregory of Nazianzus are collectively known as the Cappadocian Fathers. Gregory lacked the administrative ability of his brother Basil or the contemporary influence of Gregory of Nazianzus, but he was an erudite theologian who made significant contributions to the doctrine of the Trinity and the Nicene Creed. Gregory's philosophical writings were influenced by Origen. Since the mid-twentieth century, there has been a significant increase in interest in Gregory's works from the academic community involving universal salvation, which has resulted in challenges to many traditional interpretations of his theology; the book of Acts depicts that on the Day of Pentecost there were visiting Jews who were "residents of... Cappadocia" in attendance.

In the First Epistle of Peter, written after AD 65, the author greets Christians who are "exiles scattered throughout…Cappadocia." There is no further reference to Cappadocia in the rest of the New Testament. Christianity arose in Cappadocia late with no evidence of a Christian community before the late second century AD. Alexander of Jerusalem was the first bishop of the province in the early to mid third century, a period in which Christians suffered persecution from the local Roman authorities; the community remained small throughout the third century: when Gregory Thaumaturgus acceded to the bishopric in c. 250, according to his namesake, the Nyssen, there were only seventeen members of the Church in Caesarea. Cappadocian bishops were among those at the Council of Nicaea; because of the broad distribution of the population, rural bishops were appointed to support the Bishop of Caesarea. During the late fourth century there were around fifty of them. In Gregory's lifetime, the Christians of Cappadocia were devout, with the cults of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste and Saint George being significant and represented by a considerable monastic presence.

There were some adherents of heretical branches of Christianity, most notably Arians and Messalians. Gregory was born around 335 in or near the city of Neocaesarea, Pontus, his family was aristocratic and Christian - according to Gregory of Nazianzus, his mother was Emmelia of Caesarea, his father, a rhetorician, has been identified either as Basil the Elder or as a Gregory. Among his eight siblings were St. Macrina the Younger, St. Naucratius, St. Peter of Sebaste and St. Basil of Caesarea; the precise number of children in the family was contentious: the commentary on 30 May in the Acta Sanctorum, for example states that they were nine, before describing Peter as the tenth child. It has been established that this confusion occurred due to the death of one son in infancy, leading to ambiguities in Gregory's own writings. Gregory's parents had suffered persecution for their faith: he writes that they "had their goods confiscated for confessing Christ." Gregory's paternal grandmother, Macrina the Elder is revered as a saint and his maternal grandfather was a martyr as Gregory put it "killed by Imperial wrath" under the persecution of the Roman Emperor Maximinus II.

Between the 320's to the early 340's the family rebuilt its fortunes, with Gregory's father working in the city of Neocaeaseria as an advocate and rhetorician. Gregory's temperament is said to have been quiet and meek, in contrast to his brother Basil, known to be much more outspoken. Gregory was first educated by his mother Emmelia and sister Macrina. Little is known. Apocryphal hagiographies depict him studying at Athens, but this is speculation based on the life of his brother Basil, it seems more that he continued his studies in Caesarea, where he read classical literature and medicine. Gregory himself claimed that his only teachers were Basil, "Paul and the rest of the Apostles and prophets". While his brothers Basil and Naucratius lived as hermits from c. 355, Gregory pursued a non-ecclesiastical career as a rhetorician. He did however, he is known to have married a woman named Theosebia during this period, sometimes identified with Theosebia the Deaconess, venerated as a saint by Orthodox Christianity.

This is controversial and other commentators suggest that Theosebia the Deaconess was one of Gregory's sisters. In 371, the Emperor Valens split Cappadocia into two new provinces, Cappadocia Prima and Cappadocia Secunda; this resulted in complex changes in ecclesiastical boundaries, during which several new bishoprics were created. Gregory was elected bishop of the new see of Nyssa in 372 with the support of his brother Basil, metropolitan of Caesarea. Gregory's early policies as bishop went against those of Basil: for instance, while his brother condemned the Sabellianist followers of Marcellus of Ancyra as heretics, Gregory may have tried to reconcile them with the church. Gregory faced opposition to his reign in Nyssa and, in 373, bishop of Iconium had to visit the city to quell discontent. In 375 Desmothenes of Pontus convened a synod at Ancyra to try Gregory on charges of embezzlement of church funds and irregular ordination of bishops, he was arrested by imperial troops in the winter of the same year, but escaped to an unknown location.

