Millennium Bridge, London
The Millennium Bridge known as the London Millennium Footbridge, is a steel suspension bridge for pedestrians crossing the River Thames in London, linking Bankside with the City of London. It is located between Blackfriars Railway Bridge, it is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. Construction began in 1998, it opened in June 2000. Londoners nicknamed the bridge the "Wobbly Bridge" after pedestrians experienced an alarming swaying motion; the bridge was closed on opening day and, after two days of limited access, for two years while modifications were made to eliminate the motion. It reopened in February 2002; the southern end of the bridge is near the Globe Theatre, the Bankside Gallery, Tate Modern, while the northern end of the bridge is next to the City of London School below St Paul's Cathedral. The bridge alignment is such that a clear view of St Paul's south façade is presented from across the river, framed by the bridge supports.
The design of the bridge was the subject of a competition organised in 1996 by Southwark council and RIBA Competitions. The winning entry was an innovative "blade of light" effort from Arup Group and Partners, Sir Anthony Caro. Due to height restrictions, to improve the view, the bridge's suspension design had the supporting cables below the deck level, giving a shallow profile; the bridge has two river piers and is made of three main sections of 81 m, 144 m, 108 m with a total structure length of 325 m. The eight suspension cables are tensioned to pull with a force of 2,000 tons against the piers set into each bank—enough to support a working load of 5,000 people on the bridge at one time. Ordinarily, bridges across the River Thames require an Act of Parliament. For this bridge, avoided by the Port of London Authority granting a licence for the structure obtaining planning permissions from the City of London and London Borough of Southwark. Construction began in late 1998 and the main works were started on 28 April 1999 by Monberg & Thorsen and Sir Robert McAlpine.
The bridge was completed at a cost of £18.2M paid for by the Millennium Commission and the London Bridge Trust. It opened on 10 June 2000. Unexpected lateral vibration caused the bridge to be closed on 12 June 2000 for modifications. Attempts were made to limit the number of people crossing the bridge; this was ineffective to dampen the vibrations. Closure of the bridge only two days after opening attracted public criticism of it as another high-profile British Millennium project that suffered an embarrassing setback, akin to how many saw the Millennium Dome. Vibration was attributed to an under-researched phenomenon whereby pedestrians crossing a bridge that has a lateral sway have an unconscious tendency to match their footsteps to the sway, exacerbating it; the tendency of a suspension bridge to sway when troops march over it in step was well known, why troops are required to break step when crossing such a bridge. The bridge was temporarily closed on 18 January 2007, during the Kyrill storm due to strong winds and a risk of pedestrians being blown off the bridge.
The bridge's movements were caused by a'positive feedback' phenomenon, known as synchronous lateral excitation. The natural sway motion of people walking caused small sideways oscillations in the bridge, which in turn caused people on the bridge to sway in step, increasing the amplitude of the bridge oscillations and continually reinforcing the effect. On the day of opening, the bridge was crossed by 90,000 people, with up to 2,000 on the bridge at any one time. Resonant vibrational modes due to vertical loads and wind loads are well understood in bridge design. In the case of the Millennium Bridge, because the lateral motion caused the pedestrians loading the bridge to directly participate with the bridge, the vibrational modes had not been anticipated by the designers; the crucial point is that when the bridge lurches to one side, the pedestrians must adjust to keep from falling over, they all do this at the same time. Hence, the situation is similar to soldiers marching in lockstep, but horizontal instead of vertical.
The risks of lateral vibration problems in lightweight bridges are well known. Any bridge with lateral frequency modes of less than 1.3 Hz, sufficiently low mass, could witness the same phenomenon with sufficient pedestrian loading. The greater the number of people, the greater the amplitude of the vibrations. For example, Albert Bridge in London has a sign dating from 1873 warning marching ranks of soldiers to break step while crossing. Other bridges which have seen similar problems are: Auckland Harbour Bridge, with a lateral frequency of 0.67 Hz, during a 1975 demonstration Birmingham NEC Link bridge, with a lateral frequency of 0.7 Hz Dockwray Footbridge, Kendal Cumbria built 1907 with a lateral frequency of about 2 Hz Groves Suspension Bridge, Chester, in 1977 during the Jubilee river regatta Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsed in wind. Frequency about 0.25 HzAfter extensive analysis conducted by the engineers, the problem was fixed by the retrofitting of 37 fluid-viscous dampers. These include 17 chevron dampers to control lateral movement, 4 vertical to ground dampers to control lateral and vertical movements, 16 pier dampers to control lateral and torsional movements.
