The Pillsbury A-Mill is a former flour mill located on the east bank of the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota. It held the distinction of being the world's largest flour mill for 40 years. Completed in 1881, it was owned by the Pillsbury Company and operated two of the most powerful direct-drive waterwheels built, each capable of generating 1,200 horsepower; the mill was named a National Historic Landmark in 1966 and has since been converted into resident artist lofts. In 1879, after five years of secret planning, Charles Alfred Pillsbury announced to the public that he would build the largest and most advanced flour mill the world had seen, he had traveled to mills all over the world, searching for the best technique for milling flour on a large scale. Despite the convention of the time, Pillsbury decided that he wanted his new mill to be designed by an architect in order to make the building visually appealing. Architect LeRoy S. Buffington, with the loose advice of several engineers, carried out the design.
Construction was finished in 1881 under a contractor named George McMullen. The mill was built to put out 5,000 barrels a day at a time when a 500-barrel mill was considered large. However, for some years the mill was not operated at full capacity; when it was still in use, the seven floors and the basement of the mill all had specific purposes. The basement held a transformer vault, water inlets, an electrical room. On the first floor there was a small floor-mounted sifter, a larger ceiling-hung sifter, a pressure tank. On the second floor there were a staff lunchroom; the third floor contained more belts and bins and the fourth floor held a dust collector, centrifugal machine, gyration shifter, scale, a packing bin. The fifth floor held a sifter, a centrifugal machine; the sixth floor held the seventh floor was an electrical room. In 2003, production in the mill ceased and the mill lay empty; the building was acquired by local developer Shafer Richardson. In 2006 they launched plans to convert and preserve the A-Mill complex as the rebranded East Bank Mills, a loft-style apartment complex containing 759 to 1,095 housing units.
However, this redevelopment plan fell through due to financial matters. In 2011, the National Trust for Historic Preservation included the mill on its annual list of 11 Most Endangered Places. In 2013, Twin Cities-based developer Dominium gained approval for a $100 million renovation plan to transform the A-Mill into 251 affordable live/work artist lofts; the exterior of the mill was conserved in order to preserve the historical architecture of the building. However, major changes were made to the interior of the courtyard behind it; the overall project, which included other buildings within the complex, cost a total $175 million. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966 and is a National Historic Landmark. On the outside, the Pillsbury A-Mill is a rectangular structure measuring 175 feet by 115 feet; the foundations are of Platteville limestone. The exterior wall thickness varies from 8'-0" thick at the basement to 2'-0" thick at the top of the building; the outside walls are of load-bearing stone with heavy timber framing on the interior.
There are six chimneys on the gravel roof of the building. Due to vibrations of milling machines and poor design, the mill was fortified in 1905. Certain sections were rebuilt in the process. To this day, the walls bow inward 22 inches on the top. Unlike other large mills in the area, most notably the Washburn A Mill, the Pillsbury A-Mill never exploded or caught fire; as a result, it still contains its original wood frame. During the renovation project, a new hydroelectric turbine was installed in a tunnel below the complex; the same tunnel was used to mechanically power milling equipment with diverted river water. Due to the significant investment made in sustainable features such as the hydro-electric turbine and a hydrothermal system providing 75% of the building's energy needs, the project achieved LEED Gold Certification in 2017. Washburn A Mill Saint Anthony Falls Historic District List of National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Hennepin County, Minnesota Historic American Buildings Survey, University of Minnesota School of Architecture.
