Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Yardena Shulamit Arazi is an Israeli singer and entertainer. Yardena Finebaum was born on Israel, to a Jewish family, her father was an immigrant from Germany, an Irgun veteran and one of the founders of kibbutz Beit HaArava. Her mother was an immigrant from France, was a cousin of Marcel Marceau. At the age of two, her family moved to Haifa; the family lived in France. She became its lead vocalist, she did her military service in the Nahal entertainment troupe. Arazi is married to engineer Nathan Tomer, with whom she has Alona. In the 1970s, Yardena Arazi was a member of the female vocal trio Chocolate, Mastik along with Leah Lupatin and Rutie Holzman; the group represented Israel in the 1976 Eurovision Song Contest with the song Emor Shalom, placing sixth. After the Eurovision competition, they began an international tour that included Brazil, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. Arazi left the band in 1978. In 1979, the Israel Broadcasting Authority asked Arazi to co-host the Eurovision Song Contest in Jerusalem with news anchor Daniel Pe'er.
Her hosting received positive reviews across Europe and she participated in TV shows in the Netherlands with Milk & Honey and in Belgium with Mike Burstyn. Arazi was signed to a recording contract with record label Ariola Records and released a mini-album with songs written by Bernd Meinunger. During this period she decided to return to Israel. During the 1980s Arazi was one of the most successful singers in Israel, being named as the top female singer of the year five times and as the top female singer of the decade, she kept performing internationally including in Poland with Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and Zubin Mehta, in Australia, the United States and Egypt. Arazi took part at the domestic Israeli Eurovision competition as a singer in 1982, 1983, 1985 and as a co-host in 1987. In 1988, she was selected internally by IBA to sing the Israeli entry for Eurovision and during a special TV show, in which she presented four news songs, the entry was chosen, she went to Dublin with the song Ben Adam, which came in seventh.
Arazi has always been superstitious and consults an astrologer on all matters in her life. The astrologer told her the song performed 9th would win the competition in Ireland. Israel had drawn 9th in the running order, so Arazi agreed to represent Israel. However, when Cyprus withdrew from the contest, Israel's position shifted to 8th; the 9th song did win the competition. In 1989 Arazi recorded the album Desert Fantasy than included 10 Hebrew versions of Arabic songs written and sung by Farid al-Atrash, Abdul Halim, Samira Said and others; the album was released in the US and Japan and was hugely successful around the Middle East. Since 1997 Arazi has focused on her career as a TV host. For 9 years she co-hosted the channel 2 morning magazine Cafe Telad, on she hosted at Channel 1, Channel 2, GLZ radio station etc. In 2008 Arazi was named the most popular Israeli singer of all time at the 60th Independence Day celebration. List of Eurovision Song Contest presenters MySpace Homepage Biography
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
"A-Ba-Ni-Bi" was the winning song in the Eurovision Song Contest 1978, performed for Israel by Izhar Cohen and Alphabeta. This was Israel's first Eurovision win, which meant under the rules of the contest that they would host the following year's contest, marking the first time that the Eurovision Song Contest would take place outside geographical Europe. According to author and historian John Kennedy O'Connor, broadcasters in many of the non-participating Arab countries in North Africa and Asia, transmitting the contest, had to cut the broadcast when it was clear Israel was going to win. Jordanian television showed pictures of flowers. Afterwards, the Jordanian news media refused to acknowledge that Israel had won and announced that the winner was Belgium; the song is an up-tempo disco number, heralding a move towards this style of performance in years. While sometimes derided as a weak entry – given its title – the song is regarded by most fans as one of the better entries in Contest history being performed as part of a medley of favourites, as at the introduction to the 2006 semi-final in Athens.
The song deals with the way. Cohen sings that, growing up, "we loved secretly/Who were we nice to? — Just uncles and aunts" and that love was conducted secretly and "We whispered only in the Bet language". He compares this to adulthood, where he realises that "Love is a beautiful word" and that humanity should "speak in a language of love", instead of the language of secrecy. For this reason, the song uses the Bet language - a children's language game where each syllable of the word is repeated with a bet replacing the consonant. Thus, the Hebrew "a-ni o-hev o-tach" becomes "a-ba-ni-bi o-bo-he-be-v o-bo-ta-ba-ch". Mistakenly, the song title was captioned on screen at the contest as being'Ah-Bah-Nee-Bee' and was further confused in the UK singles market when listed on the official singles chart compiled by Music Week as'A-Bi-Ni-Bi'. Musically, the song is somewhat unusual among Contest entries for ending immediately after the key change — most entries have either a bridge or a repetition of the chorus after this point.
