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Milk caps (game)

Pogs, generically called milk caps, is a game, popular among children during the early-mid 1990s. The brand name "Pog" is owned by the World Pog Federation; the name pog originates from POG, a brand of juice made from passionfruit and guava. The game of milk caps originated in Maui, during the 1920s or 1930s, or with origins in Menko, a Japanese card game similar to milk caps, in existence since the 17th century; the game of milk caps was played on the Hawaiian island of Maui as early as 1927. There are cap collectors that have dating till 1950s. Haleakala Dairy of Maui sold a mixed fruit drink in a glass bottle with a cap under the brand name of POG. In 1955, Haleakala discontinued using the glass containers, but continued making the caps to allow the game to be played. Orchards Hawaii continued to make milk caps after having stopped using glass bottles. In 1991, Haleakala expanded to the more populated Oahu island. With this revival, the Pog name began being used generically for the game; the 1990s revival is credited to Blossom Galbiso, a teacher and guidance counselor who taught at Waialua Elementary School in Oahu.

In 1991, Galbiso introduced the game she had played as a little girl to a new generation of students, soon incorporating milk caps into her fifth grade curriculum as a way of teaching math and as a non-violent alternative to other popular schoolyard games, such as dodgeball. The game spread from Oahu's North Shore, by early 1992, STANPAC Inc. the small Canadian packaging company, manufacturing the milk caps distributed by Haleakala Dairy on Maui, was printing millions of milk caps every week for shipment to the Hawaiian island chain. The game soon spread to the mainland, first surfacing in California, Texas and Washington before spreading to the rest of the country. By 1993, the obscure game of milk caps, forgotten, was now played throughout the world. Milk caps returned to popularity when the World POG Federation and the Canada Games Company reintroduced them under the Pog brand name in the 1990s; the Pog fad soared, peaked in the mid-1990s. Pogs were being handed out in McDonald's Happy Meals.

With the end of the Pogs fad, Canada Games went out of business in 1997. Seven other companies entered the milk cap field after a comic book and card industry convention in January 1993. SkyBox International and Marvel added the product to their lines under the names SkyCaps and Hero Caps respectively; the game had spread to California and Texas. The term Pog was claimed as trademark by the World Pog Federation while other companies claimed it was generic term as it was selected by the children that played the game. In October 1994, a lawsuit was settled between Universal Pogs Association. Pog was recognized as World Pog's exclusive term and Universal Pogs changed its name to Universal Slammers, Inc; because many children would keep the milk caps they won in games from other players, many school districts considered milk caps a form of gambling. Milk caps proved to be major distractions from classes and the source of various playground arguments; these elements led to the banning of milk caps from various schools across North America.

Other bannings occurred across Sweden. Milk caps involves two types of playing discs: milk caps and slammers. Milk caps are flat circular cardboard discs which are decorated with images on one or both sides. Traditional milk caps are made of rougher cardboard, are printed with limited colors, have a staple in them, while modern commercial pogs were stiffer and are printed with colorful glossy imagery; the other equipment, used is a slammer: a heavier game piece made of metal, rubber, or more plastic, which come in various thicknesses and weights. They are similar in diameter to milk caps. Metal slammers are not allowed in some games because they are heavier than other materials, giving the player with the first turn an unfair advantage, have a tendency to damage the milk caps. Rules vary among players, but the game variants have common gameplay features; each player has his/her own collection of one or more slammers. Before the game, players decide whether or not to play "for keeps", i.e. players get to keep the milk caps that they win during the game and must forfeit those that have been won by other players.

The game can begin as follows: The players each contribute an equal number of milk caps to build a stack with the pieces face-down, which will be used during the game. The players take turns throwing their slammer down onto the top of the stack, causing it to spring up and the milk caps to scatter; each player keeps any milk caps that land face-up. After each throw, the milk caps which have landed face-down are re-stacked for the next player; when no milk caps remain in the stack, the player with the most pogs is the winner. The World POG Federation was the licensed POG publisher, 14% owned by Haleakala Dairy, the trademark holder of POGs. Federation president in 1994 was Alan Rypinski; the company was based in California. Menko is a Japanese card game played by two or more players; each player uses Menko cards made from thick paper or cardboard, printed on one or both sides with images from anime and other works. The card used in ttakji or ddakji i


Hownam is a small village and parish situated 8 miles east of Jedburgh in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland, near the Anglo-Scottish border, in the former Roxburghshire. Hownam lies south of Morebattle on the Kale Water; the parish borders England and has, within its boundaries, the Roman road of Dere Street and the Pennymuir Roman camps. Hownam first appears in the written charters in the 12th century; the origin of the name is uncertain, but may indicate a tribal name, "the Hunas". The village itself is a small group of houses in a row on one side of the road; the village church is at the north end of the village. The church was reshaped in the 1750s and further modernised in the 1840s, again following a fire in 1907. Local nurseryman George Taylor was born at Hounam Grange in 1803, he emigrated to Kalamazoo, Michigan in 1855, became known as George "Celery" Taylor because he introduced commercial celery growing to the United States