"HABS MINN,27-MINAP,3-". Retrieved 2007-05-03. Http://www.tholt.com/pillsa.html http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm? ResourceId=279&ResourceType=Building https://web.archive.org/web/20071009031001/http://www.kjerickson.org/photos1.htm http://www.gendisasters.com/data1/mn/fires/minneapolis-mill-fire1881.htm A-Mill Artist Lofts Historic American Buildings Survey No. MN-29-5-A, "Pillsbury Milling Complex, Pillsbury'A' Mill", 31 photos, 23 measured drawings, 94 data pages, 3 photo caption pages City of Minneapolis: Pillsbury A Mill Complex Project NHL summary ARCH3, LLC: Photographic documentation of the Pillsbury A-Mill Headrace Tunnel
Chex is a brand of breakfast cereal manufactured by General Mills. It was introduced in 1937 and was produced and owned by Ralston Purina of St. Louis, Missouri; the name "Chex" reflects the "checkerboard square" logo of Ralston Purina. The Chex product line was part of the Ralston portion of Ralston Purina, spun into Ralcorp in 1994; the product line was sold to General Mills in 1997. For many years, advertisements for the cereal featured the characters from Charles Schulz's Peanuts comic strip. Chex is the basis for a baked snack called "Chex Mix", in which different kinds of Chex are mixed with nuts and baked crackers, often baked again with butter and various other spices to add flavor. Commercial and homemade varieties exist, the dish is a common holiday snack in the United States. Chex Mix recipes were featured on Chex cereal boxes, commercially prepared Chex Mix snacks started to be sold in supermarkets. Chex can be used to make a chocolate snack called "Chex Muddy Buddies" known as Puppy Chow.
Rice Chex Corn Chex Wheat Chex Honey Nut Chex Chocolate Chex Vanilla Chex Cinnamon Chex Chex Morning Party Mix Blueberry Chex Coco Chex Raisin Bran Chex Sugar Frosted Chex Sugar Chex Apple Cinnamon Chex Oat Chex Bran Chex Double Chex Wheat & Raisin Chex Graham Chex Honey Graham Chex Frosted Mini-Chex Strawberry Chex Multi-Bran Chex From 1950 to 1955, Chex served as the primary sponsor of the popular TV and radio show Space Patrol, which ran for over 1,000 television episodes and 129 radio episodes. These episodes included many advertisements, promotional offers, prizes related to Chex cereal Wheat Chex and Rice Chex. In 1968, Chex ran a series of TV commercials on the adventures of The Chexmates, a cartoon threesome who ate Chex to get the strength they needed to travel to Mars, overcome tough obstacles or subdue evil-doers; the characters were a muscular man named Chexter, an Asian karate expert named Chop Louie, a blonde cowgirl named Jessie Jane. Their voices were provided by Tommy Cook and Julie Bennett.
Chex is featured in a series of first-person shooter computer games where the player takes on the role of a Chex Warrior clad in Chex Armor. The games use a modified version of DOOM's executable. List of breakfast cereals Life Crispix - called "Chex" in New Zealand Shreddies Chex home page US Patents Method of making cereal food products Method for manufacture of cereal food products Apparatus for manufacturing a cereal food product
Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains. Millstones come in pairs; the base or bedstone is stationary. Above the bedstone is the turning runner stone which does the grinding; the runner stone spins above the stationary bedstone creating the "scissoring" or grinding action of the stones. A runner stone is slightly concave, while the bedstone is convex; this helps to channel the ground flour to the outer edges of the stones. The runner stone is supported by a cross-shaped metal piece fixed to a "mace head" topping the main shaft or spindle leading to the driving mechanism of the mill. Neolithic and Upper Paleolithic people used millstones to grind grains, nuts and other vegetable food products for consumption; these implements are called grinding stones. They used either rotary querns turned by hand; such devices were used to grind pigments and metal ores prior to smelting. In India, grinding stones were used to grind spices; these consist of a stationary stone cylinder upon.
Smaller ones, for household use, were operated by two people. Larger ones, for community or commercial use, used livestock to rotate the upper cylinder; the type of stone most suitable for making millstones is a siliceous rock called burrstone, an open-textured, porous but tough, fine-grained sandstone, or a silicified, fossiliferous limestone. In some sandstones, the cement is calcareous. Millstones used in Britain were of several types: Derbyshire Peak stones of grey Millstone Grit, cut from one piece, used for grinding barley. Derbyshire Peak stones wear and are used to grind animal feed since they leave stone powder in the flour, making it undesirable for human consumption. French burrstones, used for finer grinding. French Burr comes from the Marne Valley in northern France; the millstones are not cut from one piece, but built up from sections of quartz cemented together, backed with plaster and bound with shrink-fit iron bands. Slots in the bands provide attachments for lifting. In southern England the material was imported as pieces of rock, only assembled into complete millstones in local workshops.
