In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John Casor
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
Maxine Moore Waters is the U. S. Representative for Californias 43rd congressional district, and previously the 35th and 29th districts, serving since 1991. A member of the Democratic Party, she is the most senior of the 12 black women currently serving in the United States Congress, before becoming a member of Congress she served in the California Assembly, to which she was first elected in 1976. As an Assembly member, Waters advocated for divestment from South Africas apartheid regime, in Congress, she was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War. Waters was born 1938 in Kinloch, the daughter of Velma Lee, fifth out of thirteen children, Waters was raised by her single mother once her father left the family when Maxine was two. She graduated from Vashon High School in St. Louis, and moved with her family to Los Angeles and she worked in a garment factory and as a telephone operator before being hired as an assistant teacher with the Head Start program at Watts in 1966. She enrolled at Los Angeles State College and graduated with a degree in 1970.
In 1973, she went to work as deputy to City Councilman David S. Cunningham. She ascended to the position of Democratic Caucus Chair for the Assembly, upon the retirement of Augustus F. Hawkins in 1990, Waters was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives for Californias 29th congressional district with over 79% of the popular vote. On July 29,1994, Waters came to attention when she repeatedly interrupted a speech by Peter King. The presiding officer, Carrie Meek, classed her behaviour as unruly and turbulent, as of 2017, this is the most recent instance of the mace being employed in a disciplinary sense. Waters was eventually suspended from the house for the rest of the day, the conflict with King stemmed from the previous day, when they had both been present at a House Banking Committee hearing on the Whitewater controversy. Waters felt Kings questioning of Maggie Williams was too harsh, Waters was chair of the Congressional Black Caucus from 1997 to 1998. During 2005, Waters testified at the U.
S, in 2006 she was involved in the debate over King Drew Medical Center. She said that The Los Angeles Times has had an effect on public opinion and has used it to harm the local community in specific instances. She requested that the FCC force the paper to sell its station or risk losing that stations broadcast rights. According to Broadcasting & Cable, the raised the specter of costly legal battles to defend station holdings. At a minimum, defending against one would cost tens of thousands of dollars in lawyers fees, as a Democratic representative in Congress, Waters was a superdelegate to the 2008 Democratic National Convention
A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller geographic locale. Diaspora can refer to the movement of the population from its original homeland, some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, relationships with communities in the diaspora. The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω, I scatter, I spread about, an example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule and the Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his history of the Peloponnesian wars. It subsequently came to be used to refer to the movements of the dispersed ethnic population of Israel. The wider application of diaspora evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part, an academic field, diaspora studies, has become established relating to this sense of the word.
Some writers have noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a home as people re-root in a series of meaningful displacements. In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, diasporic cultural development often assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, language, the last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is often found in community resistance to language change and in maintenance of traditional religious practice. In an article published in 1991, William Safran set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities, while Safrans definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term. Rogers Brubaker notes that use of the diaspora has been widening. Brubaker has used the WorldCat database to show that 17 out of the 18 books on diaspora published between 1900 and 1910 were on the Jewish diaspora.
The majority of works in the 1960s were about the Jewish diaspora, the paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish diaspora, some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that case. Brubaker argues that the expansion of the use of the phrase extended it to other, similar cases, such as the Armenian. Brubaker notes that, Basques, Hindu Indians, Japanese, Koreans, Palestinians, labour migrants who maintain emotional and social ties with a homeland have been described as diasporas. In further cases of the use of the term, the reference to the conceptual homeland – to the classical diasporas – has become more attenuated still, to the point of being lost altogether. Brubaker notes that, as of 2005, there were academic books or articles on the Dixie, liberal, queer, professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland can be considered diaspora. For example, science diasporas are communities of scientists who conduct their research away from their homeland, one of the largest diaspora of modern times is the African Diaspora, which dates back several centuries
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the countrys first black head of state and the first elected in a representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism, ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born in Mvezo to the Thembu royal family and he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943, after the National Partys white-only government established apartheid—a system of racial segregation that privileged whites—he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANCs Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial.
Influenced by Marxism, he joined the banned South African Communist Party. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, in 1962, he was arrested for conspiring to overthrow the state and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk negotiated an end to apartheid and organised the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory, internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He declined a presidential term and in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy. Mandela became a statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Mandela was a figure for much of his life. Widely regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba. Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata, given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning troublemaker, in years he became known by his clan name, Madiba. His patrilineal great-grandfather, was king of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africas modern Eastern Cape province, one of Ngubengcukas sons, named Mandela, was Nelsons grandfather and the source of his surname. In 1926, Gadla was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that his father had lost his job for standing up to the magistrates unreasonable demands
Ilyasah Shabazz is the third daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz. She is an author, most notably of a memoir, Growing Up X, community organizer, social activist, Shabazz was born in Queens, New York, on July 22,1962. She was named after Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, in February 1965, when she was two years old, Shabazz was present, with her mother and sisters, at the assassination of her father. She says she has no memory of the event, Shabazz had an apolitical upbringing in a racially integrated neighborhood in Mount Vernon, New York. Her family never took part in demonstrations or attended rallies, together with her sisters, she joined Jack and Jill, a social club for the children of well-off African Americans. She considered a career, though her mother was not supportive. Concerning her father, Shabazz told an interviewer, My mother always talked about our father, her husband and she didnt talk about these things that defined my father as the icon. To learn about her father, Shabazz read his autobiography as a college student, Shabazz was a student at Hackley School.
