Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue and can serve as a fuel source; as a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions; this is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death, they are phenylalanine, threonine, methionine, isoleucine and histidine. There has been debate as to whether there are 9 essential amino acids; the consensus seems to lean towards 9. There are five amino acids.
These five are alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress; these six are arginine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: meats, dairy products and eggs, as well as grains and nuts. Vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating plant proteins. Protein is a nutrient needed by the human body for maintenance. Aside from water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body. Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body muscle; this includes body organs and skin. Proteins are used in membranes, such as glycoproteins; when broken down into amino acids, they are used as precursors to nucleic acid, co-enzymes, immune response, cellular repair, other molecules essential for life.
Additionally, protein is needed to form blood cells. Protein can be found in a wide range of food; the best combination of protein sources depends on the region of the world, cost, amino acid types and nutrition balance, as well as acquired tastes. Some foods are high in certain amino acids, but their digestibility and the anti-nutritional factors present in these foods make them of limited value in human nutrition. Therefore, one must consider digestibility and secondary nutrition profile such as calories, cholesterol and essential mineral density of the protein source. On a worldwide basis, plant protein foods contribute over 60 percent of the per capita supply of protein, on average. In North America, animal-derived foods contribute about 70 percent of protein sources. Meat, products from milk, eggs and fish are sources of complete protein. Whole grains and cereals are another source of proteins. However, these tend to be limiting in the amino acid lysine or threonine, which are available in other vegetarian sources and meats.
Examples of food staples and cereal sources of protein, each with a concentration greater than 7.0%, are buckwheat, rye, maize, wheat, sorghum and quinoa. Vegetarian sources of proteins include legumes, nuts and fruits. Legumes, some of which are called pulses in certain parts of the world, have higher concentrations of amino acids and are more complete sources of protein than whole grains and cereals. Examples of vegetarian foods with protein concentrations greater than 7 percent include soybeans, kidney beans, white beans, mung beans, cowpeas, lima beans, pigeon peas, wing beans, Brazil nuts, pecans, cotton seeds, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds. Food staples that are poor sources of protein include roots and tubers such as yams and sweet potato. Plantains, another major staple, are a poor source of essential amino acids. Fruits, while rich in other essential nutrients, are another poor source of amino acids; the protein content in roots and fruits is between 0 and 2 percent.
Food staples with low protein content must be complemented with foods with complete, quality protein content for a healthy life in children for proper development. A good source of protein is a combination of various foods, because different foods are rich in different amino acids. A good source of dietary protein meets two requirements: The requirement for the nutritionally indispensable amino acids under all conditions and for conditionally indispensable amino acids under specific physiological and pathological conditions The requirement for nonspecific nitrogen for the synthesis of the nutritionally dispensable amino acids and other physiologically important nitrogen-containing compounds such as nucleic acids and porphyrins. Healthy people eating a balanced diet need protein supplements; the table below presents the most important food groups as protein sources, from a worldwide perspective. It lists their respective performance as source of the limiting amino acids, in milligrams of limiting amino acid per gram of total protein in the food source.
The table reiterates the need for a balanced mix of
The Hotel Hershey
The Hotel Hershey, opened on May 26, 1933, is a historical landmark and four-star hotel located on a hilltop overlooking Hershey, Pennsylvania. It has 23,500 square feet of event space; the Hotel Hershey's architectural style has Spanish and Italian influences, mosaic tiles and archways, a villa-style balcony overlooking Hershey and Hershey Gardens. Historic photographs and original artwork line the halls and decorate guest room walls, as well as the Iberian Lounge, designed to resemble dim, fireplace-lit cigar lounges of the past; the Hotel Hershey is a member of Historic Hotels of America, the official program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. During the Great Depression, Milton S. Hershey, founder of The Hershey Chocolate Company, planned to be a recreation of the famous Heliopolis Palace Hotel, construction plans changed and were delayed due to costs, the death of Hershey's wife and the outbreak of World War I; when construction began, the new plans drew on Spanish influences.