It was necessary to balance the completed runner stone with lead weights applied to the lighter side. Composite stones, built up from pieces of emery, were introduced during the nineteenth century. In Europe, a further type of millstone was used; these were uncommon in Britain, but not unknown: Cullen stones, a form of black lava quarried in the Rhine Valley at Mayen near Cologne, Germany. The surface of a millstone is divided by deep grooves called furrows into separate flat areas called lands. Spreading away from the furrows are smaller grooves called feathering or cracking; the grooves help to channel the ground flour out from the stones. The furrows and lands are arranged in repeating patterns called harps. A typical millstone will have eight or ten harps; the pattern of harps is repeated on the face of each stone, when they are laid face to face the patterns mesh in a kind of "scissoring" motion creating the cutting or grinding function of the stones. When in regular use stones need to be dressed periodically, that is, re-cut to keep the cutting surfaces sharp.
Millstones need to be evenly balanced, achieving the correct separation of the stones is crucial to producing good quality flour. The experienced miller will be able to adjust their separation accurately. Grain is fed by gravity from the hopper into the feed-shoe; the shoe is agitated by a shoe handle running against an agitator on the stone spindle, the shaft powering the runner stone. This mechanism regulates the feed of grain to the millstones by making the feed dependent on the speed of the runner stone. From the feed shoe the grain falls through the eye, the central hole, of the runner stone and is taken between the runner and the bed stone to be ground; the flour exits from between the stones from the side. The stone casing prevents the flour from falling on the floor, instead it is taken to the meal spout from where it can be bagged or processed further; the runner stone is supported by a cross-shaped metal piece, on the spindle. The spindle is carried by the tentering gear, a set of beams forming a lever system, or a screw jack, with which the runner stone can be lifted or lowered and the gap between the stones adjusted.
The weight of the runner stone is significant and it is this weight combined with the cutting action from the porous stone and the patterning that causes the milling process. Millstones for some water-powered mills spin at about 125 rpm. In the case of wind-powered mills the turning speed can be irregular. Higher speed means more grain is fed to the stones by the feed-shoe, grain exits the stones more because of their faster turning speed; the miller has to reduce the gap between the stones so more weight of the runner presses down on the grain and the grinding action is increased to prevent the grain being ground too coarsely. It has the added benefit of increasing the load on the mill and so slowing it down. In the reverse case the miller may have to raise the runner stone if the grain is milled too making it unsuitable for baking. In any case the stones should never touch during milling as this would cause them to wear d
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Hydropower or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, ore mills. A trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance. In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. Cragside in Northumberland was the first house powered by hydroelectricity in 1878 and the first commercial hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower. Since the early 20th century, the term has been used exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power. International institutions such as the World Bank view hydropower as a means for economic development without adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, but dams can have significant negative social and environmental impacts.
In India, water wheels and watermills were built as early as the 4th century BC, although records of that era are spotty at best. In the Roman Empire, water-powered mills produced flour from grain, were used for sawing timber and stone. In China and the rest of the Far East, hydraulically operated "pot wheel" pumps raised water into crop or irrigation canals; the power of a wave of water released from a tank was used for extraction of metal ores in a method known as hushing. The method was first used at the Dolaucothi Gold Mines in Wales from 75 AD onwards, but had been developed in Spain at such mines as Las Médulas. Hushing was widely used in Britain in the Medieval and periods to extract lead and tin ores, it evolved into hydraulic mining when used during the California Gold Rush. In the Middle Ages, Islamic mechanical engineer Al-Jazari described designs for 50 devices, many of them water powered, in his book, The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, including clocks, a device to serve wine, five devices to lift water from rivers or pools, though three are animal-powered and one can be powered by animal or water.
