The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Fortissimo Sunset Ceremony
The Fortissimo Sunset Ceremony is an annual Canadian military music event held on the grounds of Parliament Hill in the Canadian capital of Ottawa. The ceremony is a combination of the historical Beating Retreat event which originated in the United Kingdom, a regular military tattoo, the lowering of the Canadian flag; the ceremony, which takes on a July evening, is sponsored by the Ceremonial Guard, the main event at the festival. Like its name implies, the guard serves ceremonial public duties inside the Canadian capital. In previous years, foreign drill units have taken part in the tattoo, including units such as the German Army Silent Drill Team, the Bermuda Regiment Band, the Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps and the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing Band
A sailor, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, may work in any one in a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship. The profession of the sailor is old, the term sailor has its etymological roots in a time when sailing ships were the main mode of transport at sea, but it now refers to the personnel of all watercraft regardless of the mode of transport, encompasses people who operate ships professionally or recreationally, be it for a military navy or civilian merchant navy. In a navy, there may be further distinctions: sailor may refer to any member of the navy if they are based on land. Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ship's crew can be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward's department, others. Officer positions in the deck department include but are not limited to: master and his chief and third officers.
The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are able seaman and ordinary seaman. With some variation, the chief mate is most charged with the duties of cargo mate. Second Mates are charged with being the medical officer in case of medical emergency. All three mates each do four-hour afternoon shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea. A common deck crew for a ship includes: Captain / Master Chief Officer / Chief Mate Second Officer / Second Mate Third Officer / Third Mate Boatswain Able seamen Ordinary seamen Deck Cadet / unlicensed Trainee navigator / Midshipman A ship's engineering department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operates and maintains the propulsion and other systems on board the vessel. Marine engineering staff deal with the "hotel" facilities on board, notably the sewage, air conditioning and water systems. Engineering staff manage bulk fuel transfers, from a fuel-supply barge in port; when underway at sea, the second and third engineers will be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, to active working tanks.
Cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff are required to have training in firefighting and first aid. Additional duties include performing other nautical tasks. Engineers play a key role in cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers. A common engineering crew for a ship includes: Chief Engineer Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer Motorman Oiler Entry-level rating Wiper Engine Cadet / unlicensed Trainee engineerUSA ships carry a qualified member of the engine department. Other possible positions include motorman, electrician, refrigeration engineer and tankerman. A typical steward's department for a cargo ship is a chief steward, a chief cook and a steward's assistant. All three positions are filled by unlicensed personnel; the chief steward directs and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals.
The chief steward plans menus. The steward may purchase stores and equipment. Galley roles may include baking. A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the steward's assistant, the chief cook, other Steward's department crewmembers. A person has to have a Merchant Mariner's Document issued by the United States Coast Guard in the United States Merchant Marine in order to serve as a chief steward. All chief cooks who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries because of international conventions and agreements; the only time that steward department staff are charged with duties outside the steward department, is during the execution of the fire and boat drill. Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including junior assistant purser, senior assistant purser, chief purser, medical doctor, professional nurse, marine physician assistant and hospital corpsman; these jobs are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard.
Pilots are merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard. Mariners spend extended periods at sea. Most deep-sea mariners are hired for one or more voyages. There is no job security after that; the length of time between voyages varies by personal preference. The rate of unionization for these workers in the United States is about 36 percent, much higher than the average for all occupations. Merchant marine officers and seamen, both veterans and beginners, are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Hiring halls fill jobs by the length of time the person has been registered at the hall and by their union seniority. Hiring halls are found in major seaports. At sea, on larger vessels members of the deck department stand watch for 4 hours and are off for 8 hours, 7 days a week. Mariners work in all weather
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer; the word soldier derives from the Middle English word soudeour, from Old French soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is related to the Medieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier; these words derive from the Late Latin word solidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used in the Byzantine Empire. In most armies use of the word "soldier" has taken on a more general meaning due to the increasing specialization of military occupations that require different areas of knowledge and skill-sets; as a result, "soldiers" are referred to by names or ranks which reflect an individual's military occupation specialty arm, service, or branch of military employment, their type of unit, or operational employment or technical use such as: trooper, commando, infantryman, paratrooper, ranger, engineer, craftsman, medic, or a gunner.
In many countries soldiers serving in specific occupations are referred to by terms other than their occupational name. For example, military police personnel in the British Army are known as "red caps" because of the colour of their caps. Infantry are sometimes called "grunts" or "squaddies", while U. S. Army artillery crews, or "gunners," are sometimes referred to as "redlegs", from the service branch color for artillery. U. S. soldiers are called "G. I.s". French Marine Infantry are called marsouins because of their amphibious role. Military units in most armies have nicknames of this type, arising either from items of distinctive uniform, some historical connotation or rivalry between branches or regiments; some soldiers, such as conscripts or draftees, serve a single limited term. Others choose to serve until retirement. In the United States, military members can retire after 20 years. In other countries, the term of service is 30 years, hence the term "30-year man". According to the United Nations, 10-30% of all soldiers worldwide are women.
Airman Marine Sailor Media related to Soldier at Wikimedia Commons
An Airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces. In certain air forces, it can refer to a specific enlisted rank. In civilian aviation usage, the term airman is analogous to the term sailor in nautical usage. In the American Federal Aviation Administration usage, an airman is any holder of an airman's certificate, male or female; this certificate is issued to those who qualify for it by the Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certification Branch. In the U. S. Air Force, airman is a general term which can refer to any member of the United States Air Force, regardless of rank, a specific enlisted rank; the rank of airman is the second enlisted rank from the bottom, just above the rank of Airman Basic, just below that of Airman First Class. Since the Air Force was established in 1947, all of the various ranks of "airman" have always included women, in this context, the word "man" means "human being". Former U. S. Air Force ranks included Airman Third Class; the current E-2 paygrade rank of Airman was called Airman Third Class from 1952 to 1967.
