Alyson Shotz is a contemporary American artist based in Brooklyn, New York. Born at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, she graduated with a BFA from the Rhode Island School of Design in 1987 and an MFA from the University of Washington in 1991. Alyson Shotz investigates concepts of space, light and gravity with sculptures made from a range of materials such as mirror, glass beads, plastic lenses and steel wire. Shotz is included in the current exhibition Art & Space at the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, has been included in exhibitions such as The More Things Change, at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Contemplating the Void and The Shapes of Space, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York and Landscape, Storm King Art Center, Living Color, at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC, Pattern: Follow the Rules at the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. Shotz has had solo exhibitions at the Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana, The Wellin Museum of Art at Hamilton College, The Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio, the Nasher Sculpture Center, Dallas and Espace Louis Vuitton, among others.
Shotz was an Arts Institute Research Fellow at Stanford University in 2014 and 2015, a Sterling Visiting Scholar, Stanford University, 2012. She received a Pollock Krasner Award in 2010, the Saint Gaudens Memorial Fellowship in 2007, was the 2005-2006 Happy and Bob Doran Artist in Residence at Yale University Art Gallery, her work is included in numerous public collections, such as the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana, among others. In The New York Times, Karen Rosenberg wrote: "Ms. Shotz evokes natural phenomena with accumulations of beads and other common materials.... They respond to the challenge of visualizing concepts from theoretical physics." The New York Times: "Light and Landscape", September 21, 2012 "Light and Landscape", June 22, 2012 "Phase Shift", March 13, 2009 "Space Exploration, Conducted on a Spiral", July 20, 2007 "The Artist as the Star of a Silent Comedy", March 6, 2005 "Impressions of the Yard and Olfactory", June 27, 2003 Baltimore Museum of Art Blanton Museum of Art, Texas Davis Museum at Wellesley College Eli and Edythe L.
Broad Collection, Michigan The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Harvard University, Massachusetts Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC Indianapolis Museum of Art Kunst am Bau Foundation, Germany Los Angeles County Museum of Art Louis Vuitton, Japan Marciano Collection, Los Angeles, California Museum of Fine Arts, Texas The Museum of Modern Art, New York National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC New York Public Library Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC Rose Art Museum, Massachusetts San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California Storm King Art Center, New York Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut MTA Arts for Transit Station, Smith and 9th Street, Red Hook, New York Stanford University, Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge, Palo Alto, California University of South Florida and Frank Morsani Health Center, Florida Ohio University, ARC building, Ohio Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Mortimer B. Zuckerman Research Center, New York, New York University of Houston, Cynthia Woods Mitchell Center for the Arts, Texas High Museum of Art, Georgia 2017-18 – "Art and Space", at the Guggenheim Bilbao, Spain 2014 – "Alyson Shotz: Force of Nature", at the Ruth and Elmer Wellin Museum of Art, New York 2013 – "Pattern: Follow the Rules", at the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, East Lansing, Michigan 2012 – "Sculpture Biennial", Borås Konstmuseum, Borås, Sweden 2012 – "Fluid State", Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana 2012 – "Ecliptic", Phillips Collection, Washington, DC 2011 – "Geometry of Light", Espace Louis Vuitton, Japan 2011 – "The More Things Change", San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California 2010 – "Sightings: Alyson Shotz", Nasher Sculpture Center, Texas 2010 – "Contemplating the Void: Interventions in the Guggenheim Museum", The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York 2010 – "Standing Wave", Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio 2010 – "5+5: New Perspectives", Storm King Art Center, New York 2010 – "Material World", Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams, Massachusetts 2009 – "New Work: Žilvinas Kempinas, Alyson Shotz, Mary Temple", San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California 2009 – "Living Color", Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC 2008 – "Currents: Recent Acquisitions", Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC 2007 – "The Shapes of Space", The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York 2014-15 – Stanford University Research Fellow, Arts Institute, Stanford University 2012 – Sterling Visiting Scholar, Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University 2010 – Pollock Krasner Foundation 2007 – Saint Gaudens Memorial Fellowship 2005-06 – Bob and Happy Doran Artist in Residence, Yale University Art Gallery 2004 – The New York Foundation for the Arts Fellowship 1999 – Pollock-Krasner Foundation 1996 – Art Matters Foundation Ciraqui and Sara Nadal-Melsió.
