A rook is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. The piece was called the tower, marquess and comes; the term castle is considered incorrect, or old-fashioned. Each player starts the game with two rooks, one on each of the corner squares on their own side of the board; the white rooks start on squares a1 and h1, while the black rooks start on a8 and h8. The rook moves vertically, through any number of unoccupied squares; as with captures by other pieces, the rook captures by occupying the square on which the enemy piece sits. The rook participates, with the king, in a special move called castling. In general, rooks are stronger than bishops or knights and are considered greater in value than either of those pieces by nearly two pawns but less valuable than two minor pieces by a pawn. Two rooks are considered to be worth more than a queen. Winning a rook for a bishop or knight is referred to as winning the exchange. Rooks and queens are called heavy pieces or major pieces, as opposed to bishops and knights, the minor pieces.
In the opening, the rooks are blocked in by other pieces and cannot participate in the game. In that position, the rooks support each other, can more move to occupy and control the most favorable files. A common strategic goal is to place a rook on a half-open file. From this position, the rook is unexposed to risk but can exert control on every square on the file. If one file is important, a player might advance one rook on it position the other rook behind – doubling the rooks. A rook on the seventh rank is very powerful, as it threatens the opponent's unadvanced pawns and hems in the enemy king. A rook on the seventh rank is considered sufficient compensation for a pawn. In the diagrammed position from a game between Lev Polugaevsky and Larry Evans, the rook on the seventh rank enables White to draw, despite being a pawn down. Two rooks on the seventh rank are enough to force victory, or at least a draw by perpetual check. Rooks are most powerful towards the end of a game, when they can move unobstructed by pawns and control large numbers of squares.
They are somewhat clumsy at restraining enemy pawns from advancing towards promotion, unless they can occupy the file behind the advancing pawn. As well, a rook best supports a friendly pawn towards promotion from behind it on the same file. In a position with a rook and one or two minor pieces versus two rooks in addition to pawns, other pieces – Lev Alburt advises that the player with the single rook should avoid exchanging the rook for one of his opponent's rooks; the rook is a powerful piece to deliver checkmate. Below are a few examples of rook checkmates. In the medieval shatranj, the rook symbolized a chariot; the Persian word rukh means chariot, the corresponding piece in the original Indian version chaturanga has the name ratha, in modern times it's known as हाथी to hindi speaking players, while east Asian chess games such as xiangqi and shogi have names meaning chariot for the same piece. Persian war chariots were armored, carrying a driver and at least one ranged-weapon bearer, such as an archer.
The sides of the chariot were built to resemble fortified stone work, giving the impression of small, mobile buildings, causing terror on the battlefield. In the West, the rook is universally represented as a crenellated turret. One possible explanation is that when the game was imported to Italy, the Persian rukh became the Italian word rocca, from there spread in the rest of Europe. Another possible explanation is that rooks represent siege towers – the piece is called torre in Italian and Spanish. In Hungarian it is bástya and in Hebrew language it is called צריח. Another possibility is that, as chess moved to Europe long after chariot warfare had been abandoned, a different symbol was needed to represent the rook's concept of feudal power, as such the Europeans adopted a castle to represent a lord and his feudal power, further supported by the name for the rook, the "marquess", named after a nobleperson; the chariot was sometimes represented as a silhouette, a square with two points above representing the horse's heads, which may have been seen to resemble a building with arrowports to the medieval imagination.
An exception is seen in the British Museum's collection of the medieval Lewis chess pieces in which the rooks appear as stern warders or wild-eyed Berserker warriors. Rooks are similar in appearance to small castles, as a result a rook is sometimes called a "castle"; this usage was common in the past but today it is if used in chess literature or among players, except in the expression "castling". In some languages the rook is called a ship: Thai เรือ, Arm
Three-dimensional chess is any chess variant that uses multiple boards representing different levels, allowing the chess pieces to move in three physical dimensions. In practical play, this is achieved by boards representing different layers being laid out next to each other. Three-dimensional variants have existed since at least the late 19th century, one of the oldest being Raumschach, invented in 1907 by Ferdinand Maack and considered the classic 3D game. Maack founded a Raumschach club in Hamburg in 1919, which remained active until World War II. Chapter 25 of David Pritchard's The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants discusses some 50 such variations extending chess to three dimensions contains, as well as a handful of higher-dimensional variants. Chapter 11 covers variants using multiple boards set side by side which can be considered to add an extra dimension to chess."Three-dimensional chess" is used colloquially to describe complex, dynamic systems with many competing entities and interests, including politics and warfare.
