Site of Special Scientific Interest
A Site of Special Scientific Interest in Great Britain or an Area of Special Scientific Interest in the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man. SSSI/ASSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in the United Kingdom are based upon them, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation; the acronym "SSSI" is pronounced "triple-S I". Sites notified for their biological interest are known as Biological SSSIs, those notified for geological or physiographic interest are Geological SSSIs. Sites may be divided into management units, with some areas including units that are noted for both biological and geological interest. Biological SSSI/ASSIs may be selected for various reasons, which for Great Britain is governed by published SSSI Selection Guidelines. Within each area, a representative series of the best examples of each significant natural habitat may be notified, for rarer habitats all examples may be included.
Sites of particular significance for various taxonomic groups may be selected —each of these groups has its own set of selection guidelines. Conservation of biological SSSI/ASSIs involves continuation of the natural and artificial processes which resulted in their development and survival, for example the continued traditional grazing of heathland or chalk grassland. In England, the designating body for SSSIs, Natural England, selects biological SSSIs from within natural areas which are areas with particular landscape and ecological characteristics, or on a county basis. In Scotland, the designating authority is Scottish Natural Heritage. In the Isle of Man the role is performed by the Department of Environment and Agriculture. Geological SSSI/ASSIs are selected by a different mechanism to biological ones, with a minimalistic system selecting one site for each geological feature in Great Britain. Academic geological specialists have reviewed geological literature, selecting sites within Great Britain of at least national importance for each of the most important features within each geological topic.
Each of these sites is described, with most published in the Geological Conservation Review series, so becomes a GCR site. All GCR sites are subsequently notified as geological SSSIs, except some that coincide with designated biological SSSI management units. A GCR site may contain features from several different topic blocks, for example a site may contain strata containing vertebrate fossils, insect fossils and plant fossils and it may be of importance for stratigraphy. Geological sites fall into two types, having different conservation priorities: exposure sites, deposit sites. Exposure sites are where quarries, disused railway cuttings, cliffs or outcrops give access to extensive geological features, such as particular rock layers. If the exposure becomes obscured, the feature could in principle be re-exposed elsewhere. Conservation of these sites concentrates on maintenance of access for future study. Deposit sites are features which are limited in extent or physically delicate—for example, they include small lenses of sediment, mine tailings and other landforms.
If such features become damaged they cannot be recreated, conservation involves protecting the feature from erosion or other damage. Following devolution, legal arrangements for SSSIs and ASSIs differ between the countries of the UK; the Isle of Man ASSI system is a separate entity. Scottish Natural Heritage publishes a summary of the SSSI arrangements for SSSI owners and occupiers which can be downloaded from the SNH website. Legal documents for all SSSIs in Scotland are available on the SSSI Register, hosted by The Registers of Scotland. Further information about SSSIs in Scotland is available on the SNH website; the decision to notify an SSSI is made by the relevant nature conservation body for that part of the United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Natural England, Scottish Natural Heritage or Natural Resources Wales. SSSIs were set up by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, but the current legal framework for SSSIs is provided in England and Wales by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, amended in 1985 and further amended in 2000, in Scotland by the Nature Conservation Act 2004 and in Northern Ireland by the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
SSSIs are covered under the Water Resources Act 1991 and related legislation. An SSSI may be made on any area of land, considered to be of special interest by virtue of its fauna, geological or physiographical / geomorphological features. SSSI notification can cover any "land" within the area of the relevant nature conservation body, including dry land, land covered by freshwater; the extent to which an SSSI/ASSI may extend seawards differs between countries. In Scotland an SSSI may include the intertidal land down to mean low water spring or to the extent of the local planning authority area, thus only limited areas of estuaries and coastal waters beyond MLWS may be included. In England, Natural England may notify an SSSI over estuarial waters and further adjacent waters in certain circumstances (section 28 of The
Millers Dale railway station
Millers Dale railway station was situated in Millers Dale in the Peak District. It was built in 1863 by the Midland Railway on its extension of the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway from Rowsley, it served an important junction where passengers for Buxton joined or left the trains between London and Manchester. It was to be called "Blackwell Mill" but, in the end, was named "Millers Dale for Tideswell". For such a rural location, it was unusually large. Millers Dale sent dairy and quarried products from the surrounding areas to the major cities. While serving local towns and villages—notably Tideswell and Wormhill—much of its activity was concerned with the connecting service to and from Buxton. Traffic for Buxton followed the main line north for nearly two miles, before diverging at Millers Dale Junction, beside Blackwell Mill Halt. Built on a shelf carved out of the hillside, Millers Dale station had two platforms, but a bay platform was added in 1905 to accommodate Buxton trains, plus the down platform became an island platform to serve the extra tracks.