Construction began in 1931 and the hotel was completed on May 23, 1932. The effort employed as many as 800 workers; the bill for the hotel was around $2 million. The Hotel opened on May 26, 1933. In 1934, a nine-hole golf course was added to the grounds and in 1961, an outdoor swimming pool was added. In 1977, a new 100 room wing was added to the hotel along with a fitness center. In 2001, a full service spa called "The Spa At The Hotel Hershey" was added; the spa featured treatments featured chocolate, including: chocolate wraps, chocolate baths, chocolate lotion and scrubs. In 2009, The Hotel Hershey completed work on a $67 million expansion and renovation project which included a redesigned exterior and lobby; the Hotel Hershey Website Hershey Community Archives website Historic Hotel Hershey photographs
Giant Center is a 10,500-seat multi-purpose arena in Hershey, Pennsylvania, a census-designated place in the Harrisburg metropolitan area. It is home to the Hershey Bears ice hockey team, the longest-existing member of the American Hockey League since 1938. Giant Center replaced the Hersheypark Arena as the Bears' home venue in 2002. Giant Center is owned by the Derry Township Industrial and Commercial Development Authority, as much of the money for its construction was provided by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, it is operated by Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company, with the naming rights owned by the Giant-Carlisle grocery store chain based in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Giant Center has 2,800 seats in the Upper Level; the arena has 688 Club Seats and 40 Luxury Suites. Wheelchair and companion seating is available on all levels. In addition to Bears games, Giant Center hosts an annual concert series and attracts many well-known entertainers; the first performance at the arena was by Cher.
The arena has since continued to host a wide variety of popular acts, including American Idol Live! and the Harlem Globetrotters. In 2003, Giant Center held the WWE's Unforgiven. Giant Center hosted the Road to Victory rally for Republican Presidential candidate, John McCain, his running mate, Sarah Palin, on October 28, 2008. President Donald Trump held a rally to campaign in November 2016. WWE Raw was held at Giant Center with a three-hour Thanksgiving themed episode on November 23, 2009, returned for a three-hour'Old School' themed episode on November 15, 2010. WWE has held several other Raw and WWE Friday Night SmackDown episodes here as well; the largest crowd in Giant Center history was 11,002, which occurred on June 14, 2010, as the Bears clinched the Calder Cup Championship against the Texas Stars in Game 6 of the Calder Cup finals. Giant Center and the city of Hershey hosted the 2011 AHL All-Star Game and Skills Competition on January 30–31, 2011. In 2014, it was home to the Harrisburg Stampede of the Professional Indoor Football League.
In 2015, Elizabethtown College hosted the NCAA Division III Wrestling Championships at the Giant Center. Before the 2015/2016 Hershey Bears Hockey season, Hershey Entertainment & Resorts made a $4.7 million upgrade to the production system, a new four-sided, center-hung HD scoreboard, a new LED standings board and a new LED fascia ribbon surrounding the bowl, manufactured by Daktronics. The new scoreboard's video screens measure 13.52 feet high and 23.92 feet wide. Project was funded with all private funds from HE&R. On October 1, 2016, Country megastar Carrie Underwood broke the record for most attended concert when she brought her Storyteller Tour: Stories in the Round to the arena; the 360-degree angle of the stage stretched across the arena floor, providing all viewers with a good show. On October 25, 2016, the arena hosted the Kellogg's Tour of Gymnastics Champions. In 2007, the Giant Center Food and Beverage Department finalized a deal with PepsiCo, with all food and drink stands in the building switched from Coca-Cola products to Pepsi products.