Ian Froman

Ian Froman is a South African-born Israeli former tennis player and tennis patron. He is known for playing in the Wimbledon Championships in the 1950s, representing Israel in Davis Cup competition in the 1960s and 1970s, playing a primary role in the founding of the Israel Tennis Centers in the 1970s and thereafter. Froman, Jewish, was born in Johannesburg, South Africa, he became a dentist in Johannesburg, immigrated to Israel in 1964. Froman played at Wimbledon in the Men's singles. In the first two rounds he defeated Stefan Lazlo, Johannes van Dalsum, before losing in the third round to eventual finalist Kurt Nielsen. Over a decade he played for the Israel Davis Cup team in Davis Cup competition in 1968, 1969, 1971. In 1973, tennis in Israel was played by tourists at beach hotels; that year, Froman conceived the idea for founding the Israel Tennis Centers, Israel's countrywide tennis program. By 1974, met four Americans—Rubin Josephs, Harold Landesberg, Dr. William Lippy, Joe Shane—and English tennis star Angela Buxton, who agreed to launch the necessary fundraising efforts and obtain the necessary sites to build the centers.

They built a 14-court National Tennis Center on an old strawberry patch in Ramat HaSharon, given to the ITC by the Israeli government. It was the first of 12 centers built in Israel—with the others being in Arad, Ashkelon, Haifa, Jerusalem, Kiryat Shemona and Tel Aviv, Tiberias. Froman served as director of the center, starting in 2004 as its chairman. In 2005, he announced that he would not seek re-election when his term ended in 2006. Froman was awarded the Israel Prize in 1989. In presenting it to him, Israeli President Chaim Herzog said: "You have created a virtual social revolution throughout Israel." He was awarded the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame Pillar of Achievement Award

Coles 4038

The Coles 4038 is a ribbon microphone produced by Coles Electroacoustics. The microphone was designed and patented by the BBC in the 1950s and was known as the STC 4038; the sound of the microphone has been described as "British" with a "BBC politeness", its appearance has been likened to that of a waffle iron. It is used in both sound radio broadcasting; the microphone was designed by the BBC in 1953 and the prototype was assigned the model number BBC PGS/1. It was designed as a result of the BBC's request for a strong and affordable microphone, smaller than previous models; the 4038 was an improvement on the Type A's frequency response, was described as "less obtrusive". The microphone was produced by Standard Telephones and Cables before their manufacturing was transferred to Coles in the mid-1970s. Since its design in the 1950s, the technical specifications of the 4038 have remained unchanged. In recording environments, the 4038 is used as drum overheads and on brass instruments; the microphone became a favourite of British recording engineers in the 1950s and 60s, but did not receive widespread use in the United States.

The microphone was described as recording sounds "bigger than life" – such as drums or amplified guitars – some Beatles and Led Zeppelin recordings featured 4038s as overhead microphones on the drum kit. In a 1994 interview, Steve Albini said that "if owned one mic, this would be it". Albini has commented that "really nothing beats them as an overhead on a drum kit". At one point, Bush House used the 4038 exclusively; the 4038's frequency response is flat, with a range of 30–15,000 Hz. The attenuation of high frequencies reduces sibilance on vocals, but reduces detail; the microphone uses a bi-directional polar pattern. The microphone is connected using a Western Electric jack connector designated 4069, which adapts the microphone's 3-pin output to a standard XLR connector. Sensitivity -65dB re: 1 Volt/Pa Impedance 300 ohms Produced 1950s–present Shorter, D E L.

Blyth Education

Blyth Education is a private company based in Toronto, Canada, that runs a chain of private secondary schools and academic credit programs in Canada and abroad. Located throughout Ontario, Blyth Academy has schools in the United States, Florence and Qatar, in addition to an online program and study abroad programs that offer academic credit. Blyth Academy is a private company based in Toronto, Ontario that runs a chain of private secondary schools with campuses throughout Ontario; the school has several international campuses and runs academic credit programs in the summer that travel to over 30 countries around the world. Founded in 1977 by Sam Blyth, Blyth Academy describes its schools as experiential learning programs with small class sizes. Blyth Academy in Ontario consists of fourteen campuses throughout the province. A U. S. campus opened in 2015 in Washington, D. C. and a Qatar campus opened in 2016. Blyth offers an online program and study abroad options for academic credit; the Blyth Cambridge Commonwealth Trust Scholarship is an annual undergraduate scholarship awarded to Canadian high school graduates to attend Cambridge University in England.

