London Borough of Barnet
Barnet is a suburban London borough in North London, England. It forms part of Outer London and is the largest London borough by population with 384,774 inhabitants and covers an area of 86.74 square kilometres, the fourth highest. It borders Hertfordshire to the north and five other London boroughs: Harrow and Brent to the west and Haringey to the southeast and Enfield to the east; the borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the counties of Hertfordshire. The local authority is Barnet London Borough Council, based in Hendon; the borough was formed under the London Government Act 1963 in 1965 from the Municipal Borough of Finchley, Municipal Borough of Hendon and the Friern Barnet Urban District of Middlesex and the East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District of Hertfordshire. The Act did not include a name for the new borough. A joint committee of the councils due to be amalgamated suggested "Northgate" or "Northern Heights". Keith Joseph, the Minister of Housing and Local Government chose Barnet.
The place name Barnet is derived from the Old English bærnet meaning "Land cleared by burning". The area covered by the modern borough has a long history. Evidence of 1st-century Roman pottery manufacturing has been found at Brockley Hill and Roman coins from the 3rd and 4th centuries were found at Burnt Oak. Both sites are on the Roman road Watling Street from London and St Albans which now forms the western border of the borough. Hendon is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, but the districts of Barnet and Finchley were not referred to because these areas were included in other manors. In 1471 the Battle of Barnet was fought in Monken Hadley, just within the present borough's boundary, it was here that Yorkist troops led by King Edward IV killed the "Kingmaker" Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and his brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu. Individual articles describe the history and development of the districts of Church End, East Finchley, Golders Green and North Finchley; the residents of London Borough of Barnet are represented at Westminster by Members of Parliament for three parliamentary constituencies.
All three MPs are Conservative. Chipping Barnet is represented by Theresa Villiers. Finchley and Golders Green is represented by Mike Freer. Hendon, in 2010 the most marginal Conservative-held seat in London with a majority of 106 votes, is represented by Matthew Offord; the borough is divided into each with 3 councillors. Following the local government election on 4 May 2006 the Conservative party gained a working majority and full control of the council. Mike Freer became leader of the council on 11 May 2006, replacing Brian Salinger as Conservative group leader, having been Salinger's deputy. Barnet had £27.4 million invested in Icelandic banks Glitnir and Landsbanki when they collapsed October 2008. A report showed; the Conservatives retained control at the 2014 local elections, after which the political composition of the council was: Conservative: 32 Labour: 30 Liberal Democrat: 1 Barnet Council along with the 31 other London boroughs and the City of London Corporation share local government powers with Greater London Authority.
The area covered by London Borough of Barnet and the London Borough of Camden is jointly represented in the London Assembly by Andrew Dismore, a Labour politician, the Member of Parliament for Hendon until 2010. Campaigning on parking, he beat Conservative politician Brian Coleman at the 2012 London Assembly election overturning a 20,000 vote deficit and turning this into a 21,000 vote majority. In 2009, the authority started to introduce a new model of local government delivery in the borough, called'Future Shape', after commissioning a six-month external study; the first stages of'Future Shape' were agreed by the council's cabinet in July 2009. The public-sector union UNISON commissioned its own report on the issues involved in'Future Shape'; the scheme has been dubbed easyCouncil because of its similarity to EasyJet's business model. It is referred to as the commissioning council; the borough covers a group of hills on the northern edge of the London Basin. The bedrock is chalk, covered with clay.
Some of the hills are formed from glacial till deposited at the farthest extent of glaciers during the Anglian glaciation. The pattern of settlement is somewhat diverse. In the north of the borough on the eastern side is Barnet known as High Barnet or Chipping Barnet and Whetstone. In the north on the western side is Edgware and Mill Hill; the central northern part of the borough is countryside. This division is because the eastern side grew around what is now the High Barnet Underground branch of the Northern line; the western side grew around the Midland Railway and what is now the Edgware branch of the Northern line. The north is affluent and rural, although it does include Edgware, a major town. Further south, around the borough's centre, the development becomes more intensive around the suburbs of Cricklewood, Colindale and Finchley. Golders Green is renowned for its Jewish minority ethnic population and forms part of the south of the borough, along with Hampstead Garden Suburb and Childs Hill, which are a mix of being affluent like the north, urban like the central areas.
The A5 forms the border between Barnet and the boroughs of Brent and Harrow, with an exception being the West Hendon area and part of the Welsh Harp. There are 15 council run libraries in the London Borough of Barnet, mobile library and home library services, a local studies an
Green Flag Award
The Green Flag Award is the benchmark national standard for publicly accessible parks and green spaces in the United Kingdom. The scheme was set up in 1996 to recognise and reward green spaces in England and Wales that met the laid down high standards, it is seen as a way of encouraging others to achieve the same high environmental standards, creating a benchmark of excellence in recreational green areas. Any free to enter public park or green space is eligible to apply for an Award. Owned but publicly accessible parks have received awards such as Chavasse Park and Rutland Water; the scheme is owned by the government through the Department for Communities and Local Government, though it is managed by other agents under contract. A pilot scheme was started in 2007, in Scotland, three parks were given awards that year. Both primary and secondary schools may be awarded the Green Flag in recognition of steps taken towards making the school eco-friendly. Meanwhile, the award goes to other countries too for example to Germany.