Additionally, 52 tuned mass dampers to control vertical movement. This took from May 2001 to Jan
Magna Science Adventure Centre
Magna Science Adventure Centre is an educational visitor attraction, appealing to children. It is located in a disused steel mill in the Templeborough district of England; the site used to be home to the Steel and Tozer steel works. In 50 AD it was the site of the Templeborough Roman fort; the principal exhibits are divided into four pavilions: Earth, Air and Water. There is a large outdoor play area Sci-Tek and water play area called Aqua-Tek; the site used for staging events and gigs, is over 1/3 of a mile long and won the Enjoy England Gold Award for Business Tourism in 2006 and has received other awards for the high quality of product. The creative, development and building process was led by Stephen Feber, who selected the design team, led by architects WilkinsonEyre and exhibition designers Event Communications. Tim Caulton directed exhibition development, introducing spectacular exhibits that bridged science and art, such as Ned Kahn's fire tornado, "The Big Melt" and works by San Francisco'artist in electricity' Cork Marcheschi.
Magna's exhibitions won the Best Exhibition category at the 2002 Design Week Awards. The Magna Science Adventure Centre won the 2001 RIBA Stirling Prize for its architects Wilkinson Eyre Architects, Mott MacDonald and Buro Happold's innovative use of space in the old steelworks. Visitors are as impressed by the building itself as the attractions contained within it; every hour, on the hour, Magna holds a display called "The Big Melt". Its purpose is to demonstrate how steel was made in an electric arc furnace until the steelworks closed in 1993. An authentic looking furnace is imitated with several fog, spark and smoke machines, loudspeakers and blasts of burning propane which are ignited at appropriate points in the show; the show can be repeated up to four times an hour, but, in practice, it is run once an hour or twice an hour if visitor numbers are high. Since 2011 the centre has been home to the annual Rotherham Real Music Festival; the festival was held at Oakwood Technology College. Money raised from the festival benefits local charities.
Official website Templeborough Roman Settlement
Millennium Greens are areas of green space for the benefit of local communities. 245 were created in cities and villages across England to celebrate the turn of the Millennium. Their creation was funded in part by the National Lottery via the Countryside Agency; each one is different. The project to create 250 Millennium Greens across the turn of the Millennium was started in 1996 and ended when the last Green was handed over to its own, local charitable trust in perpetuity; each trust now fundraises for and runs its own green, within the bounds of its trust deed, for the benefit of its local community. The aims of Millennium Greens, as stated in their trust deeds, are as follows: Make a substantial contribution to the life of the whole community Be able to be enjoyed by people of all ages and physical abilities. Be open and evident to visitors to the Locality as well as inhabitants. Be an attractive place for people to take air and exercise, meet others and pursue leisure activities and pastimes consistent with the shared enjoyment of the whole of the land.
Include an area suitable for community events and celebrations. Include significant "natural" areas, where people can enjoy Nature and wildlife at first hand. Make a positive contribution to the local environment and respect the established character of the area. Remain safely and conveniently accessible from Inhabitants' homes; the project took its inspiration from the Pocket Park project, started in 1984, which had started the idea of communities being directly involved in the creation and maintenance of new parks. The Millennium Greens scheme was one of many UK projects funded by the Millennium Commission using National Lottery money, it was intended to form part of the permanent legacy of the celebrations of the Turn of the Millennium. The general blueprint for the design and creation of Millennium Greens specified both green, natural areas and an area suitable for public events. In addition the Trust Deeds all specified that no buildings were to be built on the land and not more than 10% of the land should be made/left as hard areas- paving and car parks etc.