At the Contest and his five backing vocalists all wore white clothing and remained stationary, swaying in time to the music. The song was performed eighteenth on the night. At the close of voting, it had received 157 points, placing first in a field of 20; the song was succeeded in 1979 as Contest winner and as Israeli representative by Gali Atari & Milk and Honey performing "Hallelujah" for Israel. Israel thus became the third country, after Spain and Luxembourg to win the Contest twice in successive years. Since only Ireland has achieved that distinction, winning three times in a row, beginning in 1992. Izhar Cohen returned to the Contest at Gothenburg, Sweden in 1985 finishing 5th in a field of 19 with "Olé, Olé", it was covered by Grup Vitamin, Turkish parody music group as "Acaba Bu Ne Baba Be?" in Aşkın Gözyaşları, their 1994 album. The song was performed in 2018 by Israeli singer Netta Barzilai who won Eurovision Song Contest 2018. Music of Israel Culture of Israel Ubbi dubbi Opish Diggiloo Thrush.
"1978 Israel". Retrieved 2006-09-03. "Abanibi Yizhar Cohen and Alphabeta". Youtube video. Retrieved 2008-04-21. "30 years of Israeli Songs". Webkef.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01
Mediation is a dynamic, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques. All participants in mediation are encouraged to participate in the process. Mediation is a "party-centered" process in that it is focused upon the needs and interests of the parties; the mediator uses a wide variety of techniques to guide the process in a constructive direction and to help the parties find their optimal solution. A mediator is facilitative in that she/he manages the interaction between parties and facilitates open communication. Mediation is evaluative in that the mediator analyzes issues and relevant norms, while refraining from providing prescriptive advice to the parties. Mediation, as used in law, is a form of alternative dispute resolution resolving disputes between two or more parties with concrete effects. A third party, the mediator, assists the parties to negotiate a settlement.
Disputants may mediate disputes in a variety of domains, such as commercial, diplomatic, workplace and family matters. The term "mediation" broadly refers to any instance in which a third party helps others reach agreement. More mediation has a structure and dynamics that "ordinary" negotiation lacks; the process is private and confidential enforced by law. Participation is voluntary; the mediator acts as a neutral third party and facilitates rather than directs the process. Mediation is becoming a more peaceful and internationally accepted solution in order to end conflict. Mediation can be used to resolve disputes of any magnitude; the term "mediation," however, due to language as well as national legal standards and regulations is not identical in content in all countries but rather has specific connotations and there are quite some differences between Anglo-Saxon definitions and other countries countries with a civil, statutory law tradit.: Embedding Mediation and Dispute Resolution into Statutory Civil Law: The Example of Germany.
Much depends on the mediator's training. As the practice gained popularity, training programs and licensing followed, producing trained, professional mediators committed to the discipline; the activity of mediation appeared in ancient times. The practice developed in Ancient Greece in Roman civilization. Recognized mediation; the Romans called mediators by a variety of names, including internuncius, intercessor, interpolator, interlocutor and mediator. Some cultures regarded the mediator as a sacred figure, worthy of particular respect. Members of peaceful communities brought disputes before local leaders or wise men to resolve local conflicts; this peaceful method of resolving conflicts was prevalent in communities of Confucians and Buddhists. The benefits of mediation include: Cost While a mediator may charge a fee comparable to that of an attorney, the mediation process takes much less time than moving a case through standard legal channels. While a case in the hands of a lawyer or a court may take months or years to resolve, mediation achieves a resolution in a matter of hours.
Taking less time means expending less money on hourly fees and costs. Confidentiality While court hearings are public, mediation remains confidential. No one but the parties to the dispute and the mediator or mediators know. Confidentiality in mediation has such importance that in most cases the legal system cannot force a mediator to testify in court as to the content or progress of mediation. Many mediators destroy their notes taken during a mediation; the only exceptions to such strict confidentiality involve child abuse or actual or threatened criminal acts. Control Mediation increases the control. In a court case, the parties obtain a resolution. A judge or jury cannot provide solutions that emerge in mediation. Thus, mediation is more to produce a result, mutually agreeable for the parties. Compliance Because the result is attained by the parties working together and is mutually agreeable, compliance with the mediated agreement is high; this further reduces costs, because the parties do not have to employ an attorney to force compliance with the agreement.