Parks and green spaces are judged in April and May each year and the winners are announced in July. Parks must apply each year to keep their Green Flag Award, winning sites are eligible to fly a Green Flag in the park for a year. Sites for a Green Flag Award are judged against eight key criteria: A welcoming place Healthy and secure Clean and well maintained Sustainability Conservation and heritage Community involvement Marketing Management The Green Flag Award itself is for public-run open spaces, but the same scheme runs an award for community/charity-run public spaces, such as Millennium Greens and Doorstep Greens called the Green Pennant Award; this scheme, started in 2002, has adapted the criteria for voluntary organisations. Sites for a Green Pennant Award are judged against eight key criteria: A welcoming place Healthy and secure Well maintained and clean Environmental sustainability Biodiversity and heritage Community involvement Achievement Green Flag Award-winning sites, which are over thirty years old, may apply for Green Heritage Site Accreditation.
Green Flag is one of the steering group partners of Neighbourhoods Green, a partnership initiative which works with social landlords and housing associations to highlight the importance of, raise the overall quality of design and management for and green space in social housing. Between 2012 and 2017 both parties will be working to expand Green Flag Award into the social housing sector; the scheme was run by volunteers from its founding in the 1990s. It was sponsored by the government and run by the Civic Trust, till the latter went into administration in 2009. Since it has been managed by a consortium of Keep Britain Tidy, the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, the charity Greenspace. Judges continue to be unpaid volunteers with competence in the management of parks. Green Flag Award - home page
A1 in London
The A1 in London is the southern part of the A1 road. It starts at Aldersgate in the City of London, passing through the capital to Borehamwood on the northern fringe of Greater London, before continuing to Edinburgh; the road travels through the City and three London boroughs: Islington and Barnet, which include the districts of Islington, Highgate and Mill Hill, travels along Upper Street and Holloway Road, crossing the North Circular Road in Hendon, a district in the London Borough of Barnet. The A1 is the most recent in a series of routes north out of London to York and beyond, it was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme, comprising existing roads and streets historic, using stretches of purpose-built new roads in what is now the outer London borough of Barnet. The Archway Road section was built by Thomas Telford using Roman cement and gravel, an innovative technique, used there for the first time, is the basis for modern road building.
The route follows the historic route of the Great North Road, though from 1954 it has diverted round the congested suburbs of Finchley and High Barnet along modern roads constructed in the 1920s and 1930s. The A1 is one of London's main roads, providing a link to the M1 and the A1 motorways, on to the Midlands, Northern England and Scotland. Despite this, its main use is to connect a number of neighbourhoods within north London; the roads along which the A1 route travels are the shared responsibility of the local boroughs, the Greater London Authority, the British Government via the Department for Transport. The A1 is the latest in a series of routes north from London to York and beyond, was formed in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport as part of the Great Britain road numbering scheme; the earliest documented northern routes out of London are the roads created by the Romans during the period 43 to 410 AD, which consisted of a variety of "Iters" on the Antonine Itinerary, a combination of which were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, which became known as Ermine Street.
Ermine Street became known as the Old North Road, is used within London by the current A10. By the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic on Ermine Street, an alternative route out of London was found through Islington and Muswell Hill, this was the origin of the Great North Road that would become the A1; until the 14th century the route went up what is now Hornsey Road – the A103 road, but when that became impassable a new route along Holloway Road via Highgate was created in the 14th century. The section through Highgate was bypassed in the early 19th century by the creation of a new road, Archway Road, around the same time a turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road, was constructed linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner; the route of the A1 in London started at Aldersgate Bars, which marked the boundary of the City of London, followed the Great North Road mail coach route through Barnet. During the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along the Archway Road section were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings.
The scheme was dropped in 1990. Responsibility for the roads along which the A1 route travels are shared by the individual local boroughs, the Greater London Authority, the British Government; the first organised London-wide authority dealing with roads in London was the Metropolitan Board of Works, set up in 1856. The MBW replaced the disparate turnpike trusts, amalgamated in 1826 into the single control of Government Commissioners, was itself replaced by the London County Council in 1889; the LCC became the Greater London Council in 1965, during the 1960s when traffic management in London was being modernised, the London Ringways was proposed, the GLC, not in favour of increasing traffic into central London, had control of the inner London roads, while the government, through the Ministry of Transport, in favour of widening roads, had control of outer London. These different approaches resulted in the Ministry of Transport widening a stretch of the A1 until it reached the control of the GLC, when the widening abruptly stopped.