These include an endless belt with jugs attached, a cow-powered shadoof, a reciprocating device with hinged valves. In 1753, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late nineteenth century, the electric generator was developed by a team led by project managers and prominent pioneers of renewable energy Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. Hydraulic power networks used pipes to carry pressurized water and transmit mechanical power from the source to end users; the power source was a head of water, which could be assisted by a pump. These were extensive in Victorian cities in the United Kingdom. A hydraulic power network was developed in Geneva, Switzerland; the world-famous Jet d'Eau was designed as the over-pressure relief valve for the network. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, water was the main source of power for new inventions such as Richard Arkwright's water frame.
Although the use of water power gave way to steam power in many of the larger mills and factories, it was still used during the 18th and 19th centuries for many smaller operations, such as driving the bellows in small blast furnaces and gristmills, such as those built at Saint Anthony Falls, which uses the 50-foot drop in the Mississippi River. In the 1830s, at the early peak in the US canal-building, hydropower provided the energy to transport barge traffic up and down steep hills using inclined plane railroads; as railroads overtook canals for transportation, canal systems were modified and developed into hydropower systems. Technological advances had moved the open water wheel into an enclosed water motor. In 1848 James B. Francis, while working as head engineer of Lowell's Locks and Canals company, improved on these designs to create a turbine with 90% efficiency, he applied scientific principles and testing methods to the problem of turbine design. His mathematical and graphical calculation methods allowed the confident design of high-efficiency turbines to match a site's specific flow conditions.
The Francis reaction turbine is still in wide use today. In the 1870s, deriving from uses in the California mining industry, Lester Allan Pelton developed the high efficiency Pelton wheel impulse turbine, which utilized hydropower from the high head streams characteristic of the mountainous California interior. A hydropower resource can be evaluated by its available power. Power is a function of volumetric flow rate; the head is the energy per unit weight of water. The static head is proportional to the difference in height. Dynamic head is related to the velocity of moving water; each unit of water can do an amount of work equal to its weight times the head. The power available from falling water can be calculated from the flow rate and density of water, the height of fall, the local acceleration due to gravity: W ˙ o u t =
In the law regulating historic districts in the United States, a contributing property or contributing resource is any building, object, or structure which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts; the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a historic district fall into one of two types of property: contributing and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th-century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a modern medical clinic, does not.
The contributing properties are key to a historic district's historic associations, historic architectural qualities, or archaeological qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place. According to the National Park Service, the first instance of law dealing with contributing properties in local historic districts occurred in 1931 when the city of Charleston, South Carolina, enacted an ordinance that designated the "Old and Historic District." The ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street. By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charleston's lead. An amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans; the city passed a local ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, indicate differing dates for the preservation ordinances in both Charleston and New Orleans.
The Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that these two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946; the National Park Service appears to refute this. In 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, the city's original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local design controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design and demolition controls were valid within defined historic districts. Beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures; the United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, D. C. protected in 1950. By 1965, 51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances.
By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns and villages had enacted historic preservation ordinances. Contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a district's historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. In historic preservation law, a contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district that contributes to its historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological qualities of a historic district, it can be any property, structure or object that adds to the historic integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal, significant. Definitions vary. Another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can sever its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. A property listed as a contributing member of a historic district meets National Register criteria and qualifies for all benefits afforded a property or site listed individually on the National Register. A building within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Building property type of NRHP listing. An object within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Object property type of NRHP listing. A structure within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Structure property type of NRHP listing. A site within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Site property type of NRHP listing; the line between contributing and non-contributing can be fuzzy. In particular, American historic districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places before 1980 have few records of the non-contributing structures.
State Historic Preservation Offices conduct surveys to determine the historical character of structures in historic districts. Districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places after 1980 list those structures considered non-contributing; as a general rule, a contributing property helps make a historic district historic. A 19th-century Queen Anne mansion, such as the David Syme House, is a contributing property, while a modern gas station or medical clinic within th
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan