Mille Lacs Kathio State Park
Mille Lacs Kathio State Park known as Kathio Site, is a Minnesota state park on Mille Lacs Lake. The park preserves habitation sites and mound groups, believed to date between 3000 BC and 1750 AD, that document Sioux Indian culture and Ojibwe-Sioux relationships; the park contains 19 identified archaeological sites, making it one of the most significant archaeological collections in Minnesota. The earliest site shows evidence of copper tool manufacture; the Sioux lived in this area until the 18th century, when many bands of Sioux were moving southward into the prairies and river areas of southern Minnesota. At the same time, Ojibwe were moving in from the east. Ojibwe oral tradition, published by William Whipple Warren, suggests that there was a battle in which they took control of the area from the Sioux. Around the time of contact in the 1850s, loggers came to the area; the next 50 years resulted in a large quantity of trees being felled and floated down the Rum River or across Mille Lacs Lake to sawmills.
The name "Kathio" is a corruption of "Izatys", a name the Mdewakanton Sioux people gave themselves. Explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut visited the area in 1679, he named the area "Izatys", but his poor handwriting led people to mistake the "Iz" as a "K". Further errors led to the name being transliterated to "Kathio"; the Kathio Historic District site was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964. List of National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Mille Lacs County, Minnesota Rum River State Forest Nord, Mary Ann; the National Register of Historic Places in Minnesota: A Guide. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press. Mille Lacs Kathio State Park website, at Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Kanabec County, Minnesota
Kanabec County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 16,239, its county seat is Mora. The Minnesota legislature authorized creation of Kanabec County on March 13, 1858, with territory partitioned from Pine County. No county seat was designated at that time, the county organization was not effected at that time; the county name came from the Ojibwe term ginebig, meaning "snake," after the Snake River — Kanabecosippi — which flows through the county. The area of Kanabec County was attached to Chisago County for judicial purposes. What county business was handled locally was performed by part-time County Auditor and County Treasurer, in a single room in a stopping place operated by lumber-trader George Staples at Millet Rapids. In 1871 the county was detached from Chisago, assigned to Pine County; this assignment lasted through 1881. The 1870 US Census listed 53 occupants of the Kanabec County area. However, an influx of settlers into its southern areas occurred in the early 1870s, by 1876 an official county building was needed.
A one-room wood building was erected at Millet Rapids, put into use in 1876. In 1881 the county was detached from Pine, the government structure was finalized, with the county seat being designated at Brunswick. Only one court term was held at Brunswick; the old courthouse building was sold to a local farmer, who moved it to his property to use as a home. The wood courthouse erected at Mora was used until 1894, when it burned and was replaced by a more fireproof building; the Snake River flows south-southeasterly through the central part of the county, fed by Groundhouse River and Red Creek and Mud Creek. The Snake continues easterly into Pine County; the county terrain consists of partly-wooded rolling hills, etched by drainages. It is devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the south and east, with its highest point near the NW corner, at 1,309' ASL. The county has a total area of 534 square miles, of which 522 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,277 households in the county.
The population density was 31.1/sqmi. There were 7,808 housing units; the racial makeup of the county was 96.6% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American or Alaska Native, 0.4% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian, 1.6% from other races or two or more races. 1.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, 30.2% were of German, 18.1% Swedish, 13.1% Norwegian, 5.5% American and 5.4% Irish ancestry. In the census of 2000, there were 5,759 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.80% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.03. The county population contained 24.0% under the age of 18 and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there were 101.2 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $47,068. The per capita income for the county was $22,291. About 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Kanabec County voters have moved toward the Republican Party in the past few decades. National Register of Historic Places listings in Kanabec County, Minnesota Ziegler and Robert H Beck. Ken-ā-big: the story of Kanabec County: an illustrated history of Kanabec County, its early years. Mora, MN: B & W Printers. ISBN 978-1-199-49133-6. ISBN 1-199-49133-0. Mn/DOT map of Kanabec County
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Mille Lacs Lake
Mille Lacs Lake is a large but shallow lake in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It is located in the counties of Mille Lacs and Crow Wing 100 miles north of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Mille Lacs means "thousand lakes" in French. In the Ojibwe language of the people who occupied this area, the lake is called Misi-zaaga'igan. Mille Lacs is Minnesota's second-largest inland lake at 132,516 acres, after Red Lake; the maximum depth is 42 feet. Much of the main lake has depths ranging from 20- to 38-feet. Gravel and rock bars are common in the southern half of the lake. Two islands in the center comprise the Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, the smallest such refuge in the United States. Shallow reef-top fishing exists on all sides of the lake. Deep-water angling takes place on the southern deep gravel and rocks as well as on dozens of mud flats in the north half of the lake. Shoreline break fishing on varied bottom types occurs all around the lake; the weed line is at nine to twelve feet.
There are many local fisherman's names for some features of the lake. Spirit Island, the small rock-made island in the south west region of the lake, is referred to as Bird Crap Island or Stinky Stony Island; the lake has many species of fish including walleye, northern pike, jumbo perch, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, black crappie and tullibee. It is one of Minnesota's most popular fishing lakes. Ice fishing houses number in the thousands during the winter, it is a prime spawning grounds for walleye. Billions of walleye eggs and fry are produced there every year. In the absence of a thermocline, fish can travel the whole area of the lake. Archaeologists indicate that the area around the lake is one of the earliest known sites of human settlement in the state of Minnesota; the Rum River drains from Lake Mille Lacs into the Mississippi River to the south at present-day Anoka. On early French maps, the lake was identified as Lac Buade or Minsisaugaigun. On a 1733 map by Henry Popple, Mille Lacs Lake is shown as "Lake Miſsiſsucaigan or Baude".
As late as 1843, it was referred to as "Mini Sagaigonin or Mille Lacs" on United States government maps. In the Dakota language, the lake is known as mde waḳaŋ; the Mdewakanton group of the Santee Sioux identified by their location around the lake. In Ojibwe, the lake is known as Misi-zaaga'igan megwe Midaaswaakogamaakaan, or as Misi-zaaga'igan, as it is the largest lake in the Brainerd Lakes Area; the lake was named "Mille Lacs Lake", as the Brainerd Lakes Area was called "Region of Thousand Lakes" in French. Areas around the lake are protected and available to the public in state parks: Father Hennepin State Park]] and Mille Lacs Kathio State Park. Portions of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, of the federally recognized Mille Lacs Dakota, border the lake. In 2013, a windblown wall of ice, called an ice shove, moved off the lake and damaged houses on the lake shore. Garrison, Minnesota Isle, Minnesota Malmo Township, Minnesota Onamia, Minnesota Vineland, Minnesota Wahkon, Minnesota Wealthwood Township, Minnesota List of lakes in Minnesota Mille Lacs Area Tourism Council Mille Lacs Messenger newspaper Mille Lacs Webcam Mille Lacs - Isle Bay Webcam - Hunter Winfields Mille Lacs - Isle Bay Webcam - Chapman's Mille Lacs Resort & Guide Service
Isanti County, Minnesota
Isanti County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 37,816, its county seat is Cambridge. The county was formed on February 13, 1857, its name came from the Izaty Indians, the ancient name for the Santee Indians, members of the Dakota alliance. Isanti refers to the Santee tribe. Isanti County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Rum River flows south through the county's central part. The county's terrain is hilly and etched with drainages and gullies, dotted with lakes and ponds; the terrain slopes to the south and east. The county has a total area of 452 square miles, of which 436 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water; as of the 2000 census, there were 37,816 people, 14,331 households, 8,415 families in the county. The population density was 86.7/sqmi. There were 12,062 housing units at an average density of 27.7/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.0% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 0..5% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races.
1.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.3% were of German, 21.3% Swedish, 12.7% Norwegian and 5.1% Irish ancestry. There were 11,236 households out of which 38.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.10% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.10% were non-families. 20.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.15. The county population contained 28.70% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,127, the median income for a family was $55,996. Males had a median income of $39,381 versus $26,427 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $20,348. About 4.00% of families and 5.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. This rural turned. In 2008, John McCain won this county with 57% of the vote, when he lost the state with just 44% of the vote. Norm Coleman did well, obtaining 48% of the vote while losing the state with 42%. Both George W. Bush and Tim Pawlenty won this county twice, winning a majority of the county each time. Democrats tend to do poorly here. In 2008, Barack Obama obtained just 41 %. Al Franken received just 33% of Isanti County's votes. Since 1992, just one Democrat won this county with over 50% of the vote. In 2016, Donald Trump won 65% of the vote here while narrowly losing the state to Hillary Clinton. Independents do well in this county. In 1998, the county's results were Jesse Ventura's best performance in the state, winning the county with over 50% of the vote. Ross Perot came in a close third place with 29 % of the vote.