To describe an individual as "playing three-dimensional chess" implies a higher-order understanding and mastery of the system beyond the comprehension of their peers or ordinary observers. Lionel Kieseritzky developed Kubikschach in 1851, he used an 8 × 8 × 8 board. This format was picked up by Maack in 1907 when developing Raumschach. According to David Pritchard, this format is: the most popular 3-D board amongst inventors, at the same time the most mentally indigestible for the players Less demanding on spatial vision, hence more practical, are those games confined to three 8×8 boards and games with boards smaller than 8×8. Ferdinand Maack developed Raumschach in 1907, he contended that for chess to be more like modern warfare, attack should be possible not only from a two-dimensional plane but from above and below. Maack's original formulation was for an 8×8×8 board, but after experimenting with smaller boards settled on 5×5×5 as best. Other obvious differences from standard chess include two additional pawns per player, a special piece named unicorn.
The Raumschach 3D board can be thought of as a cube sliced into five equal spaces across each of its three major coordinal planes. This sectioning yields a 5×5×5 gamespace; the cubes alternate in color in all three dimensions. The horizontal levels are denoted by capital letters A through E. Ranks and files of a level are denoted using algebraic notation. White starts on the A and B levels and Black starts on E and D. White moves first; the game objective, as in standard chess, is checkmate. Rooks and knights move as they do in chess in any given plane; the most familiar 3D chess variant to the general public is the game of Tri-Dimensional Chess, which can be seen in many Star Trek TV episodes and movies, starting with the original series and proceeding in updated forms throughout the subsequent movies and spinoff series. The original Star Trek prop was crafted using boards from 3D Checkers and 3D Tic-Tac-Toe sets available in stores at the time and adding chess pieces from the futuristic-looking Classic chess set designed by Peter Ganine in 1961.
The design retained the 64 squares of a traditional chessboard, but distributed them onto separate platforms in a hierarchy of spatial levels, suggesting to audiences how chess adapted to a future predominated by space travel. Rules for the game were never invented within the series – in fact, the boards are sometimes not aligned from one scene to the next within a single episode; the Tri-D chessboard was further realized by its inclusion in the Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual by Franz Joseph, who created starting positions for the pieces and short, additional rules. The complete Standard Rules for the game were developed in 1976 by Andrew Bartmess and were subsequently expanded by him into a commercially available booklet. A free summary in English of the Standard Rules is contained on Charles Roth's website, including omissions and ambiguities regarding piece moves across the four Tri-D gameboard 2×2 attack boards. A complete set of tournament rules for Tri-Dimensional Chess written by Jens Meder is available on his website.
Meder's rules are based on FIDE's rules more than Andrew Bartmess' Standard Rules, with some deviations too. A repository of Tournament Rules games can be found on the website of Michael Klein. Plans for constructing a Tri-D chessboard can be found on The Chess Variant Pages, as well as in Bartmess' Tri-D Chess Rules. Details for building a travel-size board are included on Meder's website. There is software for playing Tri-D Chess. Parmen is a Windows application available free on his website. A free Android version of Tri D Chess is offered by AwfSoft. Alice Chess—two adjacent 8×8 boards Chess Cubed - a 8x8x6 variant played on a Rubiks Cube Cubic Chess—a 6×6×6 variant Dragonchess—three stacked 8×12 boards, a fantasy variant Flying Chess—two adjacent 8×8 boards Millenium 3D chess—an 8×8×3 variant retaining most of the rules of standard chess Parallel Worlds Chess—an 8×8×3 variant with two armies per player Space Shogi—a 9×9×9 shogi variant As well as in Star Trek, multi-dimensional chess games are featured in various fictional works in a futuristic or science fiction setting.