A person with the rank of Airman Basic is promoted to the rank of Airman after six months of active duty service in the Air Force, if that member had signed up for an enlistment period of at least four years of active duty. On the other hand, an enlistee could be promoted to the rank of Airman after completing Air Force basic training given one of several additional qualifications: Having completed at least two years of a Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps while in high school. Having achieved the Eagle Scout level from the Boy Scouts of America, or the Gold Award from the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Having earned 20 college semester credit hours; those enlistees who have qualified for these early promotions to the rank of Airman are allowed to wear their single airman insignia stripe during the Air Force basic training graduation ceremony at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. They receive a retroactive pay increment that brings them up to the pay grade for an Airman upon their completion of basic training.
While at the rank of Airman, the duties of enlisted personnel include adjusting to the Air Force way of military life and becoming proficient in their Air Force duty specialties. Note that upon leaving basic training, all Airmen enter a period of many weeks or many months of training at Air Force schools in their duty specialties that they and the Air Force have selected for them depending on their aptitudes and interests, the needs of the Air Force. For Airmen with high aptitudes, some of these training programs include more than one school and take a year or more to complete. Airmen are nicknamed “mosquito wings" due to the insignia's resemblance to a mosquito’s small wings. In the U. S. Navy, Airman is the enlisted rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Navy's aviation field, but it is just below the rank of Petty Officer Third Class, pay grade E-4. In the U. S. Coast Guard, the ranks are similar or identical to the ones in the U. S. Navy, a Coast Guard airman is identical in rank and pay to an Airman in the Navy.
Coast Guard Airman is the enlisted rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Coast Guard's aviation field. Airman is just above the Coast Guard rank of airman apprentice, Seaman Apprentice, fireman apprentice, the E-2 pay grade, but it is just below the rank of Petty Officer Third Class, E-4 pay grade. Military pilot Soldier Sailor Marine U. S. Air Force enlisted rank insignia U. S. Navy enlisted rate insignia RAF enlisted ranks Aircraftman
Tradecraft, within the intelligence community, refers to the techniques and technologies used in modern espionage and as part of the activity of intelligence. This includes the specific techniques of a nation or organization. Agent handling is the management of espionage agents, principal agents, agent networks by intelligence officers, who are known as case officers. Analytic tradecraft is the body of specific methods for intelligence analysis. Black bag operations are covert or clandestine entries into structures or locations to obtain information for human intelligence operations; this may require breaking and entering, lock picking, safe cracking, key impressions, photography, electronic surveillance, mail manipulation, a host of other related skills. Concealment devices are used to hide things for the purpose of security. Examples in espionage include dead drop spikes for transferring notes or small items to other people, hollowed-out coins or teeth for concealing suicide pills. Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties.
More it is about constructing and analyzing communications protocols that block adversaries. A cut-out is a mutually trusted intermediary, method or channel of communication, facilitating the exchange of information between agents. People playing the role of cutouts only know the source and destination of the information to be transmitted, but are unaware of the identities of any other persons involved in the espionage process. Thus, a captured cutout cannot be used to identify members of an espionage cell. A dead drop or "dead letter box" is a method of espionage tradecraft used to pass items between two individuals using a secret location and thus does not require them to meet directly. Using a dead drop permits a case officer and agent to exchange objects and information while maintaining operational security; the method stands in contrast to the'live drop', so-called because two persons meet to exchange items or information. "Drycleaning" is a countersurveillance technique for discerning how many "tails" an agent is being followed by, by moving about oblivious to being tailed losing some or all of those doing surveillance.
Eavesdropping is secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent using a hidden microphone or a "bugged" or "tapped" phone line. False flag operations is a covert military or paramilitary operation designed to deceive in such a way that the operations appear as though they are being carried out by entities, groups, or nations other than those who planned and executed them. Operations carried out during peace-time by civilian organizations, as well as covert government agencies, may by extension be called false flag. A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies. Front organizations can act for the parent group without the actions being attributed to the parent group. A front organization may appear to be a foundation, or another organization. A honey trap is a deceptive operation in which an attractive agent lures a targeted person into a romantic liaison and encourages them to divulge secret information during or after a sexual encounter.
Interrogation is a type of interviewing employed by officers of the police and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information from an uncooperative suspect. Interrogation may involve a diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the subject, to repeated questions, to sleep deprivation or, in some countries, torture. A legend refers to a person with a well-prepared and credible made-up identity who may attempt to infiltrate a target organization, as opposed to recruiting a pre-existing employee whose knowledge can be exploited. A limited hangout is a partial admission of wrongdoing, with the intent of shutting down further inquiry. A microdot is text or an image reduced in size onto a small disc to prevent detection by unintended recipients or officials who are searching for them. Microdots are, fundamentally, a steganographic approach to message protection. In Germany after the Berlin Wall was erected, special cameras were used to generate microdots which were adhered to letters and sent through the mail.
These microdots went unnoticed by inspectors, information could be read by the intended recipient using a microscope. A one-time pad is an encryption technique. In this technique, a plaintext is paired with secret key. One-way voice link is a radio based communication method used by spy networks to communicate with agents in the field using shortwave radio frequencies. Shortwave frequencies were and are highly preferred for their long range, as a communications link of 1200 km is possible. VHF and UHF frequencies can be used for one-way voice circuits, but are not preferred as their range is at best 300 km. Since the 1970s infrared point to point communication systems have been used that offer one way voice links, but the number of users was always limited. A Numbers Station is an example of a one-way voice link broadcasting to a field agent who may know the intended meaning of the code, or use a one-time pad to decode; the Ionosphere can aff