Blyth Academy is a private, co-ed, preparatory school for higher education that provides full-time, night school, summer school, private courses for grades 5-12. The academy has ten campuses in Ontario: Yorkville, Etobicoke, Downsview Park, Lawrence Park, Ottawa and Whitby; the academy operates on a four-term academic year, in which students take two courses per term with three two-hour periods per day. Class sizes are small. Educational partners include the Art Gallery of Ontario, Royal Ontario Museum, Gardiner Museum, Toronto International Film Festival, Outward Bound Canada, Don Valley Brick Works. Scholarships and bursaries are available for full-time students. In September 2016, Blyth Academy opened its first campus in Qatar; the school has received complete and formal accreditation from Alberta Education of Canada in January 2015 with formal accreditation from the Qatar Ministry of Education in March 2016. The school was established after the approval from Her Highness' Office for the School Board and the adoption of the Canadian curriculum to be funded by the State of Qatar.

Templeton Academy DC, formally known as Blyth-Templeton Academy, is a private, co-ed, experiential learning high school in Washington, D. C. serving grades 9-12. Founded in 2015, it is the first Blyth Academy program in the United States. Blyth Academy partnered with Templeton Learning to bring the Blyth private school model to the United States. Templeton Learning, LLC. invests in educational programs for students in grades K-12 Templeton Academy DC in Washington, D. C. and WonderLab based in Texas. It was co-founded by the Keller family, who co-founded Keller Graduate School of Management in 1973. Blyth Academy Florence is a private, co-ed, experiential learning high school in Florence, Italy serving grades 9-12. Founded in 2017, it is the first Blyth Academy in Europe. Blyth Academy International Summers gives high school students the chance to study abroad earning accredited high school courses during the summer. Programs are structured to include program managers and support staff. On-site learning is encouraged on all international programs.

Blyth Academy International Summers offers over 20 different programs, to over 30 countries on six continents: Needs-based scholarships provide partial to full funding. Through Blyth Academy Global High School, Grade 11 and 12 students travel around the world and earning high school credits. Students can enrol for as little as a ten-week term or for the full four terms of their academic year. Term 1: Europe Term 2: Asia Term 3: Australia & New Zealand Term 4: Central & South America Students earn two credits per term; the Blyth Cambridge Commonwealth Trust Scholarships are offered annually to Canadian high school graduates who wish to take their undergraduate degree at Cambridge University in England. The successful candidates will be granted admission to the College of their choice at Cambridge University, full tuition for three years of undergraduate study, travel costs and a full living allowance; the awards are open to current Canadian undergraduates wishing to pursue an undergraduate degree at Cambridge University.

The scholarships are awarded to students who for financial reasons would not otherwise be able to attend the University. Students who do have financial means are still encouraged to apply to the University and College of their choice and good candidates will be invited to interview in Toronto in late November/early December. Class Action Lawsuit A number of former faculty members have commenced a $20 million claim class action lawsuit against Blyth Academy alleging that they were misclassified as independent contractors rather than employees; the plaintiffs have brought a motion in court to have the class action certified. Aaron Ekblad, professional hockey player with the Florida Panthers in the National Hockey League - Blyth Academy Barrie Mitch Marner, hockey player with the Toronto Maple Leafs in the National Hockey League - Blyth Academy London Alexander Nylander, professional hockey player with the Buffalo Sabres in the National Hockey League Official website


Conspirateurs is a two- or four-player strategy board game invented in 18th-century France. It dates after 1789 from the French Revolutionary Wars, "a period of feverish political activity with factions conspiring against each other". Conspirateurs resembles Halma, Chinese Checkers, Salta in that pieces jump without capturing over friendly or enemy pieces to help race to their destinations; the gameboard comprises 17×17 gridded lines. At the centre is a specially marked or coloured area comprising 5×9 intersection points representing a "secret meeting place". On the board perimeter, 39 points are specially marked or coloured to identify sanctuaries; the game pieces are always placed on the points, using either marbles or pegs in holes, or flat-bottom pieces. In two-player games, each side has 20 men; the sets of men are distinctively coloured. Play begins with an empty board. Players choose colour, with Black having the first turn. Players alternate turns; the game proceeds in two phases: Drop phase.

Players place one man per turn on any vacant point on the special 5×9 centre area of the board. Players may not move a man. Move phase. Players move one man per turn to a vacant point one step in any direction orthogonally or diagonally. Or players may leap over an adjacent man and land on the vacant point beyond. Multiple leaps are allowed in a single turn: a man may continue to leap in any direction as long as there are jumps to be made, may stop jumping at any point. A jumped. After the drop phase is completed, one of the players shouts a warning that they have been discovered, the conspirateurs scatter to hide in sanctuaries. A sanctuary may hold at most one man; the first to bring all his men to sanctuary wins the game. Bibliography Bell, R. C.. "Conspirators". The Boardgame Book. Exeter Books. Pp. 128–29. ISBN 0-671-06030-9. Schmittberger, Wayne R.. "Conspirators". New Rules for Classic Games. Wiley. Pp. 111–12. ISBN 978-0471536215. Conspirateurs at The World of Abstract Games Les Conspirateurs illustrations and rules Conspirateurs at BoardGameGeek