The switch was made to equalize operations with the rest of the Hershey Entertainment Complex. Giant Center's concessions include traditional fast food items such as chicken tenders, french fries, hot dogs, as well as various Italian items. Additional concessions available include Common Coffeehouse treats such as flavored coffee and pastries; the Smokehouse offering Smoked Pork BBQ, Burrito Bowls and Beef Brisket. Cross Check Cafe offers made-to-order Deitz & Watson Deli Sandwiches, Soup and Daily Specials for Bears Hockey games. Most locations offer children meals. Turkey Hill, a local company from nearby Lancaster County, provides its own brand of ice cream products. In 2014 Arooga's Wing Shack opened offering chicken tenders and boneless wings with a variety of different sauces. Nodding to their presence nearby, various Hershey's chocolate products are available at most of the concession stands. Giant Center Hershey Bears
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats molecules consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms, thus they are all hydrocarbon molecules. Examples include cholesterol and triglycerides; the terms "lipid", "oil" and "fat" are confused. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not a triglyceride. "Oil" refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains, liquid at room temperature, while "fat" refers to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are hydrophobic, are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, fats serve both structural and metabolic functions, they are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs and are the most energy dense, thus the most efficient form of energy storage. Some fatty acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body from simpler constituents.
There are two essential fatty acids in human nutrition: linoleic acid. Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from other fats. Fats and other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas. Fats and oils are categorized according to the number and bonding of the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. Fats that are saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons in the chain. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonded carbons in the chain; the nomenclature is based on the non-acid end of the chain. This end is called the n-end, thus alpha-linolenic acid is called an omega-3 fatty acid because the 3rd carbon from that end is the first double bonded carbon in the chain counting from that end. Some oils and fats are therefore called polyunsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats can be further divided into cis fats, which are the most common in nature, trans fats, which are rare in nature. Unsaturated fats can be altered by reaction with hydrogen effected by a catalyst.
This action, called hydrogenation, tends to break all the double bonds and makes a saturated fat. To make vegetable shortening liquid cis-unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties e.g. they melt at a desirable temperature, store well, whereas polyunsaturated oils go rancid when they react with oxygen in the air. However, trans fats are generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation. Saturated fats can stack themselves in a packed arrangement, so they can solidify and are solid at room temperature. For example, animal fats tallow and lard are solids. Olive and linseed oils on the other hand are liquid. Fats serve both as energy sources for the body, as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately; each gram of fat when burned or metabolized releases about 9 food calories. Fats are broken down in the healthy body to release their constituents and fatty acids.
Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. There are many different kinds of fats. All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol. Most fats are glycerides triglycerides. One chain of fatty acid is bonded to each of the three -OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid with the alcohol. Water is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an -O- bond through dehydration synthesis; this process is called esterification and fats are therefore esters. As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E; the fatty acids would each be a horizontal line. Fats therefore have "ester" bonds; the properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids. Fatty acids form a family of compounds that are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zig-zag chain; the more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be.
Long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction, so the longer ones melt at a higher temperature. Fatty acid chains may differ by length categorized as short to long. Short-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of fewer than six carbons. Medium-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6–12 carbons, which can form medium-chain triglycerides. Long-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 13 to 21 carbons. Long chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Any of these aliphatic fatty acid chains may be glycerated and the resultant fats may have tails of different lengths from short triformin to long, e.g. cerotic acid, or hexacosanoic acid, a 26-carbon long-chain saturated fatty acid. Long chain fats are exemplified by tallow. Most fats found in foo
ZooAmerica is a zoo located in Hershey, United States. The zoo was founded in 1910 by Milton S. Hershey with a few animals, including bears and deer. Today, the zoo covers 11 acres and is home to more than 75 species and 200 individual animals, including some that are rare and endangered; the zoo is controlled by the Hershey Trust Company and is connected to Hershey Park. ZooAmerica is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. In 1905, Franz and Louise Zinner moved to Lebanon, from Weisenberg, Germany. Mr. Zinner was unable to keep the 12 prairie dogs which he had been given by a friend, so he gave them to Milton S. Hershey who went on to use them as an attraction at Hershey Park. In 1910, Mr. Zinner received a black bear from the same friend and once again, it was given to Hershey. With the acquisition of another animal, Hershey decided to build a zoo that included bears, birds and other animals. In 1910, the park opened and throughout the year, the zoo received a few more bears, angora goats, fox squirrels, peacocks and zebus.