Another requirement of the original sponsors was that they would not provide formal sporting grounds and play equipment, so that no pitches or playground apparatus were to be built with their funds. Every Millennium Green was to have a Feature: some kind of sculpture or other creation on the Green which could act as a focus for the creation of the Green. Various Greens have chosen something inspired by the history or geography of their locality: a statue, water feature, sun-dial etc. Many of these were unveiled at an official opening ceremony for the Green; the Countryside Agency administered the creation of the Greens, with regional officers studying grant applications and plans surveying land and discussing details with local would-be trustees etc. The CA's team suffered from the fact that many of their operatives were on short-term contracts to do this work, encouraging them to look for new work elsewhere leave before the end of the project; because having a wildlife area is a part of the aims of creating and running a Millennium Green most Millennium Green trusts maintain an interest in the wildlife of their Greens.
Most websites relating to each Green have something to say about the wildlife on their Greens and many have photos and lists of species. By the end of the scheme, 245 out of the planned 250 Greens were created. Whilst some lessons were learnt about creating such schemes, the Countryside Agency considered the project such a success that it launched a follow-on project to continue creating locally-run public green areas called "Doorstep Greens" in 2001; the CA's successor, Natural England has evaluated both schemes and identified some weaknesses in the plans for both Pocket Parks and Millennium Greens that have made them difficult to create and maintain in perpetuity. Millennium Greens and Doorstep Greens have won numerous Green Pennant Awards; the Royal Mail celebrated the Millennium Green project in its People and Places stamps in the Millennium Collection in 2000. The Greens were intended to last in perpetuity and, as such, each was set up with a trust deed including requirements to keep the land and have it available for access by the general public.
As a charitable trust their maintenance is controlled by the Charity Commission. Many Millennium Greens were established with formal links to official bodies, their deeds enable them to work with commercial sponsors and indeed a number of Greens have used sponsorship to further their aims. However, as the Greens are reliant on local volunteers to keep going, including finding new trustees and fundraising, not all volunteer-run trusts have survived. Whilst the object of the creation was for the Greens to last in perpetuity, with most of them given a 999 year lease they are vulnerable to compulsory purchase if the local authority wants to change the use of the land. Pocket park Millennium wood Natural England Site-MM Green Page Green Flag Site Millennium Green wiki
The Eden Project is a popular visitor attraction in Cornwall, England, UK. Inside the two biomes are plants that are collected from many diverse climates and environments; the project is located in a reclaimed china clay pit, located 2 km from the town of St Blazey and 5 km from the larger town of St Austell. The complex is dominated by two huge enclosures consisting of adjoining domes that house thousands of plant species, each enclosure emulates a natural biome; the biomes consist of hundreds of hexagonal and pentagonal, plastic cells supported by steel frames. The largest of the two biomes simulates a rainforest environment and the second, a Mediterranean environment; the attraction has an outside botanical garden, home to many plants and wildlife native to Cornwall and the UK in general. There are plans to build an Eden Project North in the seaside town of Morecambe, with a focus on the marine environment; the clay pit in which the project is sited was in use for over 160 years. In 1981, the pit was used by the BBC as the planet surface of Magrathea in the 1981 TV series of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.
By the mid-1990s the pit was all but exhausted. The initial idea for the project dates back to 1996, with construction beginning in 1998; the work was hampered by torrential rain in the first few months of the project, parts of the pit flooded as it sits 15 m below the water table. The first part of the Eden Project, the visitor centre, opened to the public in May 2000; the first plants began arriving in September of that year, the full site opened on 17 March 2001. The Eden Project was used as a filming location for the 2002 James Bond film. On 2 July 2005 The Eden Project hosted the "Africa Calling" concert of the Live 8 concert series, it has provided some plants for the British Museum's Africa garden. In 2005, the Project launched "A Time of Gifts" for the winter months, November to February; this features an ice rink covering the lake, with a small café/bar attached, as well as a Christmas market. Cornish choirs perform in the biomes. In 2007, the Eden Project campaigned unsuccessfully for £50 million in Big Lottery Fund money for a proposed desert biome.