Examples include Blake's 7, UFO, Starman Jones, Unreal 2
A chess variant is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess". Such variants can differ from chess in many different ways, ranging from minor modifications to the rules, to games which have only a slight resemblance. "International" or "Western" chess itself is one of a family of games which have related origins and could be considered variants of each other. Chess is theorised to have been developed from chaturanga, from which other members of this family, such as shatranj and xiangqi evolved. Many chess variants are designed to be played with the equipment of regular chess. Although most variants have a similar public-domain status as their parent game, some have been made into commercial, proprietary games. Just as in traditional chess, chess variants can be played over-the-board, by correspondence, or by computer; some internet chess servers facilitate the play of some variants in addition to orthodox chess. In the context of chess problems, chess variants are called fairy chess.
Fairy chess variants tend to be created for problem composition rather than actual play. There are thousands of known chess variants; the Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants catalogues around two thousand, with the preface noting that — with creating a chess variant being trivial — many were considered insufficiently notable for inclusion. The origins of the chess family of games can be traced to the game of chaturanga during the time of the Gupta Empire in India. Over time, as the game spread geographically, modified versions of the rules became popular in different regions. In Sassanid Persia, a modified form became known as shatranj. Modifications made to this game in Europe resulted in the modern game. Courier chess was a popular variant in medieval Europe, which had a significant impact on the "main" variant's development. Other games in the chess family, such as shogi, xiangqi, are developments from chaturanga made in other regions; these related games are considered chess variants, though the majority of variants are, modifications of chess.
The basic rules of chess were not standardised until the 19th century, the history of chess prior to this involves many variants, with the most popular modifications spreading and forming the modern game. While some regional variants have historical origins comparable to or older than chess, the majority of variants are express attempts by individuals or small groups to create new games with chess as a starting point. In most cases the creators are attempting to create new games of interest to chess enthusiasts or a wider audience. Variants have the same public domain status as chess, though a few are proprietary, the materials for play are released as commercial products; the variations from chess may be done to address a perceived issue with the standard game. For example, Chess960, which randomises the starting positions, was invented by Bobby Fischer to combat what he perceived to be the detrimental dominance of opening preparation in chess. Several variants introduce complications to the standard game, providing an additional challenge for experienced players, for example in Kriegspiel, where players cannot see the pieces of their opponent.
A handful, such as No Stress Chess, attempt to simplify the game, so as to be attractive to chess beginners. The table below details some, but not all, of the ways in which variants can differ from the orthodox game: Variants can themselves be developed into further sub-variants, for example Horde chess is a variation upon Dunsany's Chess; some variations are created for the purpose of composing interesting puzzles, rather than being intended for full games. This field of composition is known as fairy chess. Fairy chess gave rise to the term "fairy chess piece", used more broadly across writings about chess variants to describe chess pieces with movement rules other than those of the standard chess pieces. Forms of standardised notation have been devised to systematically describe the movement of these. A distinguishing feature of several chess variants is the presence of one or more fairy pieces. Physical models of common fairy pieces are sold by major chess set suppliers. Individuals notable for creating multiple chess variants include V. R. Parton, Ralph Betza, Philip M. Cohen and George R. Dekle Sr.
Some board game designers, notable for works across a wider range of board games, have attempted to create chess variants. These include Andy Looney. Several chess masters have developed variants, such as Chess960 by Bobby Fischer, Capablanca Chess by José Raúl Capablanca, Seirawan chess by Yasser Seirawan. While chess and xiangqi have professional circuits as well as many organised tournaments for amateurs, play of the majority of chess variants is predominately on a casual basis; some variants have had significant tournaments. Several Gliński's hexagonal chess tournaments were played at the height of the variant's popularity in the 1970s and 1980s. Chess960 has been the subject of tournaments, including in 2018 an "unofficial world championship" between reigning World Chess Champion Magnus Carlsen and fellow high-ranking Grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. Several internet chess servers facilitate live play of popular variants, including Chess.com and the Free Internet Chess Server. The software packages Zillions of Games and Fairy-Max have been programmed to support many chess variants.