The synod of Nyssa, convened in the spring of 376, deposed him. However, Gregory regained his see in 378 due to an amnesty promulgated by the new emperor Gratian. In the same year Ba

Box jellyfish

Box jellyfish are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae. Some species of box jellyfish produce potent venom: Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi and Malo kingi. Stings from these and a few other species in the class are painful and can be fatal to humans. At least 51 species of box jellyfish were known as of 2018; these are grouped into eight families. A few new species have since been described, it is that additional undescribed species remain. Class Cubozoa Order Carybdeida Family Alatinidae Family Carukiidae Family Carybdeidae Family Tamoyidae Family Tripedaliidae Order Chirodropida Family Chirodropidae Family Chiropsalmidae Family Chiropsellidae The medusa form of a box jellyfish has a squarish, box-like bell, from which its name is derived. From each of the four lower corners of this hangs a short pedalium or stalk which bears one or more long, hollow tentacles; the rim of the bell is folded inwards to form a shelf known as a velarium which restricts the bell's aperture and creates a powerful jet when the bell pulsates.

As a result, box jellyfish can move more than other jellyfish. In the center of the underside of the bell is a mobile appendage called the manubrium which somewhat resembles an elephant's trunk. At its tip is the mouth; the interior of the bell is known as the gastrovascular cavity. It is divided by four equidistant septa into four gastric pockets; the eight gonads are located in pairs on either side of the four septa. The margins of the septa bear bundles of small gastric filaments which house nematocysts and digestive glands and help to subdue prey; each septum is extended into a septal funnel that opens onto the oral surface and facilitates the flow of fluid into and out of the animal. The box jellyfish's nervous system is more developed than that of many other jellyfish, they possess a nerve ring around the base of the bell that coordinates their pulsing movements, a feature found elsewhere only in the crown jellyfish. Whereas some other jellyfish have simple pigment-cup ocelli, box jellyfish are unique in the possession of true eyes, complete with retinas and lenses.

Their eyes are set in clusters called rhopalia, located in pockets halfway up the outer, flat surfaces of the bell. Each contains two rhopalial ocelli with lenses, one directed upwards and the other downwards and inwards towards the manubrium; this enables the animal to see specific points of light, as opposed to distinguishing between light and dark. Box jellyfish have twenty ocelli that do not form images, but detect light and dark. Near the rhopalia are statoliths which detect gravitational pull and help the animal to orient itself. Box jellyfish display complex visually-guided behaviors such as obstacle avoidance and fast directional swimming. Research indicates that, owing to the number of rhopalial nerve cells and their overall arrangement, visual processing and integration at least happen within the rhopalia of box jellyfish; the complex nervous system supports a advanced sensory system compared to other jellyfish, box jellyfish have been described as having an active, fish-like behavior.

A grown box jellyfish can measure up to 20 cm along each box side, the tentacles can grow up to 3 m in length. Its weight can reach 2 kg. There are about 15 tentacles on each corner; each tentacle has about 500,000 cnidocytes, containing nematocysts, a harpoon-shaped microscopic mechanism that injects venom into the victim. Many different kinds of nematocysts are found in cubozoans. Although the notoriously dangerous species of box jellyfish are restricted to the tropical Indo-Pacific region, various species of box jellyfish can be found in tropical and subtropical oceans, including the Atlantic Ocean and the east Pacific Ocean, with species as far north as California, the Mediterranean Sea and Japan, as far south as South Africa and New Zealand, it has been found that the statoliths, which are composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate, exhibit clear sequential incremental layers, thought to be laid down on a daily basis. This has enabled researchers to estimate growth rates and age to maturity.

Chironex fleckeri, for example, increases its inter-pedalia distance by 3 mm per day, reaching an IPD of 50 mm when 45 to 50 days old. The maximum age of any individual examined was 88 days by which time it had grown to an IPD of 155 mm; the box jellyfish hunts its prey, rather than drifting as do true jellyfish. They are capable of achieving speeds of up to 1.5 to 2 metres per about 4 knots. The venom of cubozoans is distinct from that of scyphozoans, is used to catch prey and for defence from predators, which include the butterfish, rabbitfish and various species of turtle including the hawksbill sea turtle and flatback sea turtle, it seems. Although the box jellyfish has been called "the world's most venomous creature", only a few species in the class have been confirmed to be involved in human deaths, some species pose no serious threat at all. In Australia, fatalities are most caused by the largest species of this class of jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Researchers at the University of Hawaii's Department of Tropic