When it received just 12.07% of the votes, the lowest for the four projects being considered. As part of the campaign, the Eden Project invited people all over Cornwall to try to break the world record for the biggest pub quiz as part of its campaign to bring £50 million of lottery funds to Cornwall. In December 2009, much of the project, including both greenhouses, became available to navigate through Google Street View; the Eden Trust revealed a trading loss of £1.3 million for 2012-13, on a turnover of £25.4 million. The Eden Project had posted a surplus of £136,000 for the previous year. In 2014 Eden accounts showed a surplus of £2 million; the World Pasty Championships have been held at the Eden Project since 2012, an international competition to find the best Cornish pasties and other pasty-type savoury snacks. The Eden Project is said to have contributed over £1 billion to the Cornish economy; the Eden Project received 1,024,156 visitors in 2017. The project was conceived by Tim Smit and designed by architect Nicholas Grimshaw and engineering firm Anthony Hunt and Associates.
Davis Langdon carried out the project management, Sir Robert McAlpine and Alfred McAlpine did the construction, MERO designed and built the biomes, Arup was the services engineer, economic consultant, environmental engineer and transportation engineer. Land use consultants led the landscape design; the project took 2½ years to construct and opened to the public on 17 March 2001. Once into the attraction, there is a meandering path with views of the two biomes, planted landscapes, including vegetable gardens, sculptures that include a giant bee and The WEEE Man, a towering figure made from old electrical appliances and was meant to represent the average electrical waste used by one person in a lifetime. At the bottom of the pit are two covered biomes: The Tropical Biome, covers 1.56 ha and measures 55 m high, 100 m wide, 200 m long. It is used for tropical plants, such as fruiting banana plants, coffee and giant bamboo, is kept at a tropical temperature and moisture level; the Mediterranean Biome covers 0.654 ha and measures 35 m high, 65 m wide, 135 m long.
It houses familiar warm temperate and arid plants such as olives and grape vines and various sculptures. The Outdoor Gardens represent the temperate regions of the world with plants such as tea, hops and sunflowers, as well as local plant species; the covered biomes are constructed from a tubular steel with hexagonal external cladding panels made from the thermoplastic ETFE. Glass was avoided due to potential dangers; the cladding panels themselves are created from several layers of thin UV-transparent ETFE film, which are sealed around their perimeter and inflated to create a large cushion. The resulting cushion acts as a thermal blanket to the structure; the ETFE material is resistant to most stains, which wash off in the rain. If required, cleaning can be performed by abseilers. Although the ETFE is susceptible to punctures, these can be fixed with ETFE tape; the structure is self-supporting, with no internal supports, takes the form of a geodesic structure. The panels vary in size up to 9 m across, with the largest at the top of the structure.
The ETFE technology was suppl
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016; the office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most to command the confidence of the House of Commons. The position of Prime Minister was not created; the office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament.
Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and remained the head of government, politically it became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament. By the 1830s the Westminster system of government had emerged; the political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged. Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons; however as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.
The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury; the status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world. The Prime Minister is the head of the United Kingdom government; as such, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and commands a majority in the House of Commons; the incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the Prime Minister appoints all other Cabinet members and ministers, co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service.
The Prime Minister acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document. The British constitution consists of many documents and most for the evolution of the Office of the Prime Minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:In this country we live... under an unwritten Constitution. It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges, they rest on usage, convention of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.
The relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Minister's executive and legislative powers are royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the Sovereign, who remains the head of state. Despite its growing
The Millennium Dome referred to as The Dome, is the original name of a large dome-shaped building used to house the Millennium Experience, a major exhibition celebrating the beginning of the third millennium. It is the ninth largest building in the world by usable volume. Located on the Greenwich Peninsula in South East London, the exhibition was open to the public from 1 January to 31 December 2000; the project and exhibition was political and in spite of excellent customer feedback attracted half the 12 million customers its sponsors forecast, so was deemed a failure by the press. All the original exhibition elements were dismantled. In a 2005 report, the cost of selling the Dome and surrounding land and managing the Dome until the deal was closed was £28.7 million. The value of the 48 acres occupied by the Dome was estimated at £48 million, which could have been realised by demolishing the structure, but it was considered preferable to preserve the Dome; the structure itself still exists, it is now a key exterior feature of The O2.