Play in most chess variants is sufficiently similar to chess that games can be recorded with algebraic notation, although additions to this are required. For example, the third dimension in Millennium 3D Chess means that move notatio
The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of the first rank next to the king; because the queen is the strongest piece, a pawn is promoted to a queen in the vast majority of cases. In the game shatranj, the ancestor of chess that included only male figures, the closest thing to the queen was the ferz, a weak piece only able to move or capture one step diagonally and not at all in any other direction; the modern chess queen gained power in the 15th century. In most languages the piece is known as "queen" or "lady". Asian and Eastern European languages tend to refer to it as minister or advisor. In Polish it is known as the hetman – the name of a major historical military-political office, while in Estonian it is called lipp; the white queen starts on d1, while the black queen starts on d8. With the chessboard oriented the white queen starts on a white square and the black queen starts on a black square—thus the mnemonics "queen gets her color", "queen on color", or "the dress matches the shoes ".
The queen can be moved any number of unoccupied squares in a straight line vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, thus combining the moves of the rook and bishop. The queen captures by occupying the square. Although both players start with one queen each, a pawn can be promoted to any of several types of pieces, including a queen, when the pawn is moved to the player's furthest rank; such a queen created by promotion can be an additional queen, or if the player's queen has been captured, a replacement queen. Pawn promotion to a queen is colloquially called queening, by far the most common type of piece a pawn is promoted to due to the relative power of a queen. Ordinarily, the queen is stronger than a rook and a bishop together, while less strong than two rooks, it is always disadvantageous to exchange the queen for a single piece other than the enemy's queen. The reason that the queen is stronger than a combination of a rook and bishop though they control the same number of squares, is twofold.
First, the queen is more mobile than the rook and the bishop, as the entire power of the queen can be transferred to another location in one move, while transferring the entire firepower of a rook and bishop requires two moves, the bishop always being restricted to squares of one color. Second, the queen is not hampered by the bishop's inability to control squares of the opposite color to the square on which it stands. A factor in favor of the rook and bishop is that they can attack a square twice, while a queen can only do so once. However, experience has shown that this factor is less significant than the points favoring the queen; the queen is strongest when the board is open, when the enemy king is poorly defended, or when there are loose pieces in the enemy camp. Because of her long range and ability to move in multiple directions, the queen is well equipped to execute forks. Compared to other long range pieces, the queen is stronger in closed positions. Beginners develop the queen early in the game, hoping to plunder the enemy position and deliver an early checkmate such as Scholar's mate.
This can expose the harassed queen to attacks by weaker pieces causing the player to lose time. Experienced players prefer to delay developing the queen, instead develop minor pieces in the opening. Early queen attacks are rare in high level chess, but there are some openings with early queen development that are used by high level players. For example, the Scandinavian Defense, which features queen moves by Black on the second and third moves is considered sound, has been played at the world championship level; some less common examples have been observed in high-level games. The Danvers Opening, characterized as a beginner's opening, has been played by the strong American grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. A queen exchange marks the beginning of the endgame, but there are queen endgames, sometimes queens are exchanged in the opening, long before the endgame. A common goal in the endgame is to promote a pawn to a queen; as the queen has the largest range and mobility and king vs. lone king is an easy win when compared to some other basic mates.
A queen sacrifice is the deliberate sacrifice of a queen in order to gain a more favorable tactical position. The queen was the counsellor or prime minister or vizier, its only move was one square diagonally. Around 1300 CE its move was enhanced to allow it to move two squares with jump onto a same-colored square for its first move, to help the sides to come into contact sooner; the fers changed into the queen over time. The first surviving mention of this piece as a queen or similar was "regina" in the Einsiedeln Poem, written in Latin around 997 and preserved in a monastery at Einsiedeln in Switzerland; some surviving early medieval pieces depict the piece as a queen, the word fers became grammatically feminized in several languages, for example alferza in Spanish and fierce or fierge in French, before it was replaced with names such as reine or dame. The Carmina Burana refer to the queen as femina and coniunx, the name Amazon has sometimes been seen. In Russian it keeps its Persian name of ferz.