The new loop and the second viaduct were opened on 20 August 1905. The old viaduct was closed and reopened in April 1906. Whilst the piers for the two viaducts are identical, the older viaduct is supported by an arch structure, whereas the one is a box structure. Part of the original Parliamentary Act approving the line considered the needs of invalids taking the waters at Buxton, so, for a while,'through' carriages for Buxton were attached to, detached from, thus alleviating the problem of changing trains. In addition, the two main platforms were connected by a subway. Changing at Millers Dale involved a wait, the High Peak News of November 1900 referred to the station as "Patience Junction"; the station was immortalised in the 1964 song "Slow Train" by Flanders and Swann. The station closed in 1967 but trains continued to pass through the station until 1968 when the line was closed. Since the railway was closed the station has become a car park serving the Monsal Trail, although the main buildings remain, being used as public toilets.
The hamlet of Millers Dale is still dominated by the two large disused viaducts over the Wye valley. The older of the viaducts today forms part of an 8.5-mile walking and cycle track. The station building is due to reopen as a café and visitor centre in March 2019 after undergoing an extensive £230,000 restoration, providing additional services to users of Monsal Trail. To the north of the station, the line crossed the Wye three times and ran through the 401 yards and 94 yards Chee Tunnels and the 121 yards Rusher Hall tunnel, before reaching the New Mills line junction, 1.25 miles from the station. Cycleways in England Ingenious.org Millers Dale Viaduct, 1892 "Picture the Past" Midland railway station 1964 Disused stations: Millers Dale Millers Dale station on navigable 1947 O. S. map
River Wye, Derbyshire
For other rivers named "Wye", see River Wye The River Wye is a limestone river in the Peak District of Derbyshire, England. It is 15 miles in length, is one of the major tributaries of the River Derwent, which flows into the River Trent, into the Humber and the North Sea; the river's source lies just west of Buxton, on Axe Edge Moor. Part of the flow passes underground through Poole's Cavern before rising at Wye Head, flowing through the Pavilion Gardens in Buxton, it flows east, along a route followed by the A6 road. It enters the Peak District, flows just south of Tideswell through Ashford in the Water and Bakewell, south of Haddon Hall, before meeting the River Derwent at Rowsley; the main tributary of the river is the River Lathkill, which enters one mile from its mouth. The River Wye is one of Derbyshire's best known rivers and is popular with anglers owing to the large numbers of wild brown, rainbow trout and grayling it contains; the alkalinity of the Wye provides a rich source of nutrients that leads to an abundance of insects and other wildlife.
This ensures that the Trout and Grayling grow on a diet of freshwater shrimp and upwinged flies. Some of the largest populations of Water Voles in Britain can be found along the River Wye, it is possible to walk alongside much of the length of the river following a former railway line, part of, now the Monsal Trail and provides views of the river. In Monsal Dale the former railway line emerges from a tunnel at Monsal Head, over a viaduct high above the river below; when this structure was built John Ruskin was enraged, spoke of the Gods being banished by a scheme intended to convey'every Buxton fool to Bakewell in half an hour' and vice versa,'and you call this lucrative exchange—you fools everywhere'. It is thus an irony of progress that the railway is now gone and the viaduct is itself a'listed' structure. Rivers of the United Kingdom List of rivers of England
Wormhill is a village and civil parish in the High Peak district of Derbyshire, situated east by north of Buxton. The population of the civil parish including Peak Dale was 1,020 at the 2011 Census. Wormhill was mentioned in the Domesday book as belonging to Henry de Ferrers and containing 20 acres of meadow; the name is said by the English Place-Name Society to be derived from the Old English'Wyrma's hyll'. There was a tradition of wolf hunting in Wormhill in the fourteenth century, it was said that an annual tribute of wolfheads was shown. It has been reported. From 1863 to 1967 the village was served by Millers Dale railway station, some 2 miles away, on the Midland Railway's extension of the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway, it has memorials to James Brindley, pioneer builder of Britain's canals, born in 1716 in the hamlet of Tunstead within Wormhill parish. The well in Wormhill is dedicated to Brindley; as part of the annual well dressing festival the Brindley well is decorated each year and there is a smaller well dressing in the churchyard of St Margaret's Church in the village.
The lower part of a cross shaft and its stepped base stand in the churchyard. A sundial dated 1670 tops the broken shaft. Only the base of the church tower is medieval. Near the church and Brindley's well can be found the old village stocks. At the north end of the village lies the hamlet of Hargate, where the industrialist Robert Whitehead and notorious mill owner Ellis Needham once lived. Media related to Wormhill at Wikimedia Commons
The Monsal Trail is a cycling, horse riding and walking trail in the Derbyshire Peak District. It was constructed from a section of the former Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway, built by the Midland Railway in 1863 to link Manchester with London, which closed in 1968; the Monsal Trail is about 8.5 miles in length and opened in 1981. It starts at the Topley Pike junction in Wye Dale, three miles East of Buxton, runs to Coombs Viaduct, one mile South-East of Bakewell, it follows the valley of the River Wye. The trail passes through Blackwell Mill, Millers Dale, Monsal Dale, Great Longstone and Bakewell; the trail has numerous landmarks including Headstone Viaduct, Cressbrook Mill, Litton Mill, Hassop railway station and passes through six tunnels. The Monsall Trail follows a section of the former Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway, built by the Midland Railway in 1863 to link Manchester with London; the line was closed in 1968 by the Labour Minister for Transport Barbara Castle, not by the Beeching Axe, remained unused for twelve years before being taken over by the Peak District National Park.