The mediated agreement is, however enforceable in a court of law. Mutuality Parties to a mediation are ready to work mutually toward a resolution. In most circumstances the mere fact that parties are willing to mediate means that they are ready to "move" their position; the parties thus are more amenable to understanding the other party's side and work on underlying issues to the dispute. This has the added benefit of preserving the relationship the parties had before the dispute. Support Mediators are trained in working with difficult situations; the mediator guides the parties through the process. The mediator helps the parties think "outside of the box" for possible solutions to the dispute, broadening the range
Avigail "Gali" Atari is an Israeli singer and actress. Atari won the Eurovision Song Contest 1979, held in Jerusalem, with Milk and Honey. Atari was born in Israel, to Jewish parents who immigrated to Israel from Yemen, she is the sister of Yona Atari, a singer and actress, the late Shosh Atari, a radio host and TV personality. Her father died when she was four years old, after his death, her family moved to live in Tel-Aviv. Atari was introduced to the Israeli musician David Kribushe. After an audition for him, he gave her a featured singing part in one of his songs “Half and Half”. In 1970, when she was 17 years old, she recorded two songs; the first song was in English, it was called “Give Love Away”. The second song was a Hebrew song called “Im yesh lecha shemesh”; the song became a big hit in Israel, Atari represented Israel at the World Popular Song Festival in Japan. Atari participated in the contest again in 1976, this time with the song "The Same Old Game". During the 1970s, Atari’s career was progressing slowly.
She recorded the song “sal eretz hachalom”, which did not get much attention, in 1975 she participated in the Hassidic Song Festival with the song “Leyerushalyim Yirech” and won second place. In 1978, Atari performed the song "Nesich hachlomot", along with musicians Zvi Bums and Udi Spielman, at the Festival Hazemer Ha'ivri - the Israeli qualification heat for the Eurovision Song Contest, she placed third at the festival and released a successful album by the same name as her third place song. Atari, undeterred by not winning the qualification heat for the Eurovision, entered again in 1979, this time as female vocalist with the Milk and Honey, they won, their song, “Hallelujah”, represented Israel at the Eurovision Song Contest Song Contest staged in Jerusalem on March 31. The song was a success on the European charts. After their Eurovision Song Contest win, Atari kept performing with Honey, they recorded a few more songs, many of which became great hits like “Galgal Anak”, which won the title Song of the year for 1980, “Shir Lashirim”, “Yachad”, “Ulay Od Kayitz”.
In 1980, after a year of working together, Atari retired from Milk and Honey as a result of a lawsuit she filed against her manager, Shlomo Tasch. Atari claimed in court that she was not paid for about sixty performances on TV and in Europe and that once she left Milk and Honey a new vocalist was introduced and released an album with songs she recorded under the new vocalist’s name; the trial dragged on for 14 years and concluded with a win for Atari, awarded 800,000 Shekels. In 1981 Atari, working with the producer Yeroslav Yahakivovitch, recorded a rock album titled "Kach Oti Habayta"; the album included hits including “Duet Preda” “Lo Yoda'at”, “Shelcha Ad Etmol”. In 1986 Atari released her fourth album "Emtza September"; the album became her most successful album up to that point, selling over 30,000 copies and prompting Atari to go on a successful concert tour as a soloist for the first time in her career. Atari’s success continued through the 80s as the singer released two more albums, "Tza'ad Echad Lifnei Hanahar", which sold over 80,000 copies in 1988 and "Bereshit", which sold 15,000 copies in 1989.
In 1991 Atari released her first greatest hits album, titled "Rak Etmol". The album was successful and sold over 20,000 copies. In 1992 the album "Bayom Shéachrei" was released, Atari was named the Singer of the Year by the Israeli radio station Reshet Gimel. In 1996 Atai gave birth to her only child, Li. Though the songs were written by the most popular songwriters in Israel at the time like Kobie Oz, Asthar Shamir and Shalom Chanoch, the album was not successful. In 2003 Atari releases her album "Chabeck Oti Léat"; the song “Ma Shéat Ohevet" becomes successful and is adopted by Israeli teenaged girls as the celebration song for their Bat Mitzva celebrations. In 2008, after her sister Shosh Atari’s death, she released her album "Bein Haésh Levein Hamayim", dedicated to her sister. In 2011, Atari released a few singles to the radio from an album in the works with the musician Amir Benayun; the album has yet to be released. In an interview on 2/17/2014 Atari said “The album is not happening right now, but I wouldn’t hurry to call the project canceled.
I believe in this project but I need to find the correct time for this project.” In February 2014 a new album was announced and a new single “Ahava Lemaerchakim Arukim” was released. 1978 – Nasich Hachalomot 1981 – Kach Oti Habayta 1984 – Mamria Baruach 1986 – Emtza September 1988 – Tza'ad Echad Lifnei Hanahar 1989 – Bereshit 1992 – Bayom Shéachrei 1992 – Simanim 1998 – Glida 2003 – Chabeck Oti Léat 2008 – Bein Haésh Levein Hamayim 2015 – Ahava Lemerchakim Arukim Gali Atari on IMDb Gali Atari at MOOMA Gali Atari Biography