In chess, the king is the most important piece. The object of the game is to threaten the opponent's king in such a way. If a player's king is threatened with capture, it is said to be in check, the player must remove the threat of capture on the next move. If this can not be done, the king is said to be in checkmate. Although the king is the most important piece, it is the weakest piece in the game until a phase, the endgame. Players can not make any move. White starts with the king on the first rank to the right of the queen. Black starts with the king directly across from the white king; the white king starts on e1 and the black king on e8. A king can move one square in any direction unless the square is occupied by a friendly piece or the move would place the king in check; as a result, opposing kings may never occupy adjacent squares, but the king can give discovered check by unmasking a bishop, rook, or queen. The king is involved in the special move of castling. In conjunction with a rook, the king may make a special move called castling, in which the king moves two squares toward one of its rooks and the rook is placed on the square over which the king crossed.
Castling is allowed only when neither the king nor the castling rook moved, no squares between them are occupied, the king is not in check, the king will not move across or end its movement on a square, under enemy attack. A king, under attack is said to be in check, the player in check must remedy the situation. There are three possible ways to remove the king from check: The king is moved to an adjacent non-threatened square. A king cannot castle to get out of check. A piece is interposed between the attacking piece to break the line of threat; the attacking piece is captured. If none of the three options are available, the player's king has been checkmated and the player loses the game. A stalemate occurs when a player, on their turn, has no legal moves, the player's king is not in check. If this happens, the king is said to have been stalemated and the game ends in a draw. A player who has little or no chance of winning will in order to avoid a loss, try to entice the opponent to inadvertently place the player's king in stalemate.
In the opening and middlegame, the king will play an active role in the development of an offensive or defensive position. Instead, a player will try to castle and seek safety on the edge of the board behind friendly pawns. In the endgame, the king emerges to play an active role as an offensive piece as well as assisting in the promotion of their remaining pawns, it is not meaningful to assign a value to the king relative to the other pieces, as it cannot be captured or exchanged. In this sense, its value could be considered infinite; as an assessment of the king's capability as an offensive piece in the endgame, it is considered to be stronger than a bishop or knight – Emanuel Lasker gave it the value of a knight plus a pawn. It is better at defending nearby pawns than the knight is, it is better at attacking them than the bishop is. Unicode defines two codepoints for king: ♔ U+2654 White Chess King ♚ U+265A Black Chess King Barden, Play better chess with Leonard Barden, Octopus Books Limited, pp. 9, 11, 12, ISBN 0-7064-0967-1 Brace, Edward R.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Chess, Hamlyn Publishing Group, p. 151, ISBN 1-55521-394-4 Lasker, Lasker's Chess Primer, Billings, ISBN 0-7134-6241-8 Ward, Endgame Play, Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-7920-5 Fianchetto variation of the King’s Indian Defence Piececlopedia: King by Fergus Duniho and Hans Bodlaender
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth rank to be replaced by the player's choice of a queen, rook, or bishop of the same color. The new piece replaces the pawn, as part of the same move; the choice of new piece is not limited to pieces captured, thus promotion can result in a player owning, for example, two or more queens despite starting the game with one. Pawn promotion, or the threat of it decides the result in an endgame. Since the queen is the most powerful piece, the vast majority of promotions are to a queen. Promotion to a queen is called queening. If the promoted piece is not physically available, FIDE rules state that the player should stop the game clock and summon the arbiter for the correct piece. Under US Chess Federation rules and in casual play, an upside-down rook may be used to designate a queen. Promotion to a queen is the most common. Underpromotion occurs more in chess problems than in practical play. In practical play, underpromotions are not extraordinarily so.