Due to the problems associated with two different and opposing bodies having responsibility for London's roads, the government were keen to take control of the major routes, made plans in 1983 for the Department of Transport to take over 70 miles of road, including significant parts of the A1. In 2000 control of roads in London passed to Transport for London, a department of GLA created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority Act 1999, the major roads, including the A1, were declassified as trunk roads; the route of the A1 in London runs from the northern end of St. Martin's Le Grand in the City to Borehamwood in Hertfordshire travels on the northern fringe of Greater London to Bignell's Corner, where it crosses the M25 and becomes a motorway, designated A1, which alternates with the dual carriageway A1 as it continues to Edinburgh; the London section of the road passes through part of the City of London and
Mill Hill is a suburb in the London Borough of Barnet, England. It is situated around 9 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Mill Hill was in the historic county of Middlesex until 1965. Mill Hill consists of several distinct parts: the original Mill Hill Village. A further area at the western edge of the suburb, The Hale, is on the borders of Mill Hill and Edgware, is in each; the area's name was first recorded as Myllehill in 1547 and appears to mean "hill with a windmill". However, the workings of the original Mill are in the building adjacent to The Mill Field. Mill Hill Village is the oldest known inhabited part of the district, a ribbon development along a medieval route called'The Ridgeway', it is thought that the name'Mill Hill' may be derived from a mill on The Ridgeway, built on an area of open ground known as The Mill Field. The village is bounded on the north and the south by Green Belt land, its High Street, at 100 yards, is the shortest in London; the area's proximity to the city made it popular as a country retreat from the 17th century onwards, large houses and quaint cottages survive.
William Wilberforce and Sir Stamford Raffles both resided here, the former being the patron of Mill Hill's first church, Saint Paul's. As late as 1960 five shops existed in the Village but although the buildings survive, they have all since been converted into private houses, as the retail focus in the area shifted to Mill Hill Broadway; as of February 2011, the only places in Mill Hill Village where money can be spent are The Three Hammers and Adam & Eve pubs and Belmont Farm. Inglis Barracks at Mill Hill East was home to the Middlesex Regiment between 1905 and 1966; the 1941 reopening of the railway station, under wartime conditions, was to allow easy access to the barracks. Situated along Partingdale Lane is Seafield House. Now converted into a private home, it was designed and operated as a secret nuclear bunker to house and protect the'London North Group' emergency regional government between about 1951 and 1985. Mill Hill was part of the ancient civil parish of Hendon within the historic county boundaries of Middlesex.
Mill Hill as part of Municipal Borough of Hendon was merged into the London Borough of Barnet in Greater London in 1965. Mill Hill is one of 21 electoral wards in the borough; this ward has 3 out of the 63 seats on the Barnet Council. Mill Hill was in the parliamentary constituency of Hendon, created in 1918; this lasted until 1945 when the constituency was split in Mill Hill in Hendon North. In 1997, the Hendon constituency was recreated. From until he lost his seat to the Conservative candidate, Matthew Offord, at the 2010 general election, Hendon was represented in the House of Commons by Andrew Dismore of the Labour Party. Mill Hill's postal address is London NW7; the village is a ribbon development along The Ridgeway. It has green belt either side. "Partingdale" and "Burtonhole" form a distinct valley north of The Ridgeway. North is Folly Brook, a tributary of the Dollis Brook, running west to east. Between The Ridgeway and Folly Brook are Burtonhole Farm, a garden centre called Finchley Nurseries, several sports grounds.
The National Institute for Medical Research, a landmark building, was demolished in 2018 and the site is being developed for new houses and apartments. On 1 April 2015, the NIMR became part of the new Francis Crick Institute and ceased to exist as a separate MRC institute; the site was vacated and closed for redevelopment during 2017. Arrandene Open Space and Featherstone Hill is a large open space, bordered by Wise Lane, Wills Grove, Milespit Hill and The Ridgeway. While there are many open spaces in the area, Arrandene is unique because of its many open fields and woodland; the open fields were hay meadows which provided feed for the horses pulling carriages north to Barnet and beyond. On Milespit Hill, is the non-denominational Mill Hill Cemetery known as the "Paddington District Cemetery"; the 1960s pop. The cemetery contains 53 Second World War Commonwealth war graves and a Dutch "Field of Honour", containing the graves of more than 250 servicemen of the Netherlands, many of which have been brought to the cemetery from other United Kingdom burial grounds.
To the southwest of Mill Hill Village is a small suburban district called "Poets' Corner", to the north an old estate, now a nature reserve, Moat Mount Open Space. The modern-day centre of Mill Hill is at Mill Hill Broadway; this is a suburban district which developed from the 1890s onwards, in the early part of the 20th century, after the arrival of the Midland Railway station in 1868. The Broadway itself is now an important local retail area with numerous shops and cafes and transport links. Parts of the eastern side of Mill Hill have undergone redevelopment, with the old gas works replaced by a Waitrose supermarket and housing developments; the small local retail area at Mill Hill East is at "Kelly’s Corner" east of the station. To the south of Mill Hill East are Holders Hill; the United Kingdom / Carl Zeiss / Bausch & Lomb Optical Works was established at the top of Bittacy Hill in 1912 and demolished about 1990, to be replaced by a large building owned by the Jehovah's Witne