Stanchfield National Register of Historic Places listings in Isanti County, Minnesota Minnesota DOT map of Isanti County
Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota; the area is known as the Twin Cities after its two largest cities, the most populous city in the state, Saint Paul, the state capital. It is an example of twin cities in the sense of geographical proximity. Minnesotans living outside of Minneapolis and Saint Paul refer to the two together as "The Cities". There are several different definitions of the region. Many refer to the Twin Cities as the seven-county region, governed under the Metropolitan Council regional governmental agency and planning organization; the Office of Management and Budget designates 16 counties as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington MN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area", the 16th largest in the United States; the entire region known as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul MN–WI Combined Statistical Area", has a population of 3,946,533, the 14th largest, according to 2017 Census estimates. Despite the Twin moniker, both cities are independent municipalities with defined borders.
Minneapolis is somewhat younger with more modern skyscrapers downtown, while Saint Paul has been likened to an East Coast city, with quaint neighborhoods and a vast collection of well-preserved late-Victorian architecture. Minneapolis was influenced by its early Lutheran heritage. Saint Paul was influenced by its early French and German Catholic roots; the first European settlement in the region was near what is now known as the town of Stillwater, Minnesota. The city is 20 miles from downtown Saint Paul and lies on the western bank of the St. Croix River, which forms the border of central Minnesota and Wisconsin. Another settlement that began fueling early interest in the area was the outpost at Fort Snelling, constructed from 1820 to 1825 at the confluence of the Minnesota River and the Mississippi River. Fort Snelling held jurisdiction over the land south of Saint Anthony Falls, thus a town known as Saint Anthony grew just north of the river. For several years, the only European resident to live on the south bank of the river was Colonel John H. Stevens, who operated a ferry service across the river.
As soon as the land area controlled by Fort Snelling was reduced, new settlers began flocking across to the new village of Minneapolis. The town grew and Minneapolis and Saint Anthony merged. On the eastern side of the Mississippi, a few villages such as Pig's Eye and Lambert's Landing developed and would soon grow to become Saint Paul. Natural geography played a role in the development of the two cities; the Mississippi River Valley in this area is defined by a series of stone bluffs that line both sides of the river. Saint Paul grew up around Lambert's Landing, the last place to unload boats coming upriver at an accessible point, some seven miles downstream from Saint Anthony Falls, the geographic feature that, due to the value of its immense water power for industry, defined the location of Minneapolis and its prominence as the Mill City; the falls can be seen today from the Mill City Museum, housed in the former Washburn "A" Mill, among the world's largest mills in its time. The oldest farms in the state are located in Washington County, the eastern most county on the Minnesota side of the metropolitan area.
Joseph Haskell was Minnesota's first farmer, harvesting the first crops in the state in 1840 on what is now part of Afton Township on Trading Post Trail. The Grand Excursion, a trip into the Upper Midwest sponsored by the Rock Island Railroad, brought more than a thousand curious travelers into the area by rail and steamboat in 1854; the next year, in 1855, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published The Song of Hiawatha, an epic poem based on the Ojibwe legends of Hiawatha. A number of natural area landmarks were included in the story, such as Lake Minnetonka and Minnehaha Falls. Tourists inspired by the coverage of the Grand Excursion in eastern newspapers and those who read Longfellow's story flocked to the area in the following decades. At one time, the region had numerous passenger rail services, including both interurban streetcar systems and interstate rail. Due to the width of the river at points further south, the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area was one of the few places where the Mississippi could be crossed by railroad.
A great amount of commercial rail traffic ran through the area carrying grain to be processed at mills in Minneapolis or delivering other goods to Saint Paul to be transported along the Mississippi. Saint Paul had long been at the head of navigation on the river, prior to a new lock and dam facility being added upriver in Minneapolis. Passenger travel hit its peak in 1888 with nearly eight million traversing to and from the Saint Paul Union Depot; this amounted to 150 trains daily. Before long, other rail crossings were built farther south and travel through the region began to decline. In an effort by the rail companies to combat the rise of the automobile, some of the earliest streamliners ran from Chicago to Minneapolis/Saint Paul and served distant points in the Pacific Northwest. Today, the only vestige of this interstate service comes by Amtrak's Seattle/Portland to Chicago Empire Builder route, running once daily in each direction, it is named after James J. Hill, a railroad tycoon who settled on Summit Avenue in Saint Paul at what is now known as the James J. Hill House.
Like many Northern cities that grew up with the Industrial Revolution, Minneapolis and St. Paul experienced shifts in their economic base as heavy industry declined in the 1960s and 1970s. Along with the economic decline of the 60s and 70s came pop