After high school, she attended State University of New York at New Paltz, when she arrived, other African-American students expected her to be a firebrand. They had already elected her an officer of the Black Student Union, after graduating, Shabazz earned a masters degree in Education and Human Resource Development from Fordham University. As of 2007, Shabazz worked as Director of Public Affairs, Shabazz wrote Growing Up X, her memoir of her childhood and her personal views on her father, in 2002. A devout Muslim, she made the pilgrimage to Mecca, the hajj, in 2006 as her father had in 1964, in 2007, Shabazz was an advising scholar in the award-winning, PBS-broadcast documentary Prince Among Slaves, produced by Unity Productions Foundation. In 2015, her young-adult novel X was published, Shabazz is the founder of Malcolm X Enterprises and is a trustee for the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center. Shabazz is a resident of Southern Westchester, living in Mount Vernon for most of her childhood years.
Growing Up X, A Memoir by the Daughter of Malcolm X, Malcolm Little, The Boy Who Grew Up to Become Malcolm X. Illustrated by A. G. Ford. New York, Atheneum Books for Young Readers, the Diary of Malcolm X,1964. How Betty Shabazz Persevered After Her Husband, Malcolm X, Was Killed, rothenberg Gritz, Nodjimbadem, Shaer, Stackpole, Thomas. The Children of Civil Rights Leaders Are Keeping Their Eyes on the Prize
Jada Pinkett Smith
Jada Koren Pinkett–Smith is an American actress, singer-songwriter, and businesswoman. She began her career in 1990, when she made a guest appearance in the short-lived sitcom True Colors and she starred in A Different World, produced by Bill Cosby, and she featured opposite Eddie Murphy in The Nutty Professor. She starred in films such as Menace II Society and Set It Off. Pinkett Smith launched her career in 2002, when she helped create the metal band Wicked Wisdom. Smith created a company, in addition to authoring a book. In 1997, she married actor Will Smith and they have two children and Willow. Born in Baltimore, Jada Koren Pinkett was named after her mothers favorite soap-opera actress, Pinkett Smith is of African American, West Indian and Portuguese-Jewish ancestry. Her parents are Adrienne Banfield-Jones, the nurse of an inner-city clinic in Baltimore. Banfield-Jones became pregnant in high school, the married but divorced after several months. Banfield-Jones raised Pinkett with the help of her own mother, Marion Martin Banfield, Banfield noticed her granddaughters passion for the performing arts and enrolled her in piano, tap dance, and ballet lessons.
She has a brother, actor/writer Caleeb Pinkett. Pinkett Smith has remained close to her mother and said, A mother and daughters relationship is usually the most honest and she added, understood what I wanted and never stood in my way. She participated as the maid of honor in Banfield-Jones 1998 wedding to telecommunications executive Paul Jones, Pinkett Smith has shown great admiration for her grandmother, saying, My grandmother was a doer who wanted to create a better community and add beauty to the world. Pinkett Smith attended the Baltimore School for the Arts, where she met and she majored in dance and theatre and graduated in 1989. She continued her education at the North Carolina School of the Arts and she ultimately moved to Los Angeles, where she quickly found success in show business. She began her career in 1990, when she starred in an episode of True Colors. She appeared in a pilot for a supernatural drama titled Moes World that was never aired. She received guest roles in shows such as Doogie Howser
Alpha Kappa Alpha
Alpha Kappa Alpha was the first Greek-lettered sorority established by African-American college women. The sorority was founded on January 15,1908, at the historically black Howard University in Washington, D. C. by a group of sixteen students led by Ethel Hedgeman Lyle. Forming a sorority broke barriers for African-American women in areas where they had power or authority, due to a lack of opportunities for minorities. Alpha Kappa Alpha was incorporated on January 29,1913, Women may join through undergraduate chapters at a college or university or they may join through a graduate chapter after acquiring an undergraduate or advanced college degree. After the organizations establishment, Alpha Kappa Alpha has helped to improve social, the sorority works with communities through service initiatives and progressive programs relating to education, family and business. Alpha Kappa Alpha is part of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, the current International President is Dorothy Buckhanan Wilson, and the sororitys document and pictorial archives are located at Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.
In spring 1907, Ethel Hedgeman led efforts to create a sisterhood at Howard University, Hedgeman was inspired by her mentors at Howard. To implement her idea, Hedgeman began recruiting interested classmates during the summer of 1907, nine women including Hedgeman were instrumental in organizing Alpha Kappa Alpha in the fall of 1907. With Hedgeman serving as the chairperson, the women wrote the sororitys constitution, devised the motto, chose the favorite colors. Later in 1908, seven sophomore honor students expressed interest in joining and were accepted without initiation, the first initiation was held in a wing of Miner Hall on Howard University on February 11,1909. On May 25,1909, Alpha Kappa Alpha held its first Ivy Week, Alpha Kappa Alpha continued to grow at Howard. By the end of the 1911–12 school year, there were more than twenty members of the sorority, on January 13,1913, the entire twenty-two-member undergraduate chapter voted to transform the original Alpha Kappa Alpha into Delta Sigma Theta.
Quander actively worked to maintain the integrity and tenets of Alpha Kappa Alpha and she, along with the women who had become ΑΚΑs during the four years of the sororitys existence who had since graduated, elected to remain Alpha Kappa Alpha. Quander set up a committee that successfully petitioned to incorporate ΑΚΑ as a perpetual entity. Alpha Kappa Alpha was nationally incorporated on January 29,1913, Alpha Kappa Alpha continued to grow nationally. A second chapter at the University of Chicago was chartered in fall 1913, in addition, Alpha Kappa Alpha helped to support members by providing scholarship funds for school and foreign studies. Alpha Kappa Alpha began to members at the annual Boulé. The sororitys pledge was written by Grace Edwards and was adopted by the 1920 Boulé, in addition, the sororitys crest was designed by Phyllis Wheatley Waters and accepted in the same Boulé