The route through the Wye valley was necessitated by the Duke of Devonshire's objection to the railway passing through his land. The route meant; the Duke of Rutland, of Haddon Hall, insisted on the construction of Haddon Tunnel to hide it from his view, but he used Bakewell railway station, built to a grander design than normal, carried his coat of arms. The Duke of Devonshire realised the value of the railway, his offer for the Midland Railway to run through Chatsworth came too late, he was the force behind the construction of Hassop railway station, although nearer to Bakewell than Hassop village, meant he did not have to share a railway station with his neighbour. Great Longstone served Thornbridge Hall, the railway station design, with leaded glass windows, reflected the architecture of the hall. For many years the trail could not follow the trackbed through the tunnels at Monsal Head and Cressbrook which been closed for safety reasons and the trail was diverted to avoid them; the tunnels were walked by Julia Bradbury in BBC TV's Railway Walks: The Peak Express.
Many access points and diversion paths were unsuitable for cyclists, wheelchairs or people with walking difficulties because of steep uneven stone steps or narrow paths. Plans to make the tunnels safe and re-open them to the public were given the go-ahead at a cost of £3.785m. The tunnels were formally opened on 25 May 2011 at a ceremony at the Headstone Viaduct after being used from 13 May 2011); the trail can be used by wheelchair users with level access at Bakewell, Hassop railway station and Millers Dale. The Monsal Trail is about 8.5 miles in length and opened in 1981. It runs to Coombs Viaduct, 1 mile south-east of Bakewell, it follows the valley of the River Wye and runs parallel to the A6. From the Wyedale car park, the easiest access point for the northern end of the trail, there is a walk of about 1 kilometre, with the last part up steps, to reach the trail. Starting at the south of the trail, "from Market Place in Bakewell, follow Sheffield Road and cross the five-arched bridge of the River Wye, turn right and ascend Station Road to the former Bakewell railway station and car park on your left."The trail passes through Blackwell Mill, Millers Dale, Monsal Dale, Great Longstone and Bakewell.
At Longstone and Hassop the railway stations were some distance from the villages. Derbyshire County Council support the creation of a circular cycle route linking Buxton and Matlock with the High Peak Trail. Dubbed the White Peak Loop, it includes extending the Monsal Trail to Matlock, a proposal which received strong support from a public consultation exercise in 2014; the 5 mile section between Rowsley and Matlock opened in March 2018, running adjacent to the railway trackbed except for minor diversions just north of Rowsley South, at Darley Dale, at Matlock. The remaining 2.5 mile section of the route between Bakewell and Rowsley is at the design stage. When complete the section will run for the most part along the railway trackbed and require new bridges at Rowsley and the refurbishment and opening up of the 1-km Haddon Tunnel. Headstone Viaduct, at Monsal Head, is one of the more impressive structures on the line, although when built it was seen as destroying the beauty of the dale. John Ruskin, a poet and conservationist of the time, criticised the folly of building the railway: His words are displayed on the viaduct.
When the railway closed and there was talk of demolishing the viaduct, there was considerable opposition. In 1970 a preservation order was placed on it. Cressbrook Mill opened as a cotton mill in 1783, powered by water from Cressbrook stream, it was built on the site of a distillery by William Newton of Abney. The original building was destroyed by fire. Litton Mill was a large cotton spinning mill that opened in 1782, it was notorious for the harsh treatment of child labourers by Ellis Needham. Many of the children, brought from London and other large cities, died young from the cruel treatment. Hassop railway station was situated about two miles from the village, it was opened in 1862 by the Midland Railway on its extension of the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway from Rowsley. The trail passes through the following tunnels: Headstone: 533 yards (4
Peak Forest is a small village and civil parish on the main road the from Chapel-en-le-Frith to Chesterfield in Derbyshire. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 335; the village grew from the earlier settlement of Dam at the conjunction of Damdale. There is a church and a primary school, its name derives from the Forest of High Peak. Its church is dedicated to'Charles, King & Martyr'. First erected in 1657, it was replaced in 1878 as a gift from the Duke of Devonshire; until an Act of Parliament was passed in 1804 its minister was able to perform marriages without the need for reading the banns, the village was known as the Gretna Green of Derbyshire. The Peak Forest Canal, although aiming for the limestone quarries in Great Rocks Dale just to the south of the village, never reached nearer than Buxworth, seven miles away, where it terminates at Bugsworth Basin. Instead, a horse-drawn tramway, the Peak Forest Tramway, was constructed in the late 18th century to connect the canal with the quarries between Dove Holes and Peak Forest.
The original limestone-carrying purpose of the canal was replaced long ago by the mineral railway line serving the quarries around Buxton and joining the Manchester–Sheffield line, via a couple of magnificent diverging viaducts over the Black Brook valley at Chapel Milton. Its railway station was built by the Midland Railway, two miles away at Small Dale; this was on its extension of the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway, part of the main Midland Line from Manchester to London. It was the northern junction for the line from Buxton
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th