Art and Space. Guggenheim Bilbao, Spain. ISBN 978-84-17048-81-6. Adler, Tracy L.. Alyson Shotz: Force of Nature; the Ruth and Elmer Wellin Museum of Art, Ha
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Hilma af Klint
Hilma af Klint was a Swedish artist and mystic whose paintings were among the first abstract art. A considerable body of her abstract work predates the first purely abstract compositions by Kandinsky, she belonged to a group called "The Five", a circle of women who shared her belief in the importance of trying to make contact with the so-called "High Masters"—often by way of séances. Her paintings, which sometimes resemble diagrams, were a visual representation of complex spiritual ideas; the fourth child of Captain Victor af Klint, a Swedish naval commander, Mathilda af Klint, Hilma af Klint spent summers with her family at their manor Hanmora on the island of Adelsö in Lake Mälaren. In these idyllic surroundings Hilma came into contact with nature at an early stage in her life. In life, Hilma af Klint came to live on a permanent basis at Munsö, an island next to Adelsö. From her family, Hilma af Klint inherited a great interest for botany, she showed an early ability in visual art, after the family moved to Stockholm, she studied at the Academy of Fine Arts of Stockholm, where she learned portraiture and landscape painting.
She was admitted at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts at the age of twenty. During the years 1882–1887 she studied drawing, portrait- and landscape painting, she graduated with honors, was allocated a scholarship in the form of a studio in the so-called "Atelier Building", owned by The Academy of Fine Arts in the crossing between Hamngatan and Kungsträdgården in central Stockholm. This was the main cultural hub in the Swedish capital at that time; the same building held Blanch's Café and Blanchs Art Gallery, where the conflict stood between the conventional art view of the Academy of Fine Arts, the opposition movement of the "Art Society", inspired by the French En Plein Air painters. Hilma af Klint began working in Stockholm, gaining recognition for her landscapes, botanical drawings, portraits, her conventional painting became the source of financial income. But her'life's work' remained a quite separate practice. In 1880 her younger sister Hermina died, it was at this time that the spiritual dimension of her life began to develop.
Her interest in abstraction and symbolism came from Hilma af Klint's involvement in spiritism much in vogue at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Hilma af Klint became interested in the Theosophy of Madame Blavatsky and the philosophy of Christian Rosencreutz. In 1908 she met Rudolf Steiner, the founder of the Anthroposophical Society, on a visit to Stockholm. Steiner initiated her in his own theories regarding the Arts, would have a certain influence on her paintings in life. Several years in 1920, she met him again at the Goetheanum in Dornach, the headquarters of the Anthroposophical Society. Between 1921 and 1930 she spent long periods at the Goetheanum. Af Klint's work can be understood in the wider context of the Modernist search for new forms in artistic, spiritual and scientific systems at the beginning of the 20th century. One will find the same interest in spirituality in other artists during this same period, such as Wassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, Kasimir Malevitch and the French Nabis of which many were, like af Klint, inspired by the Theosophical Movement.
However, the artistic transition to abstract art and the nonfigurative painting of Hilma af Klint would occur without any contacts with the contemporary modern movements. The works of Hilma af Klint are spiritual, her artistic work is a consequence of this. At the Academy of Fine Arts she met Anna Cassel, the first of the four women with whom she worked in "The Five", a group of artists who shared her ideas; the group of female artists The Five was engaged in the paranormal and organized spiritistic séances. They recorded in a book a new system of mystical thoughts in the form of messages from higher spirits, called The High Masters. One, spoke thus: "All the knowledge, not of the senses, not of the intellect, not of the heart but is the property that belongs to the deepest aspect of your being...the knowledge of your spirit". Through her work with the group The Five Hilma af Klint created experimental automatic drawing as early as 1896, leading her towards an inventive geometric visual language capable of conceptualizing invisible forces both of the inner and outer worlds.
As she got more familiar with this form of expression, Hilma af Klint was assigned by the High Masters to create the paintings for the "Temple" – however she never understood what this "Temple" referred to. Hilma af Klint felt she was being directed by a force that would guide her hand, she wrote in her notebook: The pictures were painted directly through me, without any preliminary drawings, with great force. I had no idea. In 1906, after 20 years of artistic works, at the age of 44, Hilma af Klint painted her first series of abstract paintings; the work for the Temple ran between 1906 and 1915, carried out in two phases with an interruption between 1908 and 1912. As Hilma af Klint discovered her new form of visual expression, she developed a new artistic language, her painting became more intentional. The spiritual would however continue being the main source of creativity throughout the rest of her life; the collection for the Temple counts in total 193 paintings, grouped in several sub-series.
The major paintings, dated 1907
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th