The Prime Meridian passes the western edge of the Dome and the nearest London Underground station is North Greenwich on the Jubilee line. The dome is one of the largest of its type in the world. Externally, it appears as a large white marquee with twelve 100 m-high yellow support towers, one for each month of the year, or each hour of the clock face, representing the role played by Greenwich Mean Time. In plan view it is 365 m in diameter, it has become one of the United Kingdom's most recognizable landmarks. It can be identified on satellite images of London, its exterior is reminiscent of the Dome of Discovery built for the Festival of Britain in 1951. The architect was Richard Rogers and the contractor was a joint venture company, McAlpine/Laing Joint Venture formed between Sir Robert McAlpine and Laing Management; the building structure was engineered by Buro Happold, the entire roof structure weighs less than the air contained within the building. Although referred to as a dome it is not one as it is not self-supporting, but is, in fact, a giant Big Top, the canopy being supported by a dome-shaped cable network, from twelve king posts.
For this reason, it has been disparagingly referred to as the Millennium Tent. The twelve posts represent the twelve months of the year, another reference to time in its dimensions, alongside its height and diameter; the canopy is made of PTFE-coated glass fibre fabric, a durable and weather-resistant plastic, is 52 m high in the middle – one metre for each week of the year. Its symmetry is interrupted by a hole through which a ventilation shaft from the Blackwall Tunnel rises; the critic Jonathan Meades has scathingly referred to the Millennium Dome as a "Museum of Toxic Waste", apart from the dome itself, the project included the reclamation of the entire Greenwich Peninsula. The land was derelict and contaminated by toxic sludge from East Greenwich Gas Works that operated from 1889 to 1985; the clean-up operation was seen by the Deputy Prime Minister Michael Heseltine as an investment that would add a large area of useful land to the crowded capital. This was billed as part of a larger plan to regenerate a large, sparsely populated area to the east of London and south of the River Thames, an area called the East Thames Corridor but latterly marketed as the "Thames Gateway".
The Dome project was conceived on a somewhat smaller scale, under John Major's Conservative government, as a Festival of Britain or World's Fair-type showcase to celebrate the third millennium. The incoming Labour government elected in 1997 under Tony Blair expanded the size and funding of the project, it significantly increased expectations of what would be delivered. Just before its opening Blair claimed the Dome would be "a triumph of confidence over cynicism, boldness over blandness, excellence over mediocrity". In the words of BBC correspondent Robert Orchard, "the Dome was to be highlighted as a glittering New Labour achievement in the next election manifesto", but criticised in the 2001 Conservative Party manifesto as "banal and rootless", lacking "a sense of Britain’s history or culture". However, before its opening, The Dome was excoriated in Iain Sinclair's diatribe, Sorry Meniscus – Excursions to the Millennium Dome, which forecast the hype, the political posturing and the eventual disillusion.