As the most powerful piece, the queen is the most desirable, but promotion to a different piece can be advantageous in certain situations. A promotion to knight is useful if the knight can give immediate check. A promotion to a rook is necessary to avoid a draw by immediate stalemate that would occur if the promotion was to a queen. Promotion to a bishop never occurs in practical play; the percentage of games with promotions can be misleading, because a player resigns when they see that they cannot stop their opponent from promoting a pawn. In the 2006 ChessBase database of 3,200,000 games, about 1.5% of the games include a promotion. In these games the proportions of promotions to each piece are approximately: This suggests that about 3% of all promotions are underpromotions; the frequency of significant underpromotions is, less than this. A player may promote to any piece they wish, regardless of whether or not such a piece has been captured. In theory, a player could have nine queens, ten knights, ten bishops or ten rooks, though these are improbable scenarios.
Some chess sets come with an extra queen of each color to use for promoted pawns. If an extra queen is unavailable, it is represented by an upside-down rook instead; the diagram from the game between Bobby Fischer and Tigran Petrosian in the 1959 Candidates Tournament shows a position in which each side has two queens. Four queens existed from move 37 until move 44. Few games were played with six queens. In the first game each side had three queens after move 58 until move 65; the game ended in a draw with a single queen on each side. In the second game both sides had three queens, but Black resigned, with a single queen on both sides; the ability to promote is the critical factor in endgames and thus is an important consideration in opening and middlegame strategy. All promotions occur in the endgame, but promotion in the middlegame does happen. Promotion occurs in the opening after one side makes a blunder, as in the Lasker trap, which features an underpromotion to a knight on move seven: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 d4 4.e3?
Bb4+ 5. Bd2 dxe3! 6. Bxb4?? exf2+! 7. Ke2 fxg1=N+! Schlechter–Perlis, Karlsbad 1911 could have featured a promotion to queen on move 11: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4.e3 Bf5 5. Qb3 Qb6 6.cxd5 Qxb3 7.axb3 Bxb1? 8.dxc6! Be4?? 9. Rxa7! Rxa7 10.c7 threatening both 11.cxb8=Q and 11.c8=Q. Perlis avoided the trap with 8... Nxc6!, losing more slowly. The British grandmaster Joe Gallagher pulled off a similar idea a half-move earlier in Terentiev–Gallagher, Liechtenstein Open 1990: 1.d4 Nf6 2. Bg5 Ne4 3. Bf4 c5 4.c3 Qb6 5. Qb3 cxd4 6. Qxb6 axb6 7. Bxb8? dxc3 8. Be5?? Rxa2! and now White could have resigned, since if 9. Rxa2, c2 promotes the c-pawn. Another example occurs after 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nf6 5. Ng3 h5 6. Bg5?! h4 7. Bxf6?? hxg3 8. Be5 Rxh2! 9. Rxh2 Qa5+! 10.c3 Qxe5+! 11.dxe5 gxh2, with the dual threat of 12...hxg1=Q and 12...h1=Q, as in Schuster–Carls, Bremen 1914 and NN–Torre, Mexico 1928. Note that 10. Qd2 would have been met by 10...exf2+! 11. Kd1 Qxd2+ 12. Kxd2 fxg1=Q rather than 10... Qxe5 11.dxe5 gxh2 12.
Nf3 h1=Q 13.0-0-0 with a strong attack. There are a few opening lines where each side gets a desperado pawn that goes on a capturing spree, resulting in each side queening a pawn in the opening. An example is seen in the position diagrammed, where play continued 10... bxc3 11. Exf6 cxb2 12. Fxg7 bxa1=Q 13. Gxh8=Q. Both players promoted by White's seventh move in Casper–Heckert: 1.e4 Nf6 2. Nc3 d5 3.e5 d4 4.exf6 dxc3 5.d4 cxb2 6.fxg7 bxa1=Q 7.gxh8=Q. The original idea was that a foot soldier that advanced all the way through the enemy lines was promoted to the lowest rank of officer. In the Middle Ages, the queen was much weaker than now, its only allowed move was one square diagonally.. When the queen and bishop got their new moves, chess was radically altered; when the fers became the queen