In 1914, the zoo received a lion, a leopard. In 1915, the zoo received major renovations to help alleviate the overflow since new animals were arriving; those included the addition of the Hershey Laundry building. Once the renovations were done, the center of the zoo had a large building and every enclosure was renovated and some exhibits were built along the creek. In 1916 the zoo displayed hundreds of animals. By 1934, the zoo covered more than 40 acres, had a reptile house and a pair of baby elephants, but they were sold after Hershey overheard a guest talk about how they prefer the monkeys. After Milton Hershey's death and the end of World War II, the zoo opened under new leadership; the zoo acquired a variety of new animals including African sheep, aoudad, black bear, crow, duck, fox, goose, hare, llama, opossum, parakeet, pheasant, raccoon, skunk and wolf. The zoo built a diversified wildlife education exhibit on Pennsylvania's wildlife. In 1971, Hershey Park and Zoo America both closed for renovations.
A year they both re-opened, the zoo included a new monkey island, a barnyard petting zoo and baby animals such as llamas and elephants. Six years John Strawbridge III became the new director of ZooAmerica. Under his direction, the zoo was connected with Hershey Park and decided to focus on North American animals, he made sure the animals had naturalistic exhibits. The new North American Wildlife Park occupied 11 acres and consisted of five sections: North Woods, Eastern Woodlands, Big Sky Country, Grassy Waters, Cactus Community. In 1982, ZooAmerica was accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums becoming only the second zoo or aquarium in Pennsylvania to get accredited. In 2000 ZooAmerica opened a new bear exhibit featuring hills, toys, a 13,000-gallon swimming pond with fish for the bears; the following year and in 2012 two albino alligators were temporarily acquired. In 2004, the zoo established a program for kids to become more involved with conservation, it included an official mascot, Ranger Scratch, the Ranger Scratch Kid's Club, a program designed to educate kids about conservation and environmental issues.
Five years the zoo finished construction of their new education building, the Woodlands Education Center, which gives guests experiences with animals. The first section of the zoo is the Southern Swamps, which has a variety of animals from marshy, semi-tropical areas; some of the animals include, but are not limited to the alligator snapping turtle, American alligator, barred owl, a variety of rattlesnakes, gopher tortoise, roseate spoonbill, more. Another exhibit at ZooAmerica is their Northlands exhibit, which showcases animals that are native from Newfoundland across Canada into Alaska; some animals on exhibit there are the American marten, bald eagle, Canada lynx, gray wolf, snowy owl and peregrine falcon. It provides a great experience on; the Eastern Woodlands exhibit provides guests with a unique experience on how animals are adapting to an ever-changing eastern United States. Some animals, which can be seen include the red-tailed hawk, river otter, barn owl, American black bear and eastern wild turkey.
Towards the end of the zoo is Big Sky Country, which exhibits animals in their native environment in a unique way. It has vast pieces of flat grass, replicas of the bottom of mountain summits and areas where short grass meets with tall grass; some of the wildlife species include the American elk, prairie dog, turkey vulture, black-billed magpie, sandhill crane, long-eared owl and mountain lion. The last exhibit at the zoo is the Great Southwest, which includes a section with nocturnal animals, armadillos and an open-bird sanctuary; some animals on exhibit include the black-footed ferret, burrowing owl, coati, vampire bat, desert box turtle, desert tortoise, nine-banded armadillo, ringtail, roadrunner and thick-billed parrot. ZooAmerica is an active member in the conservation and breeding process known as the Species Survival Plan; the zoo houses and is working to breed the thick-billed parrots, swift fox, Canada lynx, black-footed ferret, ocelots. In the past, ZooAmerica played a big role in bringing back the golden eagle and peregrine falcon, which were both facing severe threats in the wild.
However, ZooAmerica has raised many birds of prey which were released, including a peregrine, found nesting along the Susquehanna River