The post-exhibition plan had been to convert The Dome into a football stadium which would last for 25 years: Charlton Athletic at one point considered a possible move but instead chose to redevelop their own stadium. Fisher Athletic were a local team interested in moving to the Dome, but they were considered to have too small a fan base to make this feasible; the Dome was planned to take over the functions performed by the London Arena, after its closure. This is the function. After a private opening on the evening of 31 December 1999 the Millennium Experience at the Dome was open to the public for the whole of 2000, contained a large number of attractions and exhibits; the interior space was subdivided into 14 zones: Who we are: Body, sponsored by Boots, supported by L'Oréal and Roche Mind, sponsored by BAE Systems and Marconi Faith comprised 5 sections: History of Christianity, Making of Key Life Experiences, How Shall I live?, Night Rain and Faith Festivals Calendar (Eva Jiricna Archite
London River Services
London River Services Limited is a division of Transport for London, which manages passenger transport—leisure-oriented tourist services and commuter services—on the River Thames in London. It licenses the services of operators. River service had been a common means of transport in London for centuries, but died off in the early 1900s, as transportation was enhanced with a proliferation of bridges and tunnels. With these numerous north-south crossings of the Thames, no more than 300m wide as it runs through central London, the revival of river boat services in London therefore travel east or west along the Thames rather than across it; the decision to revive London's river service network moved forward in 1997 with the launch of “Thames 2000”, a £21-million project to regenerate the River Thames in time for the Millennium Celebrations and create new passenger transport services on the Thames. While the service is not as extensive as those of Hong Kong or Sydney, it has been growing: in 2007, more than 0.7 million commuters travelled by river on the Thames Clippers service, one of the numerous operators on the system.
By 2018, there were 21 different operators carrying daily commuter, charter, or sightseeing passengers to various combinations of the 33 piers on the system. Before the construction of London's bridges and the Underground, the River Thames had served as a major thoroughfare for centuries. Attempts to regulate the transport of passengers and goods began in 1197, when King Richard I sold the Crown's rights over the Thames to the City of London Corporation, which attempted to license boats on the river. In 1510 Henry VIII granted a licence to watermen that gave exclusive rights to carry passengers on the river, in 1555 an Act of Parliament set up the Company of Watermen and Lightermen to control traffic on the Thames. For centuries the only bridge across the Thames was London Bridge. Crossing the river by wherry was a common mode of transport. Passenger steamboats were introduced in 1815 and the use of the river as a means of public transport increased greatly. River services ran from Gravesend and Ramsgate via Greenwich and Woolwich into central London.
By the mid-1850s about 15,000 people per day travelled to work on steamboat services – twice the number of passengers on the newly emerging railways. With increased congestion on the river and other accidents became correspondingly more frequent, most notably with the Princess Alice disaster at Woolwich in 1878. While the introduction of large steamboats and bridge construction had taken business from the Thames watermen, the growth of the railways took passengers away from the steamboat services and the use of the river for public transport began a steady decline. River service companies struggled financially, in 1876 the five main boat companies merged to form the London Steamboat Company; the company ran a half-hourly service from Chelsea to Greenwich for eight years until it went bankrupt in 1884. River services continued under different management into the next century. Many of the Thames paddle steamers around this time were built by the Thames Ironworks at Bow Creek. In 1905 the London County Council launched its own public river transport service to complement its new tram network, acquiring piers and investing in a large fleet of 30 paddle-steamers.
Frequent services operated from Hammersmith to Greenwich. The LCC river service was not a success, it was shut down in 1907 after only two years' service. Numerous proposals for "river bus" services were considered throughout the 20th century, although the few that were realised were cancelled after a short time in service. During World War II, from 13 September 1940 to 2 November 1940, a temporary wartime river bus service was introduced, running every 20 minutes, between Westminster and Woolwich using converted pleasure cruisers provided by the Port of London Authority to replace train and trolleybus services which were disrupted by the bombing of the Blitz. London Transport bus inspectors and conductors checked the tickets on board the boats. With the move of the Port of London downstream in the 1960s, regular river transport was limited to a few sightseeing boats. In 1997 Secretary of State for Transport John Prescott launched Thames 2000, a £21-million project to regenerate the River Thames in time for the Millennium Celebrations and boost new passenger transport services on the Thames.
The centrepiece of these celebrations was to be the Millennium Dome, but there was a plan to provide a longer-term legacy of public transport boat services and piers on the river. The Cross-River Partnership, a consortium of local authorities, private sector organisations and voluntary bodies, recommended the creation of a public body to co-ordinate and promote river services; this agency, provisionally titled the Thames Piers Agency, would integrate boat services into other modes of public transport, take control of Thames piers from the Port of London Authority, commission the construction of new piers. The result was the formation in 1999 of London River Services, a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London. Mayor Ken Livingstone's Transport Strategy for London 